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The adaptive calibration model of stress responsivity: An empirical test in the Tracking Adolescents' Individual Lives Survey study

  • Bruce J. Ellis (a1), Albertine J. Oldehinkel (a2) and Esther Nederhof (a2)


The adaptive calibration model (ACM) is a theory of developmental programing focusing on calibration of stress response systems and associated life history strategies to local environmental conditions. In this article, we tested some key predictions of the ACM in a longitudinal study of Dutch adolescent males (11–16 years old; N = 351). Measures of sympathetic, parasympathetic, and adrenocortical activation, reactivity to, and recovery from social–evaluative stress validated the four-pattern taxonomy of the ACM via latent profile analysis, though with some deviations from expected patterns. The physiological profiles generally showed predicted associations with antecedent measures of familial and ecological conditions and life stress; as expected, high- and low-responsivity patterns were found under both low-stress and high-stress family conditions. The four patterns were also differentially associated with aggressive/rule-breaking behavior and withdrawn/depressed behavior. This study provides measured support for key predictions of the ACM and highlights important empirical issues and methodological challenges for future research.


Corresponding author

Address correspondence and reprint requests to: Bruce J. Ellis, Department of Psychology, University of Utah, 380 South 1530 East, Room 502, Salt Lake City, UT 84112; E-mail:


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This research is part of the Tracking Adolescents’ Individual Lives Survey (TRAILS). Participating centers of TRAILS include various departments of the University Medical Center and University of Groningen, the Erasmus University Medical Center Rotterdam, the University of Utrecht, the Radboud Medical Center Nijmegen, and the Parnassia Bavo group, all in The Netherlands. TRAILS has been financially supported by various grants from the Netherlands Organization for Scientific Research (NOW; Medical Research Council Program Grant GB-MW 940-38-011, ZonMW Brainpower Grant 100-001-004, ZonMw Risk Behavior and Dependence Grant 60-60600-97-118, ZonMw Culture and Health Grant 261-98-710, Social Sciences Council Medium-Sized Investment Grants GB-MaGW 480-01-006 and GB-MaGW 480-07-001, Social Sciences Council Project Grants GB-MaGW 452-04-314 and GB-MaGW 452-06-004, NWO Large-Sized Investment Grant 175.010.2003.005, NWO Longitudinal Survey and Panel Funding 481-08-013). Additional funding for TRAILS was provided by the Dutch Ministry of Justice (WODC), the European Science Foundation (EuroSTRESS Project FP-006), Biobanking and Biomolecular Resources Research Infrastructure BBMRI-NL (CP 32), the participating universities, and Accare Center for Child and Adolescent Psychiatry. We are grateful to all adolescents, their parents, and teachers who participated in this research and to everyone who worked on this project and made it possible.



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The adaptive calibration model of stress responsivity: An empirical test in the Tracking Adolescents' Individual Lives Survey study

  • Bruce J. Ellis (a1), Albertine J. Oldehinkel (a2) and Esther Nederhof (a2)


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