Skip to main content Accessibility help
×
Home

Infant EEG and temperament negative affectivity: Coherence of vulnerabilities to mothers' perinatal depression

Published online by Cambridge University Press:  14 October 2016

Cara M. Lusby
Affiliation:
Emory University
Sherryl H. Goodman
Affiliation:
Emory University
Ellen W. Yeung
Affiliation:
Arizona State University
Martha Ann Bell
Affiliation:
Virginia Tech
Zachary N. Stowe
Affiliation:
Emory University
Corresponding
E-mail address:

Abstract

Associations between infants' frontal EEG asymmetry and temperamental negative affectivity (NA) across infants' first year of life and the potential moderating role of maternal prenatal depressive symptoms were examined prospectively in infants (n = 242) of mothers at elevated risk for perinatal depression. In predicting EEG, in the context of high prenatal depressive symptoms, infant NA and frontal EEG asymmetry were negatively associated at 3 months of age and positively associated by 12 months of age. By contrast, for low depression mothers, infant NA and EEG were not significantly associated at any age. Postnatal depressive symptoms did not add significantly to the models. Dose of infants' exposure to maternal depression mattered: infants exposed either pre- or postnatally shifted from a positive association at 3 months to a negative association at 12 months; those exposed both pre- and postnatally shifted from a negative association at 3 months to a positive association at 12 months. Prenatal relative to postnatal exposure did not matter for patterns of association between NA and EEG. The findings highlight the importance of exploring how vulnerabilities at two levels of analysis, behavioral and psychophysiological, co-occur over the course of infancy and in the context of mothers' depressive symptomatology.

Type
Special Issue Articles
Copyright
Copyright © Cambridge University Press 2016 

Access options

Get access to the full version of this content by using one of the access options below.

References

Bates, J. E., Bayles, K., Bennett, D. S., Ridge, B., & Brown, M. M. (1991). Origins of externalizing behavior problems at eight years of age. Development and Treatment of Childhood Aggression, 17, 93120.Google Scholar
Bauer, A. M., Quas, J. A., & Boyce, W. T. (2002). Associations between physiological reactivity and children's behavior: Advantages of a multisystem approach. Journal of Developmental & Behavioral Pediatrics, 23, 102113.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
Beauchaine, T. P. (2001). Vagal tone, development, and Gray's motivational theory: Toward an integrated model of autonomic nervous system functioning in psychopathology. Development and Psychopathology, 13, 183214.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
Beauchaine, T. P. (2015). Future directions in emotion dysregulation and youth psychopathology. Journal of Clinical Child and Adolescent Psychology. Advance online publication.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
Beauchaine, T. P., & McNulty, T. (2013). Comorbidities and continuities as ontogenic processes: Toward a developmental spectrum model of externalizing psychopathology. Development and Psychopathology, 25, 15051528.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
Beck, A. T., Ward, C. H., Mendelsohn, M., Mock, J., & Erbaugh, J. (1961). An inventory for measuring depression. Archives of General Psychiatry, 4, 561571.CrossRefGoogle ScholarPubMed
Bell, M. A., & Fox, N. A. (1994). Brain development over the first year of life: Relations between electroencephalographic frequency and coherence and cognitive and affective behaviors. In Dawson, G. & Fischer, K.W. (Eds.), Human behavior and the developing brain (pp. 314–45). New York: Guilford Press.Google Scholar
Bridgett, D. J., Gartstein, M. A., Putnam, S. P., McKay, T., Iddins, E., Robertson, C., et al. (2009). Maternal and contextual influences and the effect of temperament development during infancy on parenting in toddlerhood. Infant Behavior and Development, 32, 103116.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
Buss, K. A., Schumacher, J. R. M., Dolski, I., Kalin, N. H., Goldsmith, H. H., & Davidson, R. J. (2003a). Right frontal brain activity, cortisol, and withdrawal behavior in 6-month-old infants. Behavioral Neuroscience, 117, 1120.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
Calkins, S. D. (1994). Origins and outcomes of individual differences in emotion regulation. Monographs of the Society for Research in Child Development, 59, 5372.CrossRefGoogle ScholarPubMed
Calkins, S. D., Fox, N. A., & Marshall, T. R. (1996). Behavioral and physiological antecedents of inhibited and uninhibited behavior. Child Development, 67, 523540.CrossRefGoogle ScholarPubMed
Caron, C., & Rutter, M. (1991). Comorbidity in child psychopathology: Concepts, issues, and research strategies. Journal of Child Psychology & Psychiatry, 32, 10631080.CrossRefGoogle ScholarPubMed
Cicchetti, D. (2008). A multiple-levels-of-analysis perspective on research in development and psychopathology. Hoboken, NJ: Wiley.Google Scholar
Cicchetti, D., & Rogosch, F. A. (1996). Equifinality and multifinality in developmental psychopathology. Development and Psychopathology, 8, 597600.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
Coan, J. A., & Allen, J. J. B. (2004). Frontal EEG asymmetry as a moderator and mediator of emotion. Biological Psychology, 67, 750.CrossRefGoogle ScholarPubMed
Davidson, R. J., & Fox, N. A. (1989). Frontal brain asymmetry predicts infants’ response to maternal separation. Journal of Abnormal Psychology, 98, 127131.CrossRefGoogle ScholarPubMed
Davidson, R. J., Jackson, D. C., & Larson, C. L. (2000). Human electroencephalography. In Cacioppo, J. T., Bernston, G. G., & Tassinary, L. G. (Eds.), Principles of psychophysiology (pp. 2752). New York: Cambridge University Press.Google Scholar
Davis, E. P., Glynn, L. M., Schetter, C. D., Hobel, C., Chicz-Demet, A., & Sandman, C. A. (2007). Prenatal exposure to maternal depression and cortisol influences infant temperament. Journal of the American Academy of Child & Adolescent Psychiatry, 46, 737746.CrossRefGoogle ScholarPubMed
Davis, E. P., Snidman, N., Wadhwa, P. D., Glynn, L. M., Schetter, C. D., & Sandman, C. A. (2004). Prenatal maternal anxiety and depression predict negative behavioral reactivity in infancy. Infancy, 6, 319331.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
Dawson, G. (1994). Frontal electroencephalographic correlates of individual differences in emotion expression in infants: A brain systems perspective on emotion. Monographs of the Society for Research in Child Development, 59, 135151.CrossRefGoogle ScholarPubMed
Dawson, G., Klinger, L. G., Panagiotides, H., Spieker, S., & Frey, K. (1992). Infants of mothers with depressive symptoms: Electroencephalographic and behavioral findings related to attachment status. Development and Psychopathology, 4, 6780.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
Dawson, G., Panagiotides, H., Klinger, L. G., & Spieker, S. (1997). Infants of depressed and nondepressed mothers exhibit differences in frontal brain electrical activity during the expression of negative emotions. Developmental Psychology, 33, 650656.CrossRefGoogle ScholarPubMed
Derryberry, D., & Rothbart, M. K. (2001). Early temperament and emotional development. In Kalverboer, A. F. & Gramsbergen, A. (Eds.), Handbook of brain and behavior in human development (pp. 967–87). Dordrecht: Kluwer.Google Scholar
DiPietro, J. A., Costigan, K. A., & Pressman, E. K. (2002). Fetal state concordance predicts infant state regulation. Early Human Development, 68, 113.CrossRefGoogle ScholarPubMed
DiPietro, J. A., Costigan, K. A., Shupe, A. K., Pressman, E. K., & Johnson, T. R. (1998). Fetal neurobehavioral development: Associations with socioeconomic class and fetal sex. Developmental Psychobiology, 33, 7991.Google ScholarPubMed
Engert, V., Plessow, F., Miller, R., Kirschbaum, C., & Singer, T. (2014). Cortisol increase in empathic stress is modulated by emotional closeness and observation modality. Psychoneuroendocrinology, 45, 192201.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
Evans, J., Heron, J., Francomb, H., Oke, S., & Golding, J. (2001). Cohort study of depressed mood during pregnancy and after childbirth. British Medical Journal, 323, 257260.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
Field, T., Hernandez-Reif, M., & Diego, M. (2006). Intrusive and withdrawn depressed mothers and their infants. Developmental Review, 26, 1530.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
Fox, N. A. (1991). If it's not left, it's right: Electroencephalograph asymmetry and the development of emotion. American Psychologist, 46, 863.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
Fox, N. A. (1994). The development of emotion regulation: Biological and behavioral considerations. Monographs of the Society for Research in Child Development, 59, 5369.Google Scholar
Fox, N. A., Bell, M. A., & Jones, N. A. (1992). Individual differences in response to stress and cerebral asymmetry. Developmental Neuropsychology, 8, 161184.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
Fox, N. A., Calkins, S. D., & Bell, M. A. (1994). Neural plasticity and development in the first two years of life: Evidence from cognitive and socioemotional domains of research. Development and Psychopathology, 6, 677696.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
Fox, N. A., & Davidson, R. J. (1984). Hemispheric substrates of affect: A developmental model. The psychobiology of affective development (pp. 353381). Hillsdale, NJ: Erlbaum.Google Scholar
Fox, N. A., Henderson, H. A., Rubin, K. H., Calkins, S. D., & Schmidt, L. A. (2001). Continuity and discontinuity of behavioral inhibition and exuberance: Psychophysiological and behavioral influences across the first four years of life. Child Development, 72, 121.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
Franklin, J. C., Jamieson, J. P., Glenn, C. R., & Nock, M. K. (2015). How developmental psychopathology theory and research can inform the Research Domain Criteria (RDoC) project. Journal of Clinical Child & Adolescent Psychology, 44, 280290.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
Garmezy, N. (1971). Vulnerability research and the issue of primary prevention. American Journal of Orthopsychiatry, 41, 101116.CrossRefGoogle ScholarPubMed
Gartstein, M. A., & Marmion, J. (2008). Fear and positive affectivity in infancy: Convergence/discrepancy between parent-report and laboratory-based indicators. Infant Behavior and Development, 31, 227238.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
Gartstein, M. A., Putnam, S. P., & Rothbart, M. K. (2012). Etiology of preschool behavior problems: Contributions of temperament attributes in early childhood. Infant Mental Health Journal, 33, 197211.CrossRefGoogle ScholarPubMed
Gartstein, M. A., & Rothbart, M. K. (2003). Studying infant temperament via the Revised Infant Behavior Questionnaire. Infant Behavior & Development, 26, 6486.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
Goodman, S. H., & Gotlib, I. H. (1999). Risk for psychopathology in the children of depressed mothers: A developmental model for understanding mechanisms of transmission. Psychological Review, 106, 458490.CrossRefGoogle ScholarPubMed
Goodman, S. H., Rouse, M., Connell, A., Broth, M., Hall, C., & Heyward, D. (2011). Maternal depression and child psychopathology: A meta-analytic review. Clinical Child and Family Psychology Review, 14, 127.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
Goodman, S. H., & Tully, E. C. (2009). Recurrence of depression during pregnancy: Psychosocial and personal functioning correlates. Depression and Anxiety, 26, 555567.Google ScholarPubMed
Guerin, D. W., Gottfried, A. W., & Thomas, C. W. (1997). Difficult temperament and behaviour problems: A longitudinal study from 1.5 to 12 years. International Journal of Behavioral Development, 21, 7190.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
Hagemann, D., Naumann, E., & Thayer, J. F. (2001). The quest for the EEG reference revisited: A glance from brain asymmetry research. Psychophysiology, 38, 847857.CrossRefGoogle ScholarPubMed
Hammen, C. (2002). Context of stress in families of children with depressed parents. In Goodman, S. H. & Gotlib, I. H. (Eds.), Children of depressed parents: Mechanisms of risk and implications for treatment (pp. 175202). Washington, DC: American Psychological Association.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
Hayes, L. J., Goodman, S. H., & Carlson, E. (2013). Maternal antenatal depression and infant disorganized attachment at 12 months. Attachment and Human Development, 15, 133153.CrossRefGoogle ScholarPubMed
Howarth, G. Z., Fettig, N. B., Curby, T. W., & Bell, M. A. (2015). Frontal EEG asymmetry and temperament across infancy and early childhood: An exploration of stability and bidirectional relations. Child Development. Avance online publication.Google Scholar
Huot, R. L., Brennan, P. A., Stowe, Z. N., Plotsky, P. M., & Walker, E. F. (2004). Negative affect in offspring of depressed mothers is predicted by infant cortisol levels at 6 months and maternal depression during pregnancy, but not postpartum. Annals of the New York Academy of Sciences, 1032, 234236.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
Ingram, R. E., & Price, J. M. (2010). Understanding psychopathology: The role of vulnerability. In Ingram, R. E. & Price, J. M. (Eds.), Vulnerability to psychopathology: Risk across the lifespan (2nd ed., pp. 317). New York: Guilford Press.Google Scholar
Ji, S., Long, Q., Newport, D. J., Na, H., Knight, B., Zach, E. B., et al. (2011). Validity of depression rating scales during pregnancy and the postpartum period: Impact of trimester and parity. Journal of Psychiatric Research, 45, 213219.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
Jones, N. A., Field, T., & Almeida, A. (2009). Right frontal EEG asymmetry and behavioral inhibition in infants of depressed mothers. Infant Behavior and Development, 32, 298304.CrossRefGoogle ScholarPubMed
Jones, N. A., Field, T., Davalos, M., & Pickens, J. (1997). EEG stability in infants/children of depressed mothers. Child Psychiatry & Human Development, 28, 5970.CrossRefGoogle ScholarPubMed
Jones, N. A., Field, T., Fox, N. A., Davalos, M., & Gomez, C. (2001). EEG during different emotions in 10-month-old infants of depressed mothers. Journal of Reproductive and Infant Psychology, 19, 295312.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
Kagan, J., & Snidman, N. C. (2004). The long shadow of temperament. Cambridge, MA: Belknap Press.Google Scholar
Kopp, C. B. (1989). Regulation of distress and negative emotions: A developmental view. Developmental Psychology, 25, 343354.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
Lancaster, C. A., Gold, K. J., Flynn, H. A., Yoo, H., Marcus, S. M., & Davis, M. M. (2010). Risk factors for depressive symptoms during pregnancy: A systematic review. American Journal of Obstetrics & Gynecology, 1, 514.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
Lenroot, R. K., & Giedd, J. N. (2011). Annual Research Review: Developmental considerations of gene by environment interactions. Journal of Child Psychology and Psychiatry, 52, 429441.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
Lewis, A., Austin, E., Knapp, R., Vaiano, T., & Galbally, M. (2015). Perinatal maternal mental health, fetal programming and child development. Healthcare, 3, 1212.CrossRefGoogle ScholarPubMed
Luck, S. (2005). An introduction to the event-related potential technique. Cambridge, MA: MIT Press.Google Scholar
Marsh, P., Beauchaine, T. P., & Williams, B. (2008). Dissociation of sad facial expressions and autonomic nervous system responding in boys with disruptive behavior disorders. Psychophysiology, 45, 100110.Google ScholarPubMed
Marshall, P. J., Bar-Haim, Y., & Fox, N. A. (2002). Development of the EEG from 5 months to 4 years of age. Clinical Neurophysiology, 113, 11991208.CrossRefGoogle ScholarPubMed
Masten, A. S., & Garmezy, N. (1985). Risk, vulnerability, and protective factors in developmental psychopathology. In Lahey, B. B. & Kazdin, A. E. (Eds.), Advances in clinical child psychology (Vol. 8, pp. 152). New York: Springer.Google Scholar
Murphy, L. B., & Moriarty, A. E. (1976). Vulnerability, coping and growth from infancy to adolescence. New Haven, CT: Yale University Press.Google Scholar
Myslobodsky, M., Coppola, R., Bar-Ziv, J., Karson, C., Daniel, D., van Praag, H., et al. (1989). EEG asymmetries may be affected by cranial and brain parenchymal asymmetries. Brain Topography, 1, 221228.CrossRefGoogle ScholarPubMed
Nakagawa, S., & Schielzeth, H. (2013). A general and simple method for obtaining R2 from generalized linear mixed-effects models. Methods in Ecology and Evolution, 4, 133142.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
Nigg, J. T. (2006). Temperament and developmental psychopathology. Journal of Child Psychology and Psychiatry, 47, 395422.CrossRefGoogle ScholarPubMed
Obradović, J. (2016). Physiological responsivity and executive functioning: Implications for adaptation and resilience in early childhood. Child Development Perspectives. Advance online pubication.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
O'Hara, M. W., & Swain, A. M. (1996). Rates and risk of postpartum depression: A meta-analysis. International Review of Psychiatry, 8, 3754.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
Putnam, S. P., Rothbart, M. K., & Gartstein, M. A. (2008). Homotypicl and heterotypic continuity of find-grained temperament during infancy, toddlerhood, and early childhood. Infant and Child Development, 17, 387405.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
Quaedflieg, C., Meyer, T., Smulders, F., & Smeets, T. (2015). The functional role of individual-alpha based frontal asymmetry in stress responding. Biological Psychology, 104, 7581.CrossRefGoogle ScholarPubMed
Rotenberg, S., & McGrath, J. J. (2016). Inter-relation between autonomic and HPA axis activity in children and adolescents. Biological Psychology. Advance online pubication.CrossRefGoogle ScholarPubMed
Rothbart, M. K. (1986). Longitudinal observation of infant temperament. Developmental Psychology, 22, 356365.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
Rothbart, M. K., & Derryberry, D. (1981). Development of individual differences in temperament. In Lamb, M. E. & Brown, A. L. (Eds.), Advances in developmental psychology (pp. 3786). Hillsdale, NJ: Erlbaum.Google Scholar
Rothbart, M. K., Sheese, B. E., Rueda, M. R., & Posner, M. I. (2011). Developing mechanisms of self-regulation in early life. Emotion Review, 3, 207213.CrossRefGoogle ScholarPubMed
Rouse, M. H., & Goodman, S. H. (2014). Perinatal depression influences on negative affectivity: Timing, severity, and co-morbid anxiety. Infant Behavior & Development, 37, 739751.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
Sayal, K., Heron, J., Maughan, B., Rowe, R., & Ramchandani, P. (2014). Infant temperament and childhood psychiatric disorder: Longitudinal study. Child: Care, Health and Development, 40, 292297.Google ScholarPubMed
Schmidt, L. A. (2008). Patterns of second-by-second resting frontal brain (EEG) asymmetry and their relation to heart rate and temperament in 9-month-old human infants. Personality and Individual Differences, 44, 216225.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
Teerikangas, O. M., Aronen, E. T., Martin, R. P., & Huttunen, M. O. (1998). Effects of infant temperament and early intervention on the psychiatric symptoms of adolescents. Journal of the American Academy of Child & Adolescent Psychiatry, 37, 10701076.CrossRefGoogle ScholarPubMed
Thibodeau, R., Jorgensen, R. S., & Kim, S. (2006). Depression, anxiety, and resting frontal EEG asymmetry: A meta-analytic review. Journal of Abnormal Psychology, 115, 715729.CrossRefGoogle ScholarPubMed
Werner, E. E., & Smith, R. S. (1977). Kauai's children come of age. Honoloulu, HI: University Press of Hawaii.Google Scholar
Zautra, A. J., Davis, M. C., Reich, J. W., Nicassio, P., Tennen, H., Finan, P., et al. (2008). Comparison of cognitive behavioral and mindfulness meditation interventions on adaptation to rheumatoid arthritis for patients with and without history of recurrent depression. Journal of Consulting and Clinical Psychology, 76, 408421.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
Zijlmans, M. A., Riksen-Walraven, J. M., & de Weerth, C. (2015). Associations between maternal prenatal cortisol concentrations and child outcomes: A systematic review. Neuroscience & Biobehavioral Reviews, 53, 124.CrossRefGoogle Scholar

Altmetric attention score

Full text views

Full text views reflects PDF downloads, PDFs sent to Google Drive, Dropbox and Kindle and HTML full text views.

Total number of HTML views: 29
Total number of PDF views: 388 *
View data table for this chart

* Views captured on Cambridge Core between 14th October 2016 - 16th January 2021. This data will be updated every 24 hours.

Hostname: page-component-77fc7d77f9-cjctk Total loading time: 0.424 Render date: 2021-01-16T19:18:54.468Z Query parameters: { "hasAccess": "0", "openAccess": "0", "isLogged": "0", "lang": "en" } Feature Flags last update: Sat Jan 16 2021 18:52:10 GMT+0000 (Coordinated Universal Time) Feature Flags: { "metrics": true, "metricsAbstractViews": false, "peerReview": true, "crossMark": true, "comments": true, "relatedCommentaries": true, "subject": true, "clr": true, "languageSwitch": true, "figures": false, "newCiteModal": false, "shouldUseShareProductTool": true, "shouldUseHypothesis": true, "isUnsiloEnabled": true }

Send article to Kindle

To send this article to your Kindle, first ensure no-reply@cambridge.org is added to your Approved Personal Document E-mail List under your Personal Document Settings on the Manage Your Content and Devices page of your Amazon account. Then enter the ‘name’ part of your Kindle email address below. Find out more about sending to your Kindle. Find out more about sending to your Kindle.

Note you can select to send to either the @free.kindle.com or @kindle.com variations. ‘@free.kindle.com’ emails are free but can only be sent to your device when it is connected to wi-fi. ‘@kindle.com’ emails can be delivered even when you are not connected to wi-fi, but note that service fees apply.

Find out more about the Kindle Personal Document Service.

Infant EEG and temperament negative affectivity: Coherence of vulnerabilities to mothers' perinatal depression
Available formats
×

Send article to Dropbox

To send this article to your Dropbox account, please select one or more formats and confirm that you agree to abide by our usage policies. If this is the first time you use this feature, you will be asked to authorise Cambridge Core to connect with your <service> account. Find out more about sending content to Dropbox.

Infant EEG and temperament negative affectivity: Coherence of vulnerabilities to mothers' perinatal depression
Available formats
×

Send article to Google Drive

To send this article to your Google Drive account, please select one or more formats and confirm that you agree to abide by our usage policies. If this is the first time you use this feature, you will be asked to authorise Cambridge Core to connect with your <service> account. Find out more about sending content to Google Drive.

Infant EEG and temperament negative affectivity: Coherence of vulnerabilities to mothers' perinatal depression
Available formats
×
×

Reply to: Submit a response


Your details


Conflicting interests

Do you have any conflicting interests? *