Hostname: page-component-848d4c4894-tn8tq Total loading time: 0 Render date: 2024-06-24T04:49:09.710Z Has data issue: false hasContentIssue false

Dysregulated Irritability as a Window on Young Children's Psychiatric Risk: Transdiagnostic Effects via the Family Check-Up

Published online by Cambridge University Press:  02 August 2019

Justin D. Smith*
Center for Prevention Implementation Methodology for Drug Abuse and HIV, Department of Psychiatry and Behavioral Sciences, Feinberg School of Medicine & Institute for Innovations in Developmental Sciences, Northwestern University
Lauren Wakschlag
Department of Medical Social Sciences, Feinberg School of Medicine & Institute for Innovations in Developmental Sciences, Northwestern University
Sheila Krogh-Jespersen
Department of Medical Social Sciences, Feinberg School of Medicine & Institute for Innovations in Developmental Sciences, Northwestern University
John T. Walkup
Department of Psychiatry and Behavioral Sciences, Division of Child & Adolescent Psychiatry, Feinberg School of Medicine, Institute for Innovations in Developmental Sciences, Northwestern University, & Ann & Robert H. Lurie Children's Hospital
Melvin N. Wilson
Department of Psychology, University of Virginia
Thomas J. Dishion
REACH Institute, Department of Psychology, Arizona State University & Oregon Research Institute
Daniel S. Shaw
Department of Psychology, University of Pittsburgh
Author for correspondence: Justin D. Smith, Department of Psychiatry and Behavioral Sciences, Northwestern University Feinberg School of Medicine, 750 N Lake Shore Drive, Chicago, IL 60611; E-mail:


Building on prior work using Tom Dishion's Family Check-Up, the current article examined intervention effects on dysregulated irritability in early childhood. Dysregulated irritability, defined as reactive and intense response to frustration, and prolonged angry mood, is an ideal marker of neurodevelopmental vulnerability to later psychopathology because it is a transdiagnostic indicator of decrements in self-regulation that are measurable in the first years of life that have lifelong implications for health and disease. This study is perhaps the first randomized trial to examine the direct effects of an evidence- and family-based intervention, the Family Check-Up (FCU), on irritability in early childhood and the effects of reductions in irritability on later risk of child internalizing and externalizing symptomatology. Data from the geographically and sociodemographically diverse multisite Early Steps randomized prevention trial were used. Path modeling revealed intervention effects on irritability at age 4, which predicted lower externalizing and internalizing symptoms at age 10.5. Results indicate that family-based programs initiated in early childhood can reduce early childhood irritability and later risk for psychopathology. This holds promise for earlier identification and prevention approaches that target transdiagnostic pathways. Implications for future basic and prevention research are discussed.

Special Issue Articles
Copyright © Cambridge University Press 2019 

Access options

Get access to the full version of this content by using one of the access options below. (Log in options will check for institutional or personal access. Content may require purchase if you do not have access.)


Achenbach, T. M., & Rescorla, L. A. (2001). Manual for the ASEBA school-age forms and profiles. Burlington, VT: University of Vermont, Research Center for Children, Youth, & Families.Google Scholar
American Psychiatric Association. (2000). Diagnostic and statistical manual of mental disorders, text revision (4th ed.). Washington, DC: Author.Google Scholar
American Psychiatric Association. (2013). Diagnostic and statistical manual of mental disorders (5th ed.). Arlington, VA: American Psychiatric Publishing.Google Scholar
Barlow, A., Mullany, B., Neault, N., Compton, S., Carter, A., Hastings, R., … Walkup, J. T. (2013). Effect of a paraprofessional home-visiting intervention on American Indian teen mothers' and infants' behavioral risks: A randomized controlled trial. American Journal of Psychiatry, 170(1), 8393. doi:10.1176/appi.ajp.2012.12010121Google Scholar
Barlow, A., Mullany, B., Neault, N., Goklish, N., Billy, T., Hastings, R., … Walkup, J. T. (2015). Paraprofessional-delivered home-visiting intervention for American Indian teen mothers and children: 3-Year outcomes from a randomized controlled trial. American Journal of Psychiatry, 172(2), 154162. doi:10.1176/appi.ajp.2014.14030332Google Scholar
Bentler, P. M. (1990). Comparative fit indexes in structural models. Psychological Bulletin, 107(2), 238246. doi:10.1037/0033-2909.107.2.238Google Scholar
Bentler, P. M. (1992). On the fit of models to covariances and methodology to the Bulletin. Psychological Bulletin, 112(3), 400404. doi:10.1037/0033-2909.112.3.400Google Scholar
Biedzio, D., & Wakschlag, L. S. (2019). Developmental emergence of disruptive behaviors beginning in infancy: Delineating normal:abnormal boundaries to enhance early identification. In Zeenah, C. (Ed.), Handbook of infant mental health (4th ed., pp. 407425). New York, NY: The Guilford Press.Google Scholar
Bilgin, A., Baumann, N., Jaekel, J., Breeman, L. D., Bartmann, P., Bauml, J. G., … Wolke, D. (2018). Early crying, sleeping, and feeding problems and trajectories of attention problems from childhood to adulthood. Child Development. doi:10.1111/cdev.13155Google Scholar
Bosl, W. J., Tager-Flusberg, H., & Nelson, C. A. (2018). EEG analytics for early detection of autism spectrum disorder: A data-driven approach. Scientific Reports, 8(1), 120. doi:10.1038/s41598-018-24318-xGoogle Scholar
Breitenstein, S. M., Fogg, L., Ocampo, E. V., Acosta, D. I., & Gross, D. (2016). Parent use and efficacy of a self-administered, tablet-based parent training intervention: A randomized controlled trial. Journal of Medical Internet Research, 4(2), e36. doi:10.2196/mhealth.5202Google Scholar
Breitenstein, S. M., Shane, J., Julion, W., & Gross, D. (2015). Developing the eCPP: Adapting an evidence-based parent training program for digital delivery in primary care settings. Worldviews on Evidence-Based Nursing, 12(1), 3140. doi:10.1111/wvn.12074Google Scholar
Browne, M. W., & Cudeck, R. (1992). Alternative ways of assessing model fit. In Bollen, K. A. & Long, J. S. (Eds.), Testing structural equation models (pp. 136162). Newbury Park, CA: Sage.Google Scholar
Burke, J. D. (2012). An affective dimension within oppositional defiant disorder symptoms among boys: Personality and psychopathology outcomes into early adulthood. Journal of Child Psychology and Psychiatry, 53(11), 11761183. doi:10.1111/j.1469-7610.2012.02598.xGoogle Scholar
Burke, J. D., Boylan, K., Rowe, R., Duku, E., Stepp, S. D., Hipwell, A. E., & Waldman, I. D. (2014). Identifying the irritability dimension of ODD: Application of a modified bifactor model across five large community samples of children. Journal of Abnormal Psychology, 123(4), 841851. doi:10.1037/a0037898Google Scholar
Burke, J. D., Hipwell, A. E., & Loeber, R. (2010). Dimensions of oppositional defiant disorder as predictors of depression and conduct disorder in preadolescent girls. Journal of the American Academy of Child and Adolescent Psychiatry, 49(5), 484492. doi:10.1016/j.jaac.2010.01.016Google Scholar
Burkey, M. D., Hosein, M., Morton, I., Purgato, M., Adi, A., Kurzrok, M., … Tol, W. A. (2018). Psychosocial interventions for disruptive behaviour problems in children in low- and middle-income countries: A systematic review and meta-analysis. Journal of Child Psychology and Psychiatry, 59(9), 982993. doi:10.1111/jcpp.12894Google Scholar
Campbell, F., Conti, G., Heckman, J. J., Moon, S. H., Pinto, R., Pungello, E., & Pan, Y. (2014). Early childhood investments substantially boost adult health. Science, 343(6178), 14781485. doi:10.1126/science.1248429Google Scholar
Chang, H., Shaw, D. S., Dishion, T. J., Gardner, F., & Wilson, M. N. (2014). Direct and indirect effects of the Family Check-Up on self-regulation from toddlerhood to early school-age. Journal of Abnormal Child Psychology, 42(7), 11171128. doi:10.1007/s10802-014-9859-8Google Scholar
Chang, H., Shaw, D. S., Shelleby, E. C., Dishion, T. J., & Wilson, M. N. (2017). The long-term effectiveness of the Family Check-Up on peer preference: Parent-child interaction and child effortful control as sequential mediators. Journal of Abnormal Child Psychology, 45(4), 705717. doi:10.1007/s10802-016-0198-9Google Scholar
Charach, A., Bélanger, S. A., McLennan, J. D., & Nixon, M. K. (2017). Screening for disruptive behaviour problems in preschool children in primary health care settings. Paediatrics & Child Health, 22(8), 478484. doi:10.1093/pch/pxx128Google Scholar
Chorpita, B. F., Daleiden, E. L., Ebesutani, C., Young, J., Becker, K. D., Nakamura, B. J., … Starace, N. (2011). Evidence-based treatments for children and adolescents: An updated review of indicators of efficacy and effectiveness. Clinical Psychology: Science and Practice, 18(2), 154172. doi:10.1111/j.1468-2850.2011.01247.xGoogle Scholar
Cicchetti, D., & Walker, E. F. (2003). Neurodevelopmental mechanisms in psychopathology. New York, NY: Cambridge University Press.Google Scholar
Coatsworth, J. D., Duncan, L. G., Greenberg, M. T., & Nix, R. L. (2010). Changing parent's mindfulness, child management skills and relationship quality with their youth: Results from a randomized pilot intervention trial. Journal of Child and Family Studies, 19(2), 203217.Google Scholar
Comer, J. S., Chow, C., Chan, P., Cooper, C., & Wilson, L. A. (2013). Psychosocial treatment efficacy for disruptive behavior problems in very young children: A meta-analytic examination. Journal of the American Academy of Child and Adolescent Psychiatry, 52(1), 2636. doi:10.1016/j.jaac.2012.10.001Google Scholar
Copeland, W. E., Angold, A., Costello, E. J., & Egger, H. (2013). Prevalence, comorbidity, and correlates of DSM-5 proposed disruptive mood dysregulation disorder. American Journal of Psychiatry, 170(2), 173179. doi:10.1176/appi.ajp.2012.12010132Google Scholar
Derella, O. J., Johnston, O. G., Loeber, R., & Burke, J. D. (2017). CBT-enhanced emotion regulation as a mechanism of improvement for childhood irritability. Journal of Clinical Child & Adolescent Psychology, 48, S146S154.Google Scholar
Deveney, C. M., Briggs-Gowan, M. J., Pagliaccio, D., Estabrook, C. R., Zobel, E., Burns, J. L., … Wakschlag, L. S. (2019). Temporally sensitive neural measures of inhibition in preschool children across a spectrum of irritability. Developmental Psychobiology, 61(2), 216227. doi:10.1002/dev.21792Google Scholar
Dishion, T. J., Brennan, L. M., Shaw, D. S., McEachern, A. D., Wilson, M. N., & Jo, B. (2014). Prevention of problem behavior through annual Family Check-Ups in early childhood: Intervention effects from home to early elementary school. Journal of Abnormal Child Psychology, 42(3), 343354. doi:10.1007/s10802-013-9768-2Google Scholar
Dishion, T. J., Forgatch, M., Chamberlain, P., & Pelham, W. E. (2016). The Oregon model of behavior family therapy: From intervention design to promoting large-scale system change. Behavior Therapy, 47(6), 812837. doi:10.1016/j.beth.2016.02.002Google Scholar
Dishion, T. J., & Patterson, G. R. (2016). The development and ecology of antisocial behavior: Linking etiology, prevention, and treatment. In Cicchetti, D. (Ed.), Developmental Psychopathology (pp. 132). New York, NY: John Wiley & Sons, Inc.Google Scholar
Dishion, T. J., Shaw, D., Connell, A., Gardner, F., Weaver, C., & Wilson, M. (2008). The Family Check-Up with high-risk indigent families: Preventing problem behavior by increasing parents' positive behavior support in early childhood. Child Development, 79(5), 13951414. doi:10.1111/j.1467-8624.2008.01195.xGoogle Scholar
Dishion, T. J., & Stormshak, E. A. (2007). Intervening in children's lives: An ecological, family-centered approach to mental health care (Vol. 43). Washington, DC: American Psychological Association.Google Scholar
Dougherty, L. R., Smith, V. C., Bufferd, S. J., Carlson, G. A., Stringaris, A., Leibenluft, E., & Klein, D. N. (2014). DSM-5 disruptive mood dysregulation disorder: Correlates and predictors in young children. Psychological Medicine, 44(11), 23392350. doi:10.1017/S0033291713003115Google Scholar
Faraone, S. V., Rostain, A. L., Blader, J., Busch, B., Childress, A. C., Connor, D. F., & Newcorn, J. H. (2018). Practitioner Review: Emotional dysregulation in attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder - implications for clinical recognition and intervention. Journal of Child Psychology and Psychiatry, 60(2), 133150. doi:10.1111/jcpp.12899Google Scholar
Gardner, F., Leijten, P., Melendez-Torres, G. J., Landau, S., Harris, V., Mann, J., … Scott, S. (2019). The earlier the better? Individual participant data and traditional meta-analysis of age effects of parenting interventions. Child Development, 90(1), 719. doi:10.1111/cdev.13138Google Scholar
Grabell, A. S., Li, Y., Barker, J. W., Wakschlag, L. S., Huppert, T. J., & Perlman, S. B. (2017). Evidence of non-linear associations between frustration-related prefrontal cortex activation and the normal:abnormal spectrum of irritability in young children. Journal of Abnormal Child Psychology, 111. doi:10.1007/s10802-017-0286-5Google Scholar
Graham, A. M., Buss, C., Rasmussen, J. M., Rudolph, M. D., Demeter, D. V., Gilmore, J. H., … Fair, D. A. (2016). Implications of newborn amygdala connectivity for fear and cognitive development at 6-months-of-age. Developmental Cognitive Neuroscience, 18, 1225. doi:10.1016/j.dcn.2015.09.006Google Scholar
Hawks, Z. W., Marrus, N., Glowinski, A. L., & Constantino, J. N. (2018). Early origins of autism comorbidity: Neuropsychiatric traits correlated in childhood are independent in infancy. Journal of Abnormal Child Psychology, 47(2), 369379. doi:10.1007/s10802-018-0410-1Google Scholar
Hay, D., Waters, C., Perra, O., Swift, N., Kairis, V., Phillips, R., … Van Goozen, S. (2014). Precursors to aggression are evident by 6 months of age. Developmental Science, 17, 471480. doi:10.1111/desc.12133Google Scholar
Heckman, J., Pinto, R., & Savelyev, P. (2013). Understanding the mechanisms through which an influential early childhood program boosted adult outcomes. American Economic Review, 103(6), 20522086. doi:10.1257/aer.103.6.2052Google Scholar
Hu, L. T., & Bentler, P. M. (1999). Cutoff criteria for fit indexes in covariance structure analysis: Conventional criteria versus new alternatives. Structural Equation Modeling: A Multidisciplinary Journal, 6(1), 155. doi:10.1080/10705519909540118Google Scholar
Kaat, A. J., Blackwell, C. K., Estabrook, R., Burns, J. L., Petitclerc, A., Briggs-Gowan, M. J., … Wakschlag, L. S. (2019). Linking the Child Behavior Checklist (CBCL) with the Multidimensional Assessment Profile of Disruptive Behavior (MAP-DB): Advancing a dimensional spectrum approach to disruptive behavior. Journal of Child and Family Studies, 28(2), 343353. doi:10.1007/s10826-018-1272-4Google Scholar
Kessel, E. M., Dougherty, L. R., Kujawa, A., Hajcak, G., Carlson, G. A., & Klein, D. N. (2016). Longitudinal associations between preschool disruptive mood dysregulation disorder symptoms and neural reactivity to monetary reward during preadolescence. Journal of Child and Adolescent Psychopharmacology, 26, 131137. doi:10.1089/cap.2015.0071Google Scholar
Kessel, E. M., Meyer, A., Hajcak, G., Dougherty, L. R., Torpey-Newman, D. C., Carlson, G. A., & Klein, D. N. (2016). Transdiagnostic factors and pathways to multifinality: The error-related negativity predicts whether preschool irritability is associated with internalizing versus externalizing symptoms at age 9. Development and Psychopathology, 28(4pt1), 913926. doi:10.1017/S0954579416000626Google Scholar
Lemery-Chalfant, K., Clifford, S., Dishion, T. J., Shaw, D. S., & Wilson, M. N. (2018). Genetic moderation of the effects of the Family Check-Up intervention on children's internalizing symptoms: A longitudinal study with a racially/ethnically diverse sample. Development and Psychopathology, 30(5), 17291747. doi:10.1017/S095457941800127xGoogle Scholar
Li, Y., Grabell, A. S., Wakschlag, L. S., Huppert, T. J., & Perlman, S. B. (2017). The neural substrates of cognitive flexibility are related to individual differences in preschool irritability: A fNIRS investigation. Developmental Cognitive Neuroscience, 25, 138144. doi:10.1016/j.dcn.2016.07.002Google Scholar
Little, R. J. A., & Rubin, D. B. (2002). Statistical analysis with missing data (2nd ed.). New York, NY: Wiley.Google Scholar
Lorber, M. F., Del Vecchio, T., & Slep, A. M. S. (2015). The emergence and evolution of infant externalizing behavior. Development and Psychopathology, 27(3), 663680. doi:10.1017/S0954579414000923Google Scholar
Luby, J. L., Barch, D. M., Whalen, D., Tillman, R., & Freedland, K. E. (2018). A randomized controlled trial of parent-child psychotherapy targeting emotion development for early childhood depression. American Journal of Psychiatry, 175(11), 11021110. doi:10.1176/appi.ajp.2018.18030321Google Scholar
Luby, J. L., Estabrook, R., Rogers, C., Krogh-Jespersen, S., Norton, E., Allen, A., … Wakschlag, L. S. (2019). Mapping infant neurodevelopmental precursors to mental disorder: Enhancing prediction of early childhood psychopathology via synthetic cohort & computational approaches. Manuscript submitted for publication.Google Scholar
Lunkenheimer, E. S., Dishion, T. J., Shaw, D. S., Connell, A. M., Gardner, F., Wilson, M. N., & Skuban, E. M. (2008). Collateral benefits of the Family Check-Up on early childhood school readiness: Indirect effects of parents' positive behavior support. Developmental Psychology, 44(6), 17371752. doi:10.1037/a0013858Google Scholar
McGorry, P., & Nelson, B. (2016). Why we need a transdiagnostic staging approach to emerging psychopathology, early diagnosis, and treatment. JAMA Psychiatry, 73(3), 191192. doi:10.1001/jamapsychiatry.2015.2868Google Scholar
*Moffitt, T., Arseneault, L., Belsky, D., Dickson, N., Hancox, R., Harrington, H., … Caspi, A. (2011). A gradient of childhood self-control predicts health, wealth and public safety. Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences, 108, 26932698. doi:10.1073/pnas.1010076108Google Scholar
Molleda, L., Bahamon, M., George, S. M. S., Perrino, T., Estrada, Y., Herrera, D. C., … Prado, G. (2017). Clinic personnel, facilitator, and parent perspectives of eHealth Familias Unidas in primarycare. Journal of Pediatric Health Care, 31(3), 350361. doi:10.1016/j.pedhc.2016.11.001Google Scholar
Morgan, A. J., Rapee, R. M., & Bayer, J. K. (2016). Prevention and early intervention of anxiety problems in young children: A pilot evaluation of Cool Little Kids Online. Internet Interventions, 4, 105112. doi:10.1016/j.invent.2016.05.001Google Scholar
Murray, D., Rosanbalm, K., Christopoulous, C., & Hamouidi, A. (2015). Self-regulation and toxic stress: Foundations for understanding self-regulation from an applied developmental perspective. Washington, DC: Office of Planning, Research and Evaluation, Administration of Children and Families, US Department of Health & Human Services. Retrieved February 10, 2019, from Scholar
Muthén, B. O., & Muthén, L. K. (2018). Mplus, Version 8.1. Los Angeles, CA: Muthén & Muthén.Google Scholar
Nolen-Hoeksema, S., & Watkins, E. (2011). A heuristic for developing transdiagnostic models of psychopathology: Explaining multifinality and divergent trajectories. Perspectives on Psychological Sciences, 6, 589609. doi:10.1177/1745691611419672Google Scholar
Pelham, W. E. Jr., Gnagy, E. M., Greenslade, K. E., & Milich, R. (1992). Teacher ratings of DSM-III-R symptoms for the disruptive behavior disorders. Journal of the American Academy of Child and Adolescent Psychiatry, 31(2), 210218. doi:10.1097/00004583-199203000-00006Google Scholar
Perrin, E. C., Leslie, L. K., & Boat, T. (2016). Parenting as primary prevention. JAMA Pediatrics, 170(7), 637638. doi:10.1001/jamapediatrics.2016.0225Google Scholar
Perrin, E. C., Sheldrick, R., McMenamy, J. M., Henson, B. S., & Carter, A. S. (2014). Improving parenting skills for families of young children in pediatric settings: A randomized clinical trial. JAMA Pediatrics, 168(1), 1624. doi:10.1001/jamapediatrics.2013.2919Google Scholar
Pine, D., & Fox, N. A. (2015). Childhood antecedents and risk for adult mental disorders. Annual Review of Psychology, 66, 459485. doi:10.1146/annurev-psych-010814-015038Google Scholar
Piquero, A. R., Jennings, W. G., Diamond, B., Farrington, D. P., Tremblay, R. E., Welsh, B. C., & Gonzalez, J. M. R. (2016). A meta-analysis update on the effects of early family/parent training programs on antisocial behavior and delinquency. Journal of Experimental Criminology, 12(2), 229248. doi:10.1007/s11292-016-9256-0Google Scholar
Radloff, L. S. (1977). The CES-D scale: A self-report depression scale for research in the general population. Applied Psychological Measurement, 1(3), 385401.Google Scholar
Reuben, J. D., Shaw, D. S., Brennan, L. M., Dishion, T. J., & Wilson, M. N. (2015). A family-based intervention for improving children's emotional problems through effects on maternal depressive symptoms. Journal of Consulting and Clinical Psychology, 83(6), 11421148. doi:10.1037/ccp0000049Google Scholar
Roberts, M. Y., Curtis, P., Estabrook, R., Norton, E. S., Davis, M. M., Burns, J., … Wakschlag, L. S. (2018). Talking tots and the terrible twos: Early language and disruptive behavior in toddlers. Journal of Developmental and Behavioral Pediatrics, 39(9), 709714. doi:10.1097/DBP.0000000000000615Google Scholar
Robinson, E. A., Eyberg, S. M., & Ross, A. W. (1980). Inventory of child behavior problems: The standardization of an inventory of child conduct problem behaviors. Journal of Clinical Child Psychology, Spring, 2229.Google Scholar
Rogers, C. E., Sylvester, C. M., Mintz, C., Kenley, J. K., Shimony, J. S., Barch, D. M., & Smyser, C. D. (2017). Neonatal amygdala functional connectivity at rest in healthy and preterm infants and early internalizing symptoms. Journal of the American Academy of Child and Adolescent Psychiatry, 56(2), 157166. doi:10.1016/j.jaac.2016.11.005Google Scholar
Sawyer, A. M., Borduin, C. M., & Dopp, A. R. (2015). Long-term effects of prevention and treatment on youth antisocial behavior: A meta-analysis. Clinical Psychology Review, 42, 130144. doi:10.1016/j.cpr.2015.06.009Google Scholar
Shaffer, D., Fisher, P., & Lucas, C. (1998). Diagnostic interview schedule for children, version IV. New York: Columbia University, Division of Psychiatry.Google Scholar
Shaffer, D., Fisher, P., Lucas, C., Dulcan, M., & Schwab-Stone, M. (2000). NIMH Diagnostic Interview Schedule for Children Version-IV (NIMH DISC-IV): Description, differences from previous versions, and reliability of some common diagnoses. Journal of the American Academy of Child and Adolescent Psychiatry, 39(1), 2838. doi:10.1097/00004583-200001000-00014Google Scholar
Shaw, D. S. (2017). The use of the Family Check-Up in pediatric care: The SafeKeeping Youth and Smart Beginnings projects. Paper presented at the Society for Prevention Research, Washington, DC.Google Scholar
Shaw, D. S., Galán, C. A., Lemery-Chalfant, K., Wilson, M. N., Elam, K. K., Gardner, F., & Dishion, T. J. (in press). Early predictors of children's early-starting conduct problems: Child, family, genetic, and intervention effects. Development and Psychopathology (this issue).Google Scholar
Shaw, D. S., Sitnick, S. L., Brennan, L. M., Choe, D. E., Dishion, T. J., Wilson, M. N., & Gardner, F. (2016). The long-term effectiveness of the Family Check-Up on school-age conduct problems: Moderation by neighborhood deprivation. Development and Psychopathology, 28(4), 14711486. doi:10.1017/S0954579415001212Google Scholar
Sheldrick, R. C., Merchant, S., & Perrin, E. C. (2011). Identification of developmental-behavioral problems in primary care: A systematic review. Pediatrics, 128(2), 356363. doi:10.1542/peds.2010-3261Google Scholar
Sheldrick, R. C., Neger, E. N., & Perrin, E. C. (2012). Concerns about development, behavior & learning among parents seeking pediatric care. Journal of Developmental and Behavioral Pediatrics, 33(2), 156. doi:10.1097/DBP.0b013e3182420f4aGoogle Scholar
Shelleby, E. C., Shaw, D. S., Cheong, J., Chang, H., Gardner, F., Dishion, T. J., & Wilson, M. N. (2012). Behavioral control in at-risk toddlers: The influence of the Family Check-Up. Journal of Clinical Child and Adolescent Psychology, 41(3), 288301. doi:10.1080/15374416.2012.664814Google Scholar
Shelleby, E. C., Shaw, D. S., Dishion, T. J., Wilson, M. N., & Gardner, F. (2018). Effects of the Family Check-Up on reducing growth in conduct problems from toddlerhood through school age: An analysis of moderated mediation. Journal of Consulting and Clinical Psychology, 86(10), 856867. doi:10.1037/ccp0000337Google Scholar
Smith, J. D., Berkel, C., Hails, K. A., Dishion, T. J., Shaw, D. S., & Wilson, M. N. (2018). Predictors of participation in the Family Check-Up program: A randomized trial of yearly services from age 2 to 10 years. Prevention Science, 19(5), 652662. doi:10.1007/s11121-016-0679-7Google Scholar
Smith, J. D., Berkel, C., Rudo-Stern, J., Montano, Z., St George, S. M., Prado, G., … Dishion, T. J. (2018). The Family Check-Up 4 Health (FCU4Health): Applying implementation science frameworks to the process of adapting an evidence-based parenting program for prevention of pediatric obesity and excess weight gain in primary care. Frontiers in Public Health, 6, 293. doi:10.3389/fpubh.2018.00293Google Scholar
Smith, J. D., & Dishion, T. J. (2013). Mindful parenting in the development and maintenance of youth psychopathology. In Ehrenreich-May, J. & Chu, B. C. (Eds.), Transdiagnostic mechanisms and treatment for youth psychopathology (pp. 138160). New York, NY: The Guilford Press.Google Scholar
Smith, J. D., Dishion, T. J., Shaw, D. S., Wilson, M. N., Winter, C. C., & Patterson, G. R. (2014). Coercive family process and early-onset conduct problems from age 2 to school entry. Development and Psychopathology, 26(4), 917932. doi:10.1017/S0954579414000169Google Scholar
Smith, J. D., St George, S. M., & Prado, G. (2017). Family-centered positive behavior support interventions in early childhood to prevent obesity. Child Development, 88(2), 427435. doi:10.1111/cdev.12738Google Scholar
Sonuga-Barke, E. J. S., Cortese, S., Fairchild, G., & Stringaris, A. (2015). Annual Research Review: Transdiagnostic neuroscience of child and adolescent mental disorders–differentiating decision making in attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder, conduct disorder, depression, and anxiety. Journal of Child Psychology and Psychiatry, 57(3), 321349. doi:10.1111/jcpp.12496Google Scholar
Steiger, J. H. (1990). Structural model evaluation and modification: An interval estimation approach. Multivariate Behavioral Research, 25(2), 173180. doi:10.1207/s15327906mbr2502_4Google Scholar
Stringaris, A., & Goodman, R. (2009a). Longitudinal outcome of youth oppositionality: Irritable, headstrong, and hurtful behaviors have distinctive predictions. Journal of the American Academy of Child and Adolescent Psychiatry, 48, 404412.Google Scholar
Stringaris, A., & Goodman, R. (2009b). Three dimensions of oppositionality in youth. Journal of Child Psychology and Psychiatry, 50(3), 216223.Google Scholar
Trentacosta, C. J., & Shaw, D. S. (2009). Emotional self-regulation, peer rejection, and antisocial behavior: Developmental associations from early childhood to early adolescence. Journal of Applied Developmental Psychology, 30(3), 356365. doi:10.1016/j.appdev.2008.12.016Google Scholar
van Aar, J., Leijten, P., de Castro, B. O., & Overbeek, G. (2017). Sustained, fade-out or sleeper effects? A systematic review and meta-analysis of parenting interventions for disruptive child behavior. Clinical Psychology Review, 51, 153163. doi:10.1016/j.cpr.2016.11.006Google Scholar
Van Ryzin, M. J., Roseth, C. J., Fosco, G. M., Lee, Y. K., & Chen, I. C. (2016). A component-centered meta-analysis of family-based prevention programs for adolescent substance use. Clinical Psychology Review, 45, 7280. doi:10.1016/j.cpr.2016.03.007Google Scholar
Vidal-Ribas, P., Brotman, M. A., Valdivieso, I., Leibenluft, E., & Stringaris, A. (2016). The status of irritability in psychiatry: A conceptual and quantitative review. Journal of the American Academy of Child and Adolescent Psychiatry, 55(7), 556570. doi:10.1016/j.jaac.2016.04.014Google Scholar
Wakschlag, L. S., Choi, S., Carter, A. S., Hullsiek, H., Burns, J., McCarthy, K., … Briggs-Gowan, M. J. (2012). Defining the developmental parameters of temper loss in young children: Implications for developmental psychopathology. Journal of Child Psychiatry and Psychology, 53, 10991108. doi:10.1111/j.1469-7610.2012.02595.xGoogle Scholar
Wakschlag, L. S., Estabrook, R., Petitclerc, A., Henry, D., Burns, J., Perlman, S. B., … Briggs-Gowan, M. J. (2015). Clinical implications of a dimensional approach: The normal:abnormal spectrum of early irritability. Journal of the American Academy of Child and Adolescent Psychiatry, 54(8), 626634. doi:10.1016/j.jaac.2015.05.016Google Scholar
Wakschlag, L. S., Perlman, S., Blair, J., Leibenluft, E., Briggs-Gowan, M. J., & Pine, D. S. (2018). The neurodevelopmental basis of early childhood disruptive behavior: Irritable and callous phenotypes as exemplars. American Journal of Psychiatry, 175(2), 114130. doi:10.1176/appi.ajp.2017.17010045Google Scholar
Wakschlag, L. S., Roberts, M., Flynn, R., Marino, B., Norton, E., & Davis, M. (2019). Future directions for advancing earlier identification and prevention of mental disorders: A “Mental Health, Earlier” framework. Journal of Clinical Child & Adolescent Psychology, 48(3), 539554. doi:10.1080/15374416.2018.1561296Google Scholar
Walkup, J. T., Barlow, A., Mullany, B. C., Pan, W., Goklish, N., Hasting, R., … Reid, R. (2009). Randomized controlled trial of a paraprofessional-delivered in-home intervention for young reservation-based American Indian mothers. Journal of the American Academy of Child and Adolescent Psychiatry, 48(6), 591601. doi:10.1097/CHI.0b013e3181a0ab86Google Scholar
*Walkup, J. T., Mathews, T., & Green, C. (2017). Transdiagnostic behavioral therapies in pediatric primary care: Looking ahead. JAMA Psychiatry, 74(6), 557558. doi:10.1001/jamapsychiatry.2017.0448Google Scholar
Wiggins, J. L., Briggs-Gowan, M. J., Estabrook, R., Brotman, M. A., Pine, D. S., Leibenluft, E., & Wakschlag, L. S. (2018). Identifying clinically significant irritability in early childhood. Journal of the American Academy of Child and Adolescent Psychiatry, 57(3), 191199. doi:10.1016/j.jaac.2017.12.008Google Scholar
Wiggins, J. L., Mitchell, C., Stringaris, A., & Leibenluft, E. (2014). Developmental trajectories of irritability and bidirectional associations with maternal depression. Journal of the American Academy of Child and Adolescent Psychiatry, 53(11), 11911205. doi:10.1016/j.jaac.2014.08.005Google Scholar