A string band strikes up a rhythmic tune and a circle of dancers, one hundred or more, falls into the beat together. “All join hands and circle to the left,” directs the caller, beginning an old time square dance each Friday and Saturday night in several communities across Southwest Virginia. Old time square dancing is one of the two oldest regional forms of dance which continue to change through community participation. The other form is a dance of “rhythm-making with the feet” (Hall 1984–85,201), a solo dance known variously as clogging, flatfooting, or buck dancing. Old time square dancing typically begins with one large circle and with patterns for the whole group; proceeds to a middle section of one or more patterns for two couples, who form the “square;” and ends with one large circle or patterns for the whole group. Dancers use the term “old time square dance” to differentiate this community-based form from western club square dancing, which was popularized mid-century and is taught, with classes of increasing levels of difficulty, through a national organization. Both forms of old time dancing have evolved since the eighteenth century through the interaction of European-Americans, African-Americans, and Native Americans, and are performed to music of the old-time, bluegrass, country, or country-rock variety, depending upon the community.