The attack on the orthodoxy of Jacques Lefè d'Etaples, taken as a whole, may be divided into three stages. The first centered about his handling of the Vulgate; the second may be called the “controversy of the three's;” the third stage began when he was first charged with Lutheranism. The first two of these stages involved a number of widely separated individuals, whose varying degrees of repugnance have every appearance of being genuine and spontaneous reactions to Lefèvre's innovations. The third stage lies beyond our boundaries, so we shall not undertake its consideration in this paper. We shall only say of it, by the way of comparing it with the first two, that the attack was then consolidated under the leadership of the Sorbonne, and its Syndic Beda; it became institutionalized or professionalized, and sprang from all sorts of motives, self-regarding and political as well as religious. Of course the Sorbonne as one of the pillars of the old order had a hand in it from the beginning, and in general each of what I have called “stages” gathered up into itself much of those that went before, and they are to be distinguished from each other by emphases rather than by clear-cut divisions, either logical or chronological.