The fourteenth-century scholastic was obsessed with the problem of truth. One manifestation of this interest was the development of the highly abstract disciplines of formal logic and epistemology, by the study of which, philosophers and theologians believed, it would be possible to arrive at the truth with greater confidence. But the successors of Ockham and Holcot were interested in more than mere abstractions: they wished to establish a means by which the truth, once discovered, could be validated and its accuracy guaranteed to laity. When the truth in question was a point of Christian doctrine, this concern took on a special urgency. Confronted by an alarming array of both academic and popular heresies, the church in the thirteenth and fourteenth centuries could no longer be satisfied simply to assert the infallibility of Christian truth sub specie aeternitatis; it was ever more necessary to make determinations of Christian truth and falsehood in this life. There resulted occasionally heated and always interesting debates over the nature and distribution of doctrinal authority.