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The Passing of the Church: Forty Variations on an Unpopular Theme

  • Hugh Nibley (a1)

Extract

A Somber Theme:—Ever since Eusebius sought with dedicated zeal to prove the survival of the Church by blazing a trail back to the Apostles, the program of church history has been the same: “To give a clear and comprehensive, scientifically established view of the development of the visible institution of salvation founded by Christ.” To describe it—not to question it. By its very definition church history requires unquestioning acceptance of the basic proposition that the Church did survive. One may write endlessly about The Infant Church, l'Eglise naissante, die Pflanzung der Kirche, etc., but one may not ask why the early Christians themselves described their Church not as a lusty infant but as an old and failing woman; one may trace the triumphant spread of The Unquenchable Light through storm and shadow, but one may not ask why Jesus himself insisted that the Light was to be taken away. Church history seems to be resolved never to raise the fundamental question of survival as the only way of avoiding a disastrous answer, and the normal reaction to the question—did the Church remain on earth?—has not been serious inquiry in a richly documented field, but shocked recoil from the edge of an abyss into which few can look without a shudder.

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1. Bihlmeyer, K., Kirchengeschichte (Paderborn, 1951), I. Teil, 1.

2. “There is always danger of a metaphor once adopted becoming the master instead of the servant,” writes Payne, E. A., commenting on K. S. Latourette's “Unquenchable Light” in Jnl. of Theol. Studies, XLVII (1946), 151.

3. While suspecting the worst, the Fathers could not bring themselves to admit it, according to John, , Bishop, of Bristol, , Ecclesiastical History of the Second and Third Centuries (London, 1894), 4851. See below, note 138.

4. The tension is discussed by Marlé, R., “Le Christ de Ia Foi et le Jésus de l'Histoire,” Etudes, CCCII (1959), 67ff. Cf. Grant, R. M., “The Appeal to the Early Fathers,” Jnl. of Theol. Stud., N.S. XI (1960), 14, 23.

5. Arnobius, , Adv. gentes, ii. 76, in Migne, , P.L., V, 934A; II Cor. iv: 8–18; Tertullian, Scapul., i, iii; Cyprian, Ep. lvi, in P.L., IV, 362.

6. Matt. xvii:12; xxi:37–39; xxiii:31–37;Mark xii:6–8; Luke xvii:25; John I:5, 10–11; iii:11f, 19, 32; v:38, 40–47; vii:7; viii:19, 23f, 37f, 40–47; xv:22–25; cf. Acts iii:13–15.

7. Matt. ix:15; Luke ix:41; xiii:25–27; xvii:22; John vli:33f; xii:35f; xiii:33; xiv:30; xvi:16; cf. Acts iii:21.

8. John ix:4f; vix:30. Evil triumphs from Abel to the e8chaion: Matt. xxiii:35–39; xvii:12; Luke xi:51; Clementine Recognitions, iii. 61.

9. Matt. x:24f; Mark xlii:13; Luke x: 16; John xv:18–21; xvii:14; Actsxxviii: 26f; Grant, F. C., “The Mission of the Disciples,” J.B.L., XXXI (1916), 293314.

10. Matt. x:16–22, 28; xxiv:9; Mark xiii:9; Luke x:3; John xvi:1–2, 33; I Cor. iv:9; II Clement v.

11. Matt. xxiv:14; xxviii:20; Mark xiii:10. Below, notes 17, 21.

12. Jas. v:10–11; I Pet. iv:12–14, 1; i:6–7, 24: Rem. viii.

13. I John iii:1; I Pet. v:1; John xvii:25.

14. Matt. xvi:24–26; II Cor. iv:8–16; Phil. iii; Luke xii:22–34.

15. Jude 4–11, 16–19; Matt. xiii:13–30; Rom. i:16–32; II Cor. xi:3f; II Thess. ii:7–12; I Tim. iv:1–3; vi:20f; II Tim. iv:3f; II Pet. ii:1–22.

16. It ends only with the second coming. Matt. xiii: 30, 39–43; Mark xii: 9; II Thess. ii: 8; Didache, xvi; Justin, , Dial., li. 2.

17. I John iii:1; John xvii:25; I Pet. v:8.

18. John xiv:30; Matt. xxi:38; Mark xii:7; Luke xx:14.

19. Matt. xiii: 24–30, 38. Both syllegein and synagogein are used.

20. II Tim. iv:2–4; II Thess. ii:9–12; Rem. i:21–31.

21. Matt. xxiv:14; cf. x:23; xxviii:20, where aeon refers to that particular age. Cullmann, O.. in Davies, W. D. & Daube, D. (eds.), The Background of the New Testament and Its Eschatology (Cambridge Univ., 1956), 417; cf. Messel, N., Die Finheitlichkeit der jüdischen Eschatologie (Giessen, 1915), 6169, 4450. See below, note 181.

22. Mark xiii:9f; Acts ii:16f, 33; Origen, , In Mt. Comm. Ser. 39, in P.G., XIII, 1655B, concludes that, strictly speaking, jam finem venisse: so also Chrysostom, John, In Ep. Heb. xi, Homil. xxi. 3, in Migne, , P.G., LXIII, 1655B.

23. Scorp. ix-x, xiii-xv; Ignatius, , Polycarp, iii; Ephes., ix.

24. Heb. vi:11; Phil. iii:8–10; I Pet. i:4–6, 9; II Clem. v. 2–4; Barnabas, viii. 6; Justin, , Apolog. i. 57; Tertull, ., Apolog. i.

25. Mark xiii:34–37; I Pet. iv:12f. Like soldiers, each to remain at his post, I Clement, xxxvii, xxi; Tertull, ., Admartyr. iii; II Clem. v; Ignat., Polyo. iii; Magnes. spv; Barnabas, ii. 1.

26. Pauci remaneant certantes pro van- tate usque ad finem, qui et salvandi sunt soil… Origen, , In Mt. xxiv, in P.G., XIII, 1654D. There were few martyrs, de Ste. Croix, G., “Aspects of the ‘Great’ Persecution,” H.T.B., XLVII (1947), 104, and countless betrayers, Frend, W. H., “Failure of the Persecntions…Past & Present, XVI (11 1959), 15f.

27. Early sources speak of two factions within the Church, and of the “seducers” completely exterminating the righteons party, Schmidt, C., Gespräche Jesu… in Texte u. Unters., XLIII (1919), 196–8; cf. Brandon, S.G.F., The Fail of Jerusalem and the Christian Church (SPCK, 1951), 54.

28. Luke xiii: 25ff; Matt. xxiii:29. There is a time limit to the promise (Heb. xii:17), and “when the tower is finished, you will wish to do good, and will have no opportunity,” Hermas, , Pastor, Vis. iii. 9.

29. Justin, , Dial., cx; Hilary, , Contra Constant. Imp., iv, in P.L., X, 581B.

30. Gal. iii: 1–4. Ignatius describes the corruption with striking imagery as of pleasing and plausible wolves (Philad., ii), a goodly label on a bottle of poison, a deadly drug mixed with sweet wine (Trail., vi), counterfeit coin (Magnes., v), cleverly baited hooks (id., xi), etc.

31. “History and Eschatology in the N.T.,” New Test. Stud., I (1954), 8.

32. A mixture of “Freude, Sehnsucht, und bange Furcht…” Rud. Knopf, Die Zukunftshoffnungen des Urchristentums (Tubingen, 1907), 711. Cf. Didache, xvi.

33. I Clam. xli. 4; xxi. 1; Barnab. iv. 9, 14; Ignat, ., Ephes, xi. 1. “The last stumbilng-block approaches…” Barnab. iv. 3, 9; I Clem. vii. 1; II Clem. viif; xvi; Hermas, , Vis., ii. 2; iv. 1.

34. I Clem. xv. 4–6; viii; xxxix; lvii; II Clem. vi; Barnab. iv-v; xiii-xiv.

35. I Clam. lviii. The promise of the Paraclete is no guarantee, II Clem. vi. 9.

36. So I Clem. iii-vil; Barnab. ii-vi; xvi; Const. Apostal., vii. 32; Lactant, ., Div. Inst., vii. 17.

37. I Clam. i; iii; xix; xli; xlvii; lii; lxv; II Clam. xiil; Barnab. ii; Ignat., Ephes., xvii; Philad., ii; Hermas, , Vis., ii. 2; iii. ix; Simil., vii; ix. 21, 25f; x. 1.

38. II Clam. xv; Didache, x. 5; Ignat., Polyc., i. 2; Ephes., xvii; Philad., i; Hermas, , Vis., v; Mand., iv; Simil, ., ix. 14; Barnab. ii. 1;xxi.

39. I Clem. xv; xxx; II Clem. iiif; xiii; xvii; Barnab., x. 4; Ignat, ., Ephes., xv; vii; Magnes., iv; Trall., vi; Polycarp, , Phil., x; Harmas, , Vis., i. 3; Simil. ix. 13, 21.

40. Polycarp, Phil., vii; Hermas, , Mand., xi. 1.

41. Ignat, ., Magnes. v; II Clem. vi; Barnab. v; xviil; sea Lake's, K. note on Hermas in his Apostolic Fathers (Loeb ed., 1912), ii. 21, n. 1.

42. I Clam. i; iii; xxiv; xix; Ignat, ., Trall., vii; Ephcs., xvii; ix. 5; Hermas, , Vis., iii. 3, 10. Cf. Test, of Hezekiah, ii 3B-iv. 18.

43. Didache, xvi. 3; Barnab. xvi; Enoch lxxxix; lvi; lxvif; Logion No. xiv, in Patrologia Orientalis, IV, 176f; cf. IX, 227f.

44. Hermas, , Vis. iii. 37.

45. Hermas, , Sim. iii; iv; ix; I Clem. lviii; Euseb., H.E., III. xxxi. 3; V. xxiv. 2.

46. Nock, A. D., “The Vocabulary of the N.T.,” J.B.L., LII (1933), 135.

47. Lib. contra Auxent., iv, in P.L., X, 611B.

48. Holl, K., in Ztsehr. f. system. Theol., II (1924), 403–5; Dietrich, S., Le Dessein de Dieu (Neuchatel, 1948), 19, finds only one case (Mark v:19) in which Christ did not avoid publicity.

49. Origen, , C. Cels. ii. 76; iv. 28; Felix, Minuc, Octav. viii–xi; Lactant, ., Div. Inst. v. 7.

50. Felix, Min., Octav. ixf; Justin, , Dial. xc. 2; lii (the Parousia a secret); Tertull, ., Apol. vii; Clem, . Recog. i. 52; Alex, Clem.., Strom. i. 12; v.10.

51. Matt. xiii:9–17; Clem. Recog. ii. 60; iii. 1; Tertull, ., Praescr. xxv–xxvi; Origen, , C. Cels. I. i. 1ff; Ignatius, , Trall., v.

52. Peri Archon i. 2, 4, 610; cf. Irenaeus, IV. xxxiii. 8; II. xxvii. 1–2.

53. Origen, , C. Cels. ii. 70; Schweitzer, A., Leben-Jesu-Forschung (Tübingen, 1951), 396; Gunkel, H., Zum religionsgesch. Verständnis des NTs (Göttingen, 1903), 78f; Lake, K., Intr. to the N.T. (1937), 37.

54. Irenaeus (loc. cit.) insists that nothing has been lost (cf. I. viii. 1, etc.), yet speaks with awe of the knowledge of the Apostles, I. xiii. 6; III. ii. 2, which Iguatius implies far exceeds his own, Ephes. iii; Magnes. v; Rom. iv. Later Fathers were intrigued by the great unwritten knowledge of the Thomasius, Apostles D., Dogmengesch. der alten Kirche (Erlangen, 1866), I, 209, 297f.

55. Jesu Verheissung für die Völker (Stuttgart, 1956), 15f, 61f.

56. Dufourcq, A., Hist. de la fondatios de l'Eglise (Paris, 1909), 220; Jeremias, op. cit., 17, 21, 60f. Above, note 38.

57. Didache, x. 5; Ignat, . Rom. vii: deuro pros ton patera — literally.

58. Discussed by Linton, O., Das Problem d. Urkirche (Uppsala Univ., 1932), 198ff.

59. Eisler, R., Iesous Basileus, etc. (Heidelberg, 1930), II, 237.

60. Brandon, S., Fall of Jerusalem, 711.

61. Clern Homil. xvi. 21, in P.G., II, 384A; ‘Hippolytus,’ De consum. mundi. x-xi, in P.G., X, 913A–C; Athanasius, , Vita Antonii lxxxii, in P.G., XXVI, 957.

62. Acta Pilati xv, in Patrol. Or., IX, 108f; Harris, J. R., Gospel of the Twelve Apostles, 28, 33, 35, 38; Budge, E. A. W., Contendings of the Apostles (London, 18991901), II, 62, 5355, 59.

63. Intr. to the N.T., 62.

64. Grant, R. M., Second Century Christianity (SPCK, 1946), 9.

65. Eusebius, , H.E., III. xxxii, 78.

66. Milburn, R. L. P., Early Christian Interpretations of History (London, 1954), 25f.

67. In Revue des Sciences Religieuses, XII (1932), 1.

68. Les onigines des églises de l'age apostolique (Paris, 1909), 111.

69. E.g., Hermas, , Vis. I, iii; II. ii; III. ix; Sim. IX. xix; Mand. xi-xii; I Clem. xxi. Cf. Euseb, ., H.E., V, xxviii; Clem. Recog. i. 15.

70. See Marie, R., in Etudes, CCCII (1959), 65ff.

71. Origen, , C. Cels., viii. 74, 72 end; Tertull, ., Apolog. xxxviii; Const. Apostol. vii. 39; Barnab. ii; iv; I Cor. vii: 29–32.

72. Origen, , C. Cels. viii. 1720; Zeno, Lib. I, tract. xiv, in P.L., XI, 354B358A; Felix, Minuc., Octav. x; Jerome, , Ep. cxxx. 15, in P.L., XXII, 1119A: Arnobius, , Adv. gentes, vi. 1, in P.L., V, 1162B.

73. Hermas, , Sim. i. 1; II Clem. v; Cyprian, , De mortal. xxv, in P.L., IV, 623B.

74. Gesch. d. alten Kirche (Berlin, 19321934), II, 41f; Käseniann, E., Das wandernde Gottesvolk (Göttingen, 1939), 51ff.

75. De praescr. xxvii-xxix; Polycarp, , Phil. ix; II Clem. xix.

76. Acts xviii:6; II Tim. iv:6–8. Conversion not the object, I Cor. i:17.

77. In Davies & Daube, , Background of the New Testament, etc., 415.

78. I Cor. ix:16; John xv:22; Matt. xxiii:34f; xxvii:25; Luke xi:49–51; Acts v:28; xviii:6; Clem. Recog., I. viiitacere non possumus.

79. Cullmann, O., Urchristentum u. Gottesdienst (Zürich, 1950), 3946;

80. Ignat, ., Rom. vi–viii; Ephes. xi. 1; Ep. de mart. s. Andr., in P.G., II, 1244B1245A; Passio s. Perpetuae, vi; xviii; xxi. Quote from Apost. Const., V. v.

81. Euseb, ., H.E., VI. xlv.

82. Tertull., Apolog. 1; Cyprian, , De mortal. xii, in P.L., IV, 611f.

83. Norden, A., Die Antike Kunstprosa (Leipzig, 1898), II, 418f, contrasts the early and later Christian concepts of martyrdom. The transition is clear in Cyprian, who must warn, non martyres Evangelium faciant, Ep. xv, in P.L., IV, 293A.

84. Cyprian, , Ep. viii, in P.L., IV, 255A; De duplici mart. xxv, ib., 982A; Alex, Clem.., Strom. iv. 7; Leo, , Sermo xlvii. 1, in P.L., LIV, 295B–C.

85. So Asterius Urbanus, Contra. Montan., frg. iii; vi, viii, in P.G., X, 149B, 153A–B.

86. So Optatus, , De schis. Donat. xvii; xxiv-xxvi, in P.L., XI, 968f, 979B986A.

87. Iren., IV. xxxiii. 10; Cyprian. Ep. ad Fortunat., Praef., in P.L., IV, 678682.

88. Craig, C. T., The Beginnings of Christianity (N. Y., 1943), p. 328.

89. van Stempvoort, P., in Het Oudste Christendom en de antieke Culture (Haarlem, 1951), II, 331: Brandon, S., Fall of Jerus., 911. The imagery goes back to Eusebius. H.E., I. 1. 3.

90. op. cit., 10; Ed Schwartz, , Kaiser Constantin u. die christl. Kirche (Leipzig, 1913), 17f; Lietzmann, H., Ki. Schr., I. 97.

91. Die Kirche im Wandel der Zeit (Leipzig. 1933), 79.

92. E. C. Blackman, in Davies & Daube, op. cit., 13.

93. Bardy, G., La conversion au christianisme … (Paris, 1949), 29f.

94. Dufourcq, A., Fondations, 250: Goguel, M.. Les premiers temps de l'Eglise (Nenchatel, 1949), 139, and in R.H.R. CXXXVI (1949). 36f.

95. Euseb, ., H.E. III. xxxvii; xxxix; I Clem. xlvii; Polycarp, . Phil. iii; Ignat, ., Rom. v; Iren., III, iii. 4: Methodius, . Lib. de resum. vi, in P.G., XVIII, 313B.

96. Euseb, ., H.E. III. xxxix. 1–4: V. x. 4; xi. 3–5; Justin, , Dial., lxxxiiOrigen, , C. Cels, II, 8.

97. Euseb, ., H.E., III. xxxii. 7: II. xxvii. 7: II. i. 3: Irenaeus. I, Praef. i.

98. Polycarp, , Phil. iii; Barnab. i. 5; the case of Ignatius is discussed by Reville, J., in R.H.R., XXII (1890), 285ff.

99. In Recherches de Science Relig., XXIV (1934), 431.

100. G. Bardy. op. cit., 306: Grant, R. M., Second Century Christianity, 9.

101. … singuli quique coetus haereticorum se potissimum Christianos, et suam esse Catholicam Ecclesiam putant, Lactant, ., Div. inst., IV. xxx end; Euseb, ., H.E., V. xiii–xviii: Sozom., v. 9, 20; vi. 26; viii. 20, etc. Origen, , C. Cels., III. x–xii.

102. Justin, , Apol. viii: Dial. xxxv, xlvii, lxxx; cf. Origen, , C. Cels., VI. xi.

103. Iren., I. xiii. 1–7; xxiii. 1, 3: xxv. 3; xxix. 1, etc. Euseb, ., H.E., V. xvi; ‘Justin’ Quaestiones, Nos. 100, 5, in P.G., VI, 1344f, 1256AB.

104. Sulpic. Sever., Eccl. Hist., ii. 46, 50. Eusebius worried too, Völker, W., in Vigiliae Christianae, IV (1950), 170f.

105. Harnack, A., Lehrb. d. Dogmengesch. (Tübingen, 1931), I, 250; Euseb, ., H.E. V. xvf.

106. The Reformation itself attempted revival of “prophetic, eschatological Christianity,” Bornkamm, H., Grtriss zum Studium der Kirchengesch. (Gütersloh, 1949), 63.

107. Harnack, A., Das Mönchtam (Giessen, 1895), passim. The Church Fathers did not encourage pilgrimages, Kötting, B., Peregrinatio Religiosa (Regensburg, 1950), 421.

108. Goguel, M.. in R.H.R., CXXXVI (1899), 192–4, 180.

109. Conversion au christ., p. 304; so Lietzmann, H., Gesch. d. alten Kirche, I, 226: Harnack, op. cit., 25.

110. Frick, R., “Die Gesch. d. Reich-GottesGedankens …Z.N.T.W., Beih. vi (1928), 152f; M. Goguel, op. cit., 35; Harnack, loc. cit.

111. Bultmann, R., in N.T. Studies, I, 15.

112. Op. cit., 191.

113. Milburn, R., Christian Interpretations of Hist., 26.

114. Bardy, G., L'Eglise et les derniers Romains (Paris, 1948), 48.

115. Braun, F. M., in Revue Biblique, 1940. 53; Leclercq, H.. Dict. d'archaeol. chret. et de liturgie, IV, 2281.

116. In Melanges Goguel, 278.

117. Tertull, ., De pudicit. xxi, in P.L., II, 1080B.

118. R. Bultmann, op. cit., 15.

119. Gesch. der griech. Litteratur (Munich, 1920), 955.

120. “In the end therefore, it was the Christian doctrine and practice which underwent the change, and society which remained.” Lake, K.. in H.T.R., IV (1911), 25.

121. Duchesne, L.. Origines du culte chrétien (Paris, 1898), 52f.

122. Lake, K., Intr. to the N.T., 22; Dufourcq, A., Fondations, 221.

123. Goguel, M.. Premiers Temps, 209; Seeberg, R., Hist. of Chr. Dogma (Grand Rapids, 1956), I, 118; Adam, K., Das Wesen des Katholizismus (Düsseldorf, 1934), 194.

124. Antike Kunstprosa, II, 479481.

125. Linton, O., Prob. d. Urkirche, 160, 164ff; Kuss, O., “Zur Senfkornparabel.Theol. u. Glaube, XLI (1951), 40ff; Jeremias, J., Jesu Verheissung, 58f.

126. So Bardy, G., Conversion au chr., 6, 259; H. Bornkamm, op. cit., 20.

127. Bonner, S. F., Roman Declamation (Liverpool Univ., 1949), 59.

128. Animae emptae a Christo non potuerunt vendi… Optatus, De schis. Donat. iii, 11, in P.L., XI. 1024f; Fascher, E., in Zt. f. Theol. u. Kirche, XIX (1938), 108; Chrysostom exposes the fallacy, In Gal. iii. 2, in P.G., LXI, 649f.

129. G. Bardy, op. cit., Ch. viii entire. Refuted by Chrysost., J., In Heb. v, in P.G., LXIII, 73, and Salvian, , Cub. Dei, IV. i. 61.

130. Justin, , Dial., xxxv; Origen, , C. Cels., iii. 12; v. 61; Tertull, ., Ad nat., iii.

131. Matt. vii:22; xxiv. 5; Mark ix:39; xiii:6; Luke xxi:8; Acts xvii:15.

132. E.g., the gloating attacks on the dead Julian, Norden, op. cit., II, 563.

133. Ibid., II, 460–2, 465, 476f, 529ff, 680–3; Frend, W., “Failure of Persecutions in the R. Emp.Past & Present, XVI (1959), 12 & passim.

134. Hippolytus, , In Dan. v. 7, in P.G., X, 681D; De Chr. & Antichr. xxix, lviif, ib., 749B, 776B-777A; De consum. mundi xi, ib., 913C.

135. De trinit. x. 55, in P.L., X, 387AB.

136. Quote is from Chrysost, John., In Mt. homil. xlvi. 1, in P.G., LVIII, 476.

137. Chavannes, P., in R.H.R., IV (1899), 349; Straub, J., in Historia, I (1950), 64.

138. Basil, , Ep. cl. ii, No. 139, in P.G., XXXII, 584A. Tertull, ., De praescr. xxviif, must console himself with the argument of numbers. Even before Eusebius (Praep. ev., I iii, in P.G., XXI, 33), Hegesippus sought “to reassure himself that there was… an absolute continuity…” according to Duchesne, L., Liber Pontificalis (Paris, 18861892), I, i, who vainly seeks the same assurance, Leclercq, H., Dict. d'arch., VI, 2697.

139. Euseb, ., H.E., X. iv. 1216; VIII. i. 8-li. 1–3; cf. Sozom, ., H.E., III, 17. The Church was overcome by its own sins, Cyprian, , Epist. vii, in P.L., IV, 246251, cf. Liber de lapsis, in P.L., IV, 478510. On the Restoration motif, see Seidlmeyer, M., in Saeculum, VII (1956), 405–7; Sandys, J. B., History of Classcal Scholarship (N.Y. 1958), I, 513f.

140. Ambrose, , Hexaemeron, iv. 32, 217f; Methodius, , Conviv. X virg., vi, in P.G., XVIII, 148B; Jerome, , In Is. xviii. 66, in P.L., XXIV, 674D; Lactant, ., Div. Inst., v. 7.

141. Discussed by this writer in Western Political Quart., VI (1953), 241–6.

142. The surprise is expressed by Chrysost, John., In Ps. cxlviii. 4, in P.G., LV, 483f, and Contra Jud. & Gent. xii, in P.G., XLVIII, 829f; the perplexity in ‘Justin,’ Quaestiones, No. 74, in P.G., VI, 1316A.

143. Sermo ante exil., lf, in P.G., LII, 429f; Vidi Dominum, homil., iv. 2, in P.G., LVI, 121.

144. Völker, W., in Vigil. Christ., IV (1950), 161ff, 180. J. Burckhardt calls Eusebius “the first thoroughly dishonest hitoriarn…” cit. Hadas, M.J.Q.R. XLI (1950), 423.

145. See Nibley, H., in Western Political Quarterly, VI (1953), 644–6.

146. Lactant, ., Div. Inst., v. 24.

147. Euseb, ., In Luc. xvii. 27, in P.G., XXIV, 584D585A.

148. Hilary, , In Matt. xxvi. 4, in P.L., IX, 1057B.

149. Euseb, ., In Luc. xiii. 32, in P.G., XXIV, 601D604A.

150. Chrysost, John., In X mil, talent., homil. iii, in P.G., LI, 21B.

151. First suggested by Origen, , In Matt. comm. ser. 39, in P.G., XIII, 1653D.

152. Hilary, , In Matt. xxv. 8, in P.L., IX. 1055CD.

153. Ibid., xxvi. 6, in P.L., IX, 1058B.

154. Euseb, ., In Is. xi. 6, in P.G., XXIV, 172C173A.

155. Optatus, , De schism. Donat., vii. 2, in P.L., XI, 1085B1086A.

156. A favorite theme with Chrysostom, e.g., Vidi Dominum, iv. 2, in P.G., LVI, 121; Sermo post redit., ii, in P.G., LII, 440, 442; Sermo Sever. de pace, id., 425; cf. Athans, ., De semente homil. v, in P.G., XXVIII, 149C.

157. Chrysost, John., De nov. dieb., vi, in P.G., LVI, 277f; Basil, , De grat. act. homil., iv, in P.G., XXXI, 228A; Hilary, , De trin., xxxix–xliii, in P.L., X, 374–7.

158. Chrysost., loc. cit.

159. Gibbon, Decline & Fall, Ch. xxvi, at note 101; Norden, , A.K., II. 623ff.

160. De capto Eutrop., i, vi, in P.G., LII, 397f, 402; De expuls. sua, ib., 433; Exp. in Ps. cxlviii. 4, in P.G., LV, 483; Vidi Dominum, iv. 2, P.G., LVI, 121; In Matt. homil., liv. 2, in P.G., LVIII, 535; In Matt. lxxvii. 1, ib.,702.

161. In I Cor. xxxii. 1, in P.G., LXI, 265; In I Cor. hom. vi. 3–4, ib., 51–53.

162. De pentecoste homil., i. 4, in P.G., L, 459, 453; De laud. s. Pauli, iv, ib., 488; In Act. ii,. 3, P.G., LI, 81f, cf. 85; In I Cor., xxxii. 2, P.G., LXI, 265; In Coloss. iii, Hom. viii, in P.G., LXII, 358f, etc.

163. Chrysost, ., In Ps. cv. 4, in P.G., LV, 285; Jerome, In Is. liv. 1, in P.L., XXIV, 516B; In Is. xiii, Ibid., 627B-629A; Origen, , C. Ceis., iv. 80; P. Archon, II. iv. 3.

164. Athanas, ., De incarn. Verbi, liii, in P.G., XXV, 189CD; Jerome, , Ep. lxvi. 4, in P.L., XXII, 641; In Is. lx. 1, in P.L., XXIV, 588D589A.

165. Jerome, , Contra Joan. Jerus., xif., in P.L., XXIII, 38003810.

166. Stendahl, K., “Problems in biblical Hermeneutics,” J.B.L., LXXVII (1958), 34.

167. Cotter, A. C., “The Eschatological Discourse,” Cath. Bibi. Quart., I (1939), 205.

168. C. H. Dahl, in Davies & Daube, op. cit., 422.

169. Schweitzer, A., Leben-Jesu-Forschung, 375.

170. “Development’ in early Christian Doctrine,” Jnl. of Relig., XXXIX (1959), 120.

171. Jesu Verheissung, 47.

172. So Weiss, Joh., “… Entstehung des Christentums,” Arch. Rel. Wiss., XVI (1913), 435.

173. Fawkes, A., “Christian Institutions and Beliefs,” H.T.R., X (1917), 115f.

174. Linton, O., Prob. der Urkirche, 121, 159.

175. Feuillet, A., in Rev. Biblique, III (1950), 180ff; Burrows, M., Outline of Biblical Theology (Philadelphia, 1946), 199ff.

176. van Stempvoort, P., in De Oudste Christendom, II, 250; Glasson, T. F., in Hibbert Jnl., CCI (1952), 128, 131f; Spencer, F. A. M., in Ch. Qt. Rev., CXXVI (1938), 6.

177. Goguel, M., “La seconde generation…Rev. Hist. Relig., CXXXVI (1949), 190; Bornkamm, H., In Memoriam K. Lohmeyer (1946), 116, 118, 121; E. Stauffer, in Davies & Daube, op. cit., 281f.

178. lesous Basileus (Heidelberg, 1929), I, xxvi; cf. Franck, S., in Dieu Vivant, XVII (1951), 1734.

179. I Clem. xxiii; II Clem. xl-xii; Barnab. iv. 16; cf. Luke xviii:7.

180. Petry, R. C., in Church History, IX (1940), 55; Bäthgen, F., Der Engelpapst (Halle, 1933), 76.

181. The old dispensation theory: Origen, , C. Cels., iv. 11f; B. Milburn, op. cit., 29–31. The Jews had lost and regained the Temple more than once.

182. Epiphanius, , Adv. haeres., III. ii. 6, in P.G., XLII, 784; Lactant, ., Div. Inst., IV. i.

183. Clavier, H., in Rev. Hist. & Philos. Relig., XXXI (1951), 292; O. Linton, op. cit., 132f; N. A. Dahl, “Christ, Creation and the Church,” in Davies & Daube, op. cit., 422–443.

184. Ambrose, , Exp. in Luc. lib. ii. 88, in P.L., XV, 1667f; Chrysost, John., In noviss. dieb., v, in P.G., LVI, 276.

185. Origen, , In Matt., lvi, in P.G., XIII, 1688D, attacks this view, held by Brunec, M., in Verbum Domini, 1952, 265, 269, 277, 323f.

186. Hippolyt, ., De cons. mundi, xxiv–v, in P.G., X, 937B–C. So Eusebius.

187. Bruce, F. F., in London Quart. & Holborn Rev., 1958, 99, with a survey of the literature, 101ff.

188. Florovsky, G., “Eschatology in the Patristic Age,” in Studia Patristica II, in Texte u. Unters., LXIV (1957), 234.

189. Cullmann, O., “Bultmann's Concept of Myth and the N.T.,” Concordia Theol. Monthly, XXVII (1956), 24; Burrows, M., “Thy Kingdom Come,” J.B.L., LXXIV (1955), 28.

190. In Davies & Daube, , Eschatol. Background of the N.T., 123.

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Church History
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