1 Where not otherwise indicated, editions of the penitentials here referred to will be found in Wasserschleben, F. W. H, Bussordnungen der abendländischen Kirche, Halle, 1851. They are also contained in the volumes by Schmitz, H. J., Die Bussbücher und die Bussdisciplin der Kirche, Mainz, 1883, and Die Bussbücher und das kanonische Bussverfahren, Düsseldorf, 1898.
2 See for instance: Oakley, T. P., English Penitential Discipline and Anglo-Saxon Law (Columbia University Studies), New York, 1923, and the present writer's The Celtic Penitentials and their Influence on Continental Christianity, Paris, 1923, of which four chapters appeared in Revue Celtique, XXXIX, (1922). 257–300;XL, (1923) 51–103; 320–341.
3 Of the works consulted for this part of the study, the following have proved the most useful: Buck, A. H.The Growth of Medicine … to about 1800. New Haven. 1917.Cumston, C. G.An Introduction to the History of Medicine, New York, 1927.Fort, G. B.Medical Economy in the Middle Ages. New York, 1883.Garrison, F. H.An Introduction to the History of Medicine. Philadelphia, 1924.Hoeser, H., Lehrburch der Geschichte der Medizin. 3rd edition, 3 vols. Jena, 1875.Lambert, L. W. and Godwin, G. M.Medical Leaders from Hippocrates to Osler. Indianapolis, 1929.Moon, R. O.The Relation of Medicine to Philosophy. New York, 1909.Moulton, C. W.The History of Medicine. New York, 1905.Neuburger, M.The History of Medicine. (tr. Playfair, ). 2 vols. London, 1910.Power, Sir D'Arcy, and Thompson, C. J. SChronologia Medico. London, 1923.Scheller, E.Aldus Cornelius Celsus über die Arzneiwissenschaft, 2nd edition (W. Friehols), 2 vols. Braunsweig, 1906.Walsh, J. J.Old Time Makers of Medicine. New York, 1911.
5 Neuburger, , I, 209. Cf. Cumston, , pp. 124ff The relation of Themison to Asclepiades is somewhat differently viewed by Moulton, , pp. 243 ff., but the point is not of importance here. Some writers regard Asclepiades as the founder of the Methodists, Cf. Moon, , p. 28.
6 Lambert, , p. 58;Neuburger, , I, 308–9.
7 Cumston, , p. 133;Lambert, pp. 52, 57.
8 Tertullian, , de Anima, vi, viii, xiv, xliv. Soranus appears from these passages to have taught that the soul itself has a physical existence, and is not merely dependent on the functioning of the bodily organs. He does not, however, teach its indestructibility; but Tertullian uses him to confute still more negative views.
9 Contra Julianum, V, 51 (“Soranus medicinae auctor nobilissimus”). Retractationes, II, lxii.
10 Policraticus, ed. Webb, C. C. J., Oxford 1909, Vol. I, p. 29.
12 Caelius has been placed in the second, but more generally in the fourth or fifth century. See Cumston, pp. 134–5 and especially Hoeser, I, 321–334.Power and Thompson, , p. 41, date him about 400.
13 Quoted by Walsh, p. 46.
15 Budge, E. A. W, The Paradise of the Holy Fathers, London, 1917, Vol. I, p. 100.
16 Penitentiale Vinniai, 28, 29.
17 Poenitentiale Columbani, A, 12, and B, introductory paragraph.
18 Vita S. Columbani, 17. He has already remarked on the virtual absence of “Poenitentiae medicamenta” in Gaul before Columban. Ibid. Ch. 11.
19 “Das Poenitentiale Cummeani,” Zeitschr. f. katholisches Kirchenrecht, LXXXII (1902), 501–540.
23 Tr. Brink, L., New York, 1929. 2 vols.
24 The sinner, or the neurotic, has ways of punishing himself, as severe as those authorized in the church, and much less helpful. My friend, Professor S. B. Sniffen, who has given me valuable suggestions on this section of the article, has remarked to me at this point: “It is probable that neurotic difficulties, particularly of a compulsive and depressive nature, were forestalled by the availability of the ecclesiastical mechanism for punishment.”
25 It seems unnecessary here to supply the word “inopia”, as Haddam and Stubbs suggest (Councils and Ecclesiastical Documents I, 113), obviously with the idea that the “celestial medicine” is the Eucharist from which the penitent was excluded. The text is clear as it stands, and quite intelligible in the light of the common phraseology of the Penitentials.
26 Wasserschleben, H., Bussordnungen der abendländischen Kirche, p. 250.
27 Zettinger, , op. cit., p. 540.
28 Medicine, Magic and Religion, London and New York. 1924, p. 143.
29 Psychological Healing, tr. Paul, E. and Paul, C., London and New York, 1925. I, 485 ff.
30 Which, by the way, is a light comedy rendering of Deut. 25:2.