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Early Alexandrian Christianity

  • Rorert M. Grant (a1)

Extract

Nearly everything that is recorded about the early history of Alexandrian Christianity lies in the Church History of Eusebius. Many Alexandrian theological writings are preserved, but as might be expected they cast little light on historical events. Now the basic difficulty with Eusebius' work is that it has to be classified as “official history.” It therefore contains a judicious mixture of authentic record with a good deal of suppression of fact and occasional outright lies. He wrote it in defence of himself and his friends and their outlook toward the nascent imperial church establishment under God's messenger Constantine.

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1. Gringoire (30 April 1937), 17. I am grateful to Mr. David Kahn for the use of microfilms of these articles.

2. HE VI 23, 4; 33, 4; 36, 4.

3. Ibid., VI 39, 5 (594, 16 Schwartz); cf. p. 517, 8 (manuscripts E and R). For teleutē = death, cf. II 23, 3; III 31, 1.4; IV 15, 47; VI 2, 15.

4. Cf. Bieler, L., Theios Anēr (Wien, 1935-1936); Koch, Hal in Pauly-Wissowa, , RE, XVIII (1942), 1036–40; Hornschuh, G. in ZKG, 71 (1960), 125. 193214.

5. HE VI 21, 34; cf. Herzog, G. in Pauly-Wissowa, , RE X 421.

6. HE VI 31, 2; for Africanus cf. Routh, M. J., Reliquiae saorae (ed. 2, Oxford, 1846), II, 287 (frag. 39).

7. Demetrius: Jerome, , C. Rufin. II 18 (PL 23, 461); Ambrose: Jerome, Ep. 84, 10 (CSEL 55, 132–33); census: Hombert, M.Préaux, C., Recherohes sur le recensement dans l'Egypte romaine (Papyrologica Lugduno-Batava 5, Leiden, 1952), 7684.

8. Epiphanius, , Haer. 64, 13, 12. For the use of drugs by M. Aurelius cf. Africa, T. W. in Journal of the History of Ideas, 22 (1961), 97102; Witke, E. C. in Classical Philology, 60 (1965), 2324.

9. Epiphanius, , Haer. 64, 2, 25.

10. Jerome, , Ep. 33, 5 (CSEL 54, 259).

11. Reinmuth, O. W. in Bulletin of the American Society of Papyrologists, 4 (1967), 106–9; also Barnes, T. D. in Harvard Studies in Classical Philology, 74 (1970), 313–16.

12. HE II 16–17.

13. Ibid., IV 2, 1–3.

14. Ibid., IV 7, 3.

15. Diog. Laert. I 21; cf. Clement, , Str. I 37, 6.

16. Dodds, E. B. in Entretiens sur l'antiquité classique V (Geneve, 1960), 32.

17. Rechtgläubigkeit und Ketzerei im ältesten Christentum (Tübingen, 1934), 4964.

18. Clement, , Str. I 150, 4; Origen, , C. Cels. I 15; IV 51; V 38, 57.

19. Dial. 5, 6.

20. Eusebius, , HE IV 7, 7.

21. Str. II 114, 2.

22. Ibid., VI 53, 5.

23. Ibid., I 61, 4; IV 9, 1; Diog. Laert. I 15; VIII 2; Porphyry, , Vit. Pyth. 1; Iamblichus, , De vit. pyth. 9.

24. Adv. haer. I 25 (pp. 208–10 Harvey).

25. Ibid., I 1, 1 (p. 9); II 14, 5 (p. 299). For Pythagorean influence on Gnostics elsewhere cf. Carcopino, J., De Pythagore aux apôtres (Paris, 1956), esp. 99–221.

26. Text in Bardy, G., Revue biblique 51 (1942), 8182.

27. HE V 10, 13.

28. Filliozat, J. in Revue de l'histoire des religions, 130 (1945), 5991.

29. Zeitschrift für Kircheageschichte, 61 (1942), 136–70.

30. Abhandlungen … Mains, 1951 (no. 3), 173202.

31. Journal of the Royal Asiatic Society (1902), 377415.

32. Fragments 9a-b Leemans = Eusebius, Praep. cv. IX 7 and Origen, , C. Cels. I 15.

33. Vit. Apolon. VIII 7 (cf. VI 15).

34. Str. I 71, 6; cf. Méhat, A., Étude sur lea ‘Stromates’ de Clément d'Alexandrie (Paris, 1966), 4445.

35. Journal of Hellenic Studies, 77 (1957), 7173; also in Aufsätze zur Gnosis (Abhandlungen …Gottingen III 69, 1967), 157–61.

36. Chadwick, H., The Sentences of Sextus (Cambridge, 1959).

37. Str. I 72, 4; 100, 3 (so also to Numenius, I 150, 4).

38. Str. VI, c. 15; Delatte, A., Études sur la littérature pythagoricienne (Paris, 1915), 231–45.

39. Str. V 27, 231, 2.

40. Ecl. proph. 32.

41. Str. I 66, 2; cf. den Boer, W., De allegorese in het werk van Clemens Alexandrinus (Leiden, 1940), 67.

42. Str. I 66, 2; 69, 1. 6; 70, 1; VI 57, 2.

43. Ibid., I 150, 3.

44. Ibid., IV 9, 1.

45. Paed. II 11, 1.

46. Str. VII 32, 5 (cf. Diog. Laert. VIII 13; Iamblichus, , De vit. pyth. 25, 35); Sextus, Sent. 46; Pyth. Sent. 66.

47. Origène et la philosophie (Paris, 1962), 49.

48. HE VI 19, 8.

49. HE VI 19, 13; cf. Nautin, P., Lettres et éorivains chrétiens des iie et iie siécles (Paris, 1961), 126–34.

50. Porphyry, , Vit. Plot. 3, 2427 Henry-Sehwyzer.

51. Dial. 2, 4.

52. HE VI 18, 3.

53. Ibid., VI 15.

54. Histoire de l'éducation dans l'antiquité (ed. 2, Paris, 1950), 524 (note 5).

55. Genethliakon für C. Robert (Berlin, 1910), 122127.

56. Crouzel, H., Grégoire is Thaumaturge: Remeroiement à Origns (Paris, 1969), 188 (Letter of Origen, 1, 15–16); 142 (Pan. 113–14). Ancient: Pan. 139. 151. 160; modern (= Stoic), 124. 160; scripture: Pan. 173–74.

57. Pan. 1–3.

58. Iamblichus, , De vit. pyth. 72.

59. Op. cit., 18–20.

60. Pan. 141; cf. Courcelle, P. in Settimane di Studio del Centro Italiano di studi sull'Alto Medioevo IX (Spoleto, 1962), 265–95; a minor correction on Philo, Migr. 8: Nazzaro, A. V. in Rivista di filologia, 98 (1970), 188–92; see now for hermetic usage Betz, H. D. in Harvard Theological Review, 63 (1970), 465–84.

61. Virtues: Pan. 122; lamblichus 167ff., 187ff., 214ff.; friendship: Pan. 81. 89–92; Iamblichus 101–2. 229. 240.

62. Pan. 7. 58–62; cf. Schemmel, F. in Philologische Wochenschrift, 45 (1925), 1278.

63. Koetsehau, P., Des Gregorios Thaumaturgos Dankrede an Origenes (Freiburg—Leipzig, 1894), xi–xii.

64. Pan. 192–93.

65. Ibid., 7.

66. C.Cels. I 7. Clement too mentioned the two groups (Str. V 59, 1), though he noted that other schools had esoteric doctrines; he also mentioned the ipse dixit (II 24, 3).

67. C. Cels. I 15; cf. Josephus, , C. Apion. I 162–65.

68. On the question of the philosophical emphasis of the school at Caesarea cf. Knauber, A. in Münchener Theologische Zeitsckrift, 19 (1968), 182203; he contrasts Gregory's description with “die retrospektiv konstruierte innerkirchliche Deutung” in Eusebius.

69. Eusebius, , Praep. ev. XIV 23, 1.

70. Dio Cassius 77, 7, 3.

71. HE VII 32, 20 (Anatolius = VII 32, 6–21).

72. Heiberg, J. L. in Annales internationales d'histoire. Congrès de Paris, 1900. 5e section (Paris, 1901), 2741.

73. HE VII 32, 1419; cf. Grumel, V. in Mélanges E. Tisserant II (Studi e Testi 232, 1964), 217–40.

74. Cf. H.I., Marrou in Momigliano, A. (ed.), The Conflict Between Paganism and Christianity in the Fourth Century (Oxford, 1963), 126–50.

75. On him cf. After the New Testament (Philadelphia, 1967), 7880.

76. HE VII 6; 2425.

77. Ibid., VII 32, 31; VIII 13, 7; IX 6, 2.

78. Ibid., VII 32, 30.

79. Theodoret, , HE I 1, 18; Sozomen, , HE I 15; cf. Telfer, W. in Analecta Bollandiana, 67 (1949), 117–30.

80. Eusebius, , HE V 22; VI 26.

81. Ibid., VI 2, 2.

82. Ibid., VI 3, 7.

83. Reitzenstein, R. in Sitzungsberichte der Heidelberger Akademie… 1914, no. 8; cf. Festugière, A. J. in Revue des études grecques, 50 (1937), 478; Dörries, H. in Naehrichten der Akademie der Wisaenschaften in Göttingen, Philos.Hist. Kl. 1949, 357410; Dodds, E. R., Pagan and Christian in an Age of Anxiety (Cambridge, 1965), 31.

84. For these points cf. Porphyry, , vit. Pyth. 1 (17, 10–13 Nauck). 11–12 (23, 1–6); Iamblichus, , De vit. pyth. 9 (8, 6–13 Deubner).

85. lambliehus 69 (89, 3); cf. 13 (10, 11–14). 27 (16, 8).

86. Op. cit., 430 (cf. 527–60).

87. Photius, , Bibl. cod. 109 in Stählin, O., Clemens Alexandrinus III 202 (frag. 23).

88. C. Celsum I 32 (tr. H. Chadwick).

89. Frag. 10 Leemans = Clement, , Str. I 150, 4.

90. Revue d'histoire ecclésiastque, 19 (1923), 481506; 20 (1924), 537; cf. also my chapter in The Crucible of Christianity (ed. A. Toynbee, London, 1969), 318–30.

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