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Dutch Contributions to Religious Toleration

  • Jeremy Dupertuis Bangs


Historians have neglected a seventeenth-century hero whose actions and words laid the groundwork for America's democratic diversity and religious toleration—at least that is the theme of a best-selling history of the Dutch colony of New Netherland, the predecessor of New York. This courageous but forgotten lawyer, Adriaen van der Donck, went out from Holland in 1641 as a young man to serve as “schout” (chief judicial officer, both sheriff and prosecutor) of Rensselaerwyck, then moved to New Amsterdam where he eventually became the spokesman of colonists irked by the arbitrary highhandedness of the Director General, Petrus Stuyvesant. Van der Donck is now proclaimed to have ensured that Dutch religious toleration became the basic assumption and pattern that evolved into modern American religious pluralism. The great popularity of this recent revelation ensures that thousands of people, from general readers to professional historians whose specialty lies elsewhere, now believe that religious toleration in America originated in New Amsterdam/ New York, where Dutch customs of toleration contrasted with the theocratic tendencies of English colonies. Is this claim true? In my opinion—no. Should historians pay attention to journalistic jingoism? Perhaps—because unexamined assumptions affect topics treated more seriously. What, then, can be said about the fabled Dutch tradition of toleration and its contribution to the discussion of religious freedom in America in the seventeenth and eighteenth centuries?



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1 Shorto, Russell, The Island at the Center of the World: The Epic Story of Dutch Manhattan and the Forgotten Colony that Shaped America (New York: Doubleday, 2004). Regarding religious freedom, see 96–97, 244–45, 274–77.

2 van der Donck, Adriaen, Vertoogh van Nieu-Neder-Land ('s Gravenhage: Michiel Stael, 1650); van der Donck, , Beschryvinge Van Nieuvv-Nederlant (Amsterdam: Evert Nieuwenhof, 1656). A translation of the first: O'Callaghan, E. B., trans., Remonstrance of New Netherland, . . . With Secretary van Tienhoven's Answer (Albany, New York: Weed, Parsons and Company, 1856); a translation of the second: van der Donck, Adriaen, O'Donnell, Thomas F., ed., A Description of New Netherlands (Syracuse, N.Y.: Syracuse University Press, 1968); van der Donck, Adriaen, A Description of New Netherlands, ed. Gehring, Charles T. and Starna, William A., trans. Goedhuys, Diederik Willem (Lincoln: University of Nebraska Press, 2009).

3 Shorto, Island at the Center of the World, 97.

4 Otterspeer, Willem, Groepsportret met Dame, I, Het Bolwerk van de Vrijheid, De Leidse Universiteit 1575–1672 (Amsterdam: Bert Bakker, 2000), 331–34, 355–61.

5 Beneke, Christopher J., Beyond Toleration: The Religious Origins of American Pluralism (Oxford: Oxford University Press, 2006), 21.

6 Jacobs, Jaap, New Netherland: A Dutch Colony in Seventeenth-Century America (Leiden: Brill, 2005), 372–74.

7 Jacobs, New Netherland, 377.

8 Jacobs, New Netherland, 379. Vlessing, Odette and Vuijsje, André, 1609; het jaar van Emanuel van Meteren & Henry Hudson [a separate number of] Uitgelezen Boeken, Katern voor boekverkopers en boekenkopers 13 (Amsterdam: De Buitenkant, 2009), nr. 1, 45–46.

9 Jacobs, New Netherland, 308–9; Maclear, J. F., ed., Church and State in the Modern Age: A Documentary History (New York: Oxford University Press, 1995), 4850, nr. 16: texts of the Flushing Remonstrance (1657) and Dutch West India Company Instructions (1663). For a more extensive description of persecution of Quakers in New Netherland (from a Quaker viewpoint), see Rous, John, Fox, George, and Cudworth, James, The Secret Workes of a Cruel People Made Manifest (1659), repr. in Bangs, Jeremy Dupertuis, The Seventeenth-Century Town Records of Scituate, Massachusetts (Boston: New England Historic Genealogical Society, 2001), 3:390420; for New Netherland, 392, 405–6.

10 The Bible verses (all of which were commonly familiar) have been identified by Harrington, Robert Ward, “Speaking Scripture: The Flushing Remonstrance of 1657,” Quaker History 82 (Autumn 1993), 104–9.

11 Jacobs, New Netherland, 308.

12 Evan Haefeli, “The Text of the Flushing Remonstrance,” Paper presented to the Center for Ethical Culture, New York, November 15, 2007: “No one in Flushing was persecuted for their beliefs, only when they practiced those beliefs in public ways that defied Dutch law.”

13 The Swiss situation, which is discussed later in this article, is documented in Bangs, Jeremy Dupertuis, Letters on Toleration, Dutch Aid to Persecuted Swiss and Palatine Mennonites, 1615–1699 (Rockport: Picton, 2004).

14 David William Voorhees, “The 1657 Flushing Remonstrance in Historical Perspective,” Keynote Speech at the New York State History Conference, Cooperstown, N.Y., June 8, 2007, 5; published online at

15 Jacobs, New Netherland, 295–305, 311.

16 A modern edition of the Union of Utrecht is included and discussed in Groenvelt, Simon, Unie, Bestand, Vrede: Drie Fundamentele Wetten van de Republiek der Verenigde Nederlanden (Hilversum: Verloren, 2009).

17 For the text and commentary, see Baelde, M., van Peteghem, P. et al. , Opstand en Pacificatie in de Lage Landen, Bijdrage tot de Studie van de Pacificatie van Gent, Verslagboek van het Tweedaags Colloquium bij de vierhonderdste verjaring van de Pacificatie van Gent (Ghent: V.Z.W. De Pacifikatie van Gent, 1976).

18 Bangs, Jeremy Dupertuis, Strangers and Pilgrims, Travellers and Sojourners – Leiden and the Foundations of Plymouth Plantation (Plymouth, Mass.: General Society of Mayflower Descendants, 2009), 540–41; [Johannes Taurinus, compiler], Weegh = Schael Om in alle billickheydt recht te over-vveghen de Oratie vanden Edelen . . . Heere DVDLEY CARLETON, Ambassadeur . . . van Groot Brittannien (s.l., s.n., 1617), 57–58.

19 Johannes Wtenbogaert, De Kerckelicke Historie, . . . tot in het Iaer Sesthien-hondert ende Negenthien. Voornamentlijck in dese Geunieerde Provintien. (s.l., s.n. [Johannes Naeranus?], 1647), third book, 34–35. The most thorough study of Coornhert's ideas on toleration is Voogt, Gerrit, Constraint on Trial: Dirck Volckertsz Coornhert and Religious Freedom (Kirksville, Mo.: Truman State University Press, 2000); for the Leiden debate in 1578, 180–85. A brief recent discussion of the ideas of Coornhert, Hugo Grotius, Simon Episcopius, and Sebastian Castellio is in Zagorin, Perez, How the Idea of Religious Toleration Came to the West (Princeton, N.J.: Princeton University Press, 2003), 93147, 152–64, 172–78.

20 Coornhert, Dirck Volkertsz., Synodus vander Conscientien Vryheydt / Synod on the Freedom of Conscience, ed. and trans. Voogt, Gerrit (Amsterdam: Amsterdam University Press, 2008); Coornhert, Thierry, A L'Aurore des Libertés Modernes, Synode sur la Liberté de Conscience (1582), ed. and trans. Lecler, Joseph and Valkhoff, Marius-François (Paris: Les Éditions du Cerf, 1979). See particularly Session X.

21 Wtenbogaert, De Kerkelicke Historie, third book, 81; the conflict with Lipsius discussed by Voogt, Constraint on Trial, 197–227.

22 See the discussion in Bangs, Carl O., Arminius: A Study in the Dutch Reformation (Nashville: Abingdon, 1971); 2nd ed. with addenda, Grand Rapids, Mich.: Francis Asbury/Zondervan, 1985), 161–65.

23 Bangs, Carl O. and Bangs, Jeremy D., “The Remonstrants and the Socinian Exiles in Holland,” The Proceedings of the Unitarian Universalist Historical Society, Unitarianism in its Sixteenth and Seventeenth Century Settings, Papers Delivered at Meetings of the Society for Reformation Research 20, Part II (1985–1986), 105–13; Bangs, Carl O., “Arminius and Socinianism,” in Socinianism and Its Role in the Culture of the Sixteenth to Eighteenth Centuries, ed. Szczucki, Lech, Ogonowski, Zbigniew, Tazbir, Janusz (Warsaw-Łódź: Polish Academy of Sciences Institute of Philosophy and Sociology/ PWN – Polish Scientific Publisher, 1983), 8184; Kühler, Wilhelmus Johannes, Het Socinianisme in Nederland (Leiden: A. W. Sijthoff, 1912).

24 Stevin, Simon, Vita Politica. Het Burgherlick leuen, Beschreuen deur Simon Stevin (Leiden: Franchoys van Ravelenghien, 1590).

25 de Jong, O. J., “Unie en Religie,” in De Unie van Utrecht, Wording en Werking van een Verbond en een Verbondsacte, ed. Groenveld, S. and Leeuwenberg, H. L. P. (The Hague: Martinus Nijhoff, 1979), 155–81, esp. 176–78. Monks and nuns, however, continued to receive housing and alimentation as had been agreed; see Bangs, Strangers and Pilgrims, 123–24.

26 van Meteren, Emanuel, Historia Belgica, . . . ad annum vsque 1598 (Cologne, 1598).

27 C[hurchyard], T[homas] and Ro[binson], Ric[hard], trans. and compilers, A Trve Discovrse Historicall, of the Svcceeding Governovrs in the Netherlands, and the Ciuill warres there begun in the yeere 1565, with the Memorable seruices of our Honourable English Generals, Captaines and Souldiers, especially vnder Sir Iohn Norice Knight, . . . from the yeere 1577, vntill the yeere 1589. And afterwards . . . vntill the yeere 1598 (London: Matthew Lownes, 1602). This is improperly catalogued as a translation of van Meteren's work, which, however, provided some of the information gathered here. Churchyard and Robinson exclusively describe military actions involving the English.

28 Grimstone, Edward, A Generall historie of the Netherlands, with the genealogie and memorable acts of the Earls of Holland, Zeeland, and West-Friesland … Continued unto … 1608, trans. Grimstone from Petit, J. F., [van Meteren], E. Demetrius, and others (London: A. Islip and G. Eld, 1608).

29 Bangs, Jeremy Dupertuis, “William Bradford's Sources for Dutch Law – Edward Grimeston and Emanuel van Meteren,” Mayflower Quarterly 76, no. 1 (March 2010): 2435.

30 Bradford, William, Bradford's History “Of Plimoth Plantation.” From the Original Manuscript (Boston: Wright & Potter, 1901), 15.

31 Ashton, Robert, ed., The Works of John Robinson: Pastor of the Pilgrim Fathers, with a Memoir and Annotations by Robert Ashton (London: John Snow, 1851), 3:402–3 (“Letter by Rev. Joseph Hall, B.D., Rector of Halstead, called by Mr. Robinson ‘A Censorious Epistle’”).

32 See Coggins, James R., John Smyth's Congregation, English Separatism, Mennonite Influence, and the Elect Nation (Waterloo, Ontario: Herald Press, 1991); Bangs, Strangers and Pilgrims, chap. 2, “Amsterdam, 1608, ‘A Common Harbour of all Opinions, of all Heresies.’”

33 Thomas Helwys, A Shorte Declaration of the Mistery of Iniquity (s.l., s.n., 1612).

34 John Murton, Persecution for Religion Judg'd and Condemn'd . . . Proving by the Law of God and of the Land, and by King James his many Testimonies, that No Man Ought to be Persecuted for his Religion, Printed in the years 1615 and 1620 (repr. s.l., s.n., 1662).

35 [John Murton or Thomas Helwys], Obiections: Answered by Way of Dialogue, wherein is Proved By the Law of God By the Law of our Land And by his Ma[jes]ties Many Testimonies That No Man Ought to be Persecuted for his Religion, so He Testify his Allegeance by the Oath, appointed by Law (s.l., s.n., 1615).

36 Sprunger, Keith L., “The Meeting of Dutch Anabaptists and English Brownists, Reported by P. J. Twisck,” in The Contentious Triangle: Church, State, and University, A Festschrift in Honor of Professor George Huntston Williams, ed. Petersen, Rodney L. and CPater, alvin Augustine (Kirksville, Mo.: Thomas Jefferson University Press, 1999), 221–31; see also Bangs, Strangers and Pilgrims, chap. 13, “Dutch Separatism, England's Interference, and the Pilgrims’ Need to Leave.”

37 , Pieter Jansz. Twisck, Religions Vryheyt, Een korte Cronijcsche beschryvinghe van die Vryheyt der Religion/ tegen die dwang der Conscientien/ . . . tot den Jare 1609 toe. (Hoorn: s.n., 1609). On Twisck, zie Archie Penner, “Pieter Jansz. Twisck – Second Generation Anabaptist/Mennonite Churchman, Writer and Polemicist” (Ph.D. diss., University of Iowa, 1971); see also Bangs, Letters on Toleration, 32–34. Twisck continued his exploration of the topic of religious toleration in a history of the world conceived as a progressive opposition to tyranny: Pieter Jansz. Twisck, Chronijck vanden Onderganc der Tirannen . . . Van Christi geboorte af tot desen tyt toe. (Hoorn: Sacharias Cornelissen), vol. 1, 1617–1619; vol. 2, 1620. The Remonstrant historian Gerard Brandt, a friend of Philip van Limborch's, used Twisck's Chronijck: see Brandt, , Verhaal van de Reformatie, In en ontrent de Nederlanden (Amsterdam: Jan Rieuwertsz., 1663), [Fff viii]. Twisck's work is not included in the chronological list of texts on religious liberty up to 1648, in Lecler, Joseph and Valkhoff, Marius-François, Les Premiers Défenseurs de la Liberté Religieuse (Paris: Les Éditions du Cerf, 1969).

38 The complete text in English is found in Cochrane, Arthur C., Reformed Confessions of the Sixteenth Century (Philadelphia: Westminster, 1966), 189219.

39 Marshall, John, John Locke, Toleration and Early Enlightenment Culture – Religious Intolerance and Arguments for Religious Toleration in Early Modern and ‘Early Enlightenment’ Europe (Cambridge: Cambridge University Press, 2006), 325; see also Zagorin, Idea of Religious Toleration, 77–82.

40 The Vorstius controversy is described at length in Bangs, Strangers and Pilgrims, chaps. 12, “Assaults on Toleration,” and 13, “Dutch Separatism, England's Interference, and the Pilgrims’ Need to Leave.”

41 James I, Copie van den Brief des Conings van Groot Britannien, . . . VVaer in hy sijn Advijs, nopende het different tusschen de Remonstranten ende Contra-Remonstranten over-schrijft (s.l., s.n., 1613); published also in van Limborch, Philippus, Praestantium ac Eruditorum Virorum Epistolæ Ecclesiasticæ et Theologicæ varii argumenti, Inter quas eminent eæ, quæ à Iac. Arminio, Conr. Vorstio, Sim. Episcopio, Hvg. Grotio, Casp. Barlæo, conscripta sunt (Amsterdam: Apud Hendricvm Dendrinvm, 1660), 393; discussed in Bangs, Strangers and Pilgrims, 492–95.

42 Brandt, Gerard, Historie der Reformatie, en andre Kerkelyke Geschiedenissen, in en ontrent de Nederlanden 4 vols. (Amsterdam: Jan Rieuwertsz., Hendrik and Dirk Boom, 1671–1674): 2:632–33, 751–52 (Grotius).

43 The edict was published in Leiden on July 15, 1619: Regionaal Archief Leiden, Secretarie Archief II, 272, III d (1619–1622), nr. 52A.

44 This has been noticed by Tabetha Garman; see her “Designed for the Good of All – The Flushing Remonstrance and Religious Freedom in America” (master's thesis, East Tennessee State University, 2006), available online at

45 Article 13 of the Union of Utrecht is quoted (without the full text of the rest) in Gerard Brandt, Historie der Reformatie, I [12th book], 631. Brandt's history was published in English in the early eighteenth century: The History of the Reformation and Other Ecclesiastical Transactions in and about the Low-Countries, . . . down to the famous Synod of Dort (London: T. Wood for T. Childe, 1720–1723).

46 Regionaal Archief Leiden, Notarieel Archief 180 (Paets, 1618–1619), fol. 239–40.

47 Discussions of this are found, among other places, in Jordan, Wilbur Kitchener, The Development of Religious Toleration in England, From the Beginning of the English Reformation to the Death of Queen Elizabeth (London: George Allen & Unwin, 1932); Calvinism and Religious Toleration in the Dutch Golden Age, ed. R. Po-Chia Hsia and Henk van Nierop (Cambridge: Cambridge University Press, 2002); Zagorin, Idea of Religious Toleration, 5–10; The Emergence of Tolerance in the Dutch Republic, ed. C. Berkvens-Stevelinck, J. Israel, and G. H. M. Posthumus Meyjes (Leiden: Brill, 1997); Kaplan, Benjamin J., Divided by Faith: Religious Conflict and the Practice of Toleration in Early Modern Europe (Cambridge, Mass.: Belknap Press of Harvard University Press), 2007; E. H. Kossmann, “Tolerantie Toen en Nu,” Digitale Bibliotheek voor de Nederlandse Letteren,, from Kossmann, E. H., Politieke Theorie en Geschiedenis (Amsterdam: Bert Bakker, 1987), 4558.

48 Israel, Jonathan, The Dutch Republic, Its Rise, Greatness, and Fall, 1472–1806 (Oxford: Clarendon, 1995), 372–77, 499–505, 674–76.

49 Marshall, John Locke, Toleration and Early Enlightenment Culture, 138–93: chap. 4, “Religious toleration and intolerance in the Netherlands and in the Huguenot community in exile”; 335–70: chap. 11, “Arguments for and against religious toleration in the Netherlands, ca. 1579–ca. 1680.”

50 Bradford's History “Of Plimoth Plantation”, 239; See Bangs, Strangers and Pilgrims, chap. 15, “Some Good Foundation.”

51 This is discussed in Seventeenth-Century Town Records of Scituate, ed. Bangs, 3:31–58: “Cudworth and Vassall: Suffrage, Land, and Other Issues before King Philip's War.”

52 Jordan, Wilbur Kitchener, The Development of Religious Toleration in England, From the Accession of James I to the Convention of the Long Parliament (1603–1640) (London: George Allen & Unwin, 1936); Tyacke, Nicholas, “The ‘Rise of Puritanism’ and the Legalizing of Dissent, 1571—1719,” in From Persecution to Toleration, The Glorious Revolution and Religion in England, ed. Grell, Ole Pieter, Israel, Jonathan I., and Tyacke, Nicholas, (Oxford: Clarendon, 1991), 1749. For a recent summary of general circumstances in England, see Pestana, Carla Gardina, The English Atlantic in an Age of Revolution, 1640–1661 (Cambridge, Mass.: Harvard University Press, 2004), 6675.

53 Roger Williams, The Blovdy Tenent, of Persecution, for Cause of Conscience (London: s.n., 1644).

54 Williams, Blovdy Tenent, [a2 verso]-a3.

55 John Murton, A Most Humble Svpplication of Many the Kings Maiesties Loyall Svbiects, Ready to Testifie all civill obedience, by the oath as the Law of this Realme requireth. and that of conscience; Who are Persecuted onely for differing in Religion, contrary to divine and humane testimonies as followeth (s.l., s.n., [Amsterdam? Giles Thorp?] 1621), 23–30. That Williams repeats Murton contradicts Zagorin's statement that “The Bloudy Tenent . . . remains his [Williams's] essential treatment of the subject [of toleration]. It is difficult to determine the sources of his ideas.” Zagorin, Idea of Religious Toleration, 200.

56 Williams, Blovdy Tenent, 7, 12.

57 Letter from Edward Winslow to John Winthrop, November 24, 1645, published and discussed in Bangs, Jeremy Dupertuis, Pilgrim Edward Winslow, New England's First International Diplomat, A Documentary Biography (Boston: New England Historic Genealogical Society, 2004), 224–26; Forbes, Allyn Bailey, Mitchell, Stewart, and Robinson, George Washington, eds., The Winthrop Papers, 1645–1649 (Boston: Massachusetts Historical Society, 1947), 5:5556.

58 From circa 1650 on, Scituate was around 60 percent larger than the town of Plymouth (its nearest rival). See Seventeenth-Century Town Records of Scituate, ed. Bangs, 3 vols., 1997, 1999, 2001.

59 Stock, Leo Francis, Proceedings and Debates of the British Parliaments respecting North America (Washington, D.C.: The Carnegie Institution of Washington, 1924), 1:169.

60 Seventeenth-Century Records of Scituate, ed. Bangs, 1:38–43.

61 Jacobs, New Netherland, 295.

62 van Slee, Jacob Cornelis, De Rijnsburger Collegianten: Geschiedkundig Onderzoek Teylers Godgeleerd Genootschap, Verhandelingen raakende den Natuurlyken en Geopenbaarden Godsdienst, new series, vol. 15 (Haarlem: Bohn, 1895); Fix, Andrew Cooper, “Radical Reformation and Second Reformation in Holland: The Intellectual Consequences of the Sixteenth-Century Religious Upheaval and the Coming of a Rational World View,” The Sixteenth Century Journal 18, no. 1 (Spring 1987): 6380; Fix, Andrew Cooper, Prophecy and Reason: The Dutch Collegians in the Early Enlightenment (Princeton, N.J.: Princeton University Press, 1991).

63 Described and documented in Bangs, Letters on Toleration. On Remonstrants and toleration, see also Simonutti, Luisa, Arminianesimo e Tolleranza nel Seicento Olandese – Il Carteggio Ph. Van Limborch, J. le Clerk (Florence: Leo S. Olschki, 1984).

64 Bangs, Letters on Toleration, documents 30, 34, 35, 36, 37, 40, 41, 42, 43, 45, 66, 72, 207.

65 Besides the documents published in Bangs, Letters on Toleration, see Leonard Forster, “Unpublished Comeniana: Philip von Zesen, Johann Heinrich Ott, John Dury, and Others,” The Slavonic and East European Review 32 (1953–1954): 475–85, where mutual contacts are documented, but not in the context of discussion of toleration.

66 The book (Amsterdam, 1665) is included in Philipp von Zesen Sämtliche Werke, unter Mitwirkung von Ulrich Maché und Volker Meid, herausgegeben von Ferdinand van Ingen, vol. 13, Gegen den Gewissenszwang, ed. Ferdinand van Ingen (Berlin: Walter de Gruyter, 1984).

67 The international effort to obtain toleration for Swiss and Palatine Mennonites is mentioned in one sentence only in Calvinism and Religious Toleration, ed. Hsia and van Nierop, 119; it is not mentioned in The Emergence of Tolerance in the Dutch Republic, ed. Berkvens-Stevelinck, Israel, and Posthumus Meyjes. Since my publication of Letters on Toleration (2004), the topic has been approached from a different angle by James Lowry in Documents of Brotherly Love: Dutch Mennonite Aid to Swiss Anabaptists, 1635–1709 (Millersburg, Ohio: Ohio Amish Library) 2007; and it is mentioned by Astrid von Schlachta in her “Anabaptism, Pietism and Modernity: Relationships, Changes, Paths” in van Lieburg, Fred and Lindmark, Daniel, eds., Pietism, Revivalism and Modernity, 1650–1850 (Newcastle upon Tyne: Cambridge Scholars, 2008), 122, section “The Anabaptists as the subject of early modern discourses on tolerance” (9–12).

68 Marshall, John Locke, Toleration and Early Enlightenment Culture. Similarly, the topic is omitted from Zagorin, Idea of Religious Toleration.

69 For general biographical information on de Haan, see Meihuizen, Hendrik Wiebes, Galenus Abrahamsz, 1622–1706, Strijder voor een onbeperkte verdraagzaamheid en verdediger van het Doperse Spiritualisme (Haarlem: H. D. Tjeenk Willink & Zoon, 1952). A genealogical manuscript that could indicate the relationships in the van Limborch family was misplaced when the Amsterdam Archives recently moved.

70 For examples of van Limborch's comments regarding toleration, see van Limborch, Philippus, Praestantum ac Erudit/Virorum Epistolae Ecclesiasticae et Theologicae varii argumenti, . . . Iac. Arminio, Conr. Vorstio, Sim. Episcopio, Hug. Grotio, Casp. Barlaeo, conscripta sunt (Amsterdam: H. Dendrinvm, 1660), 393; and van Limborch, P., Korte Wederlegginge van ‘t boexken onlangs uytgegeven by Iacobus Sceperus genamt Chrysopolerotus, Waer in onder anderen gehandelt wert van de Onderlinge Verdraegsaemheyt (Amsterdam: Jan Rieuwertsz., 1661). The topic recurs elsewhere in van Limborch's works, as indicated by Marshall.

71 PBarnouw, ieter, Philippus van Limborch (Den Haag: Mouton, 1963), 1516 (besides John Tillotson and Ralph Cudworth, also Henry Moore, Oliver Doiley, Henry Jenkes, and Thomas Pierce); further, see Ollion, Henry and de Boer, T. J., eds., Lettres inédites de John Locke (Den Haag: Martinus Nijhoff, 1912), s.v. Cudworth et al.; Colie, Rosalie L., Light and Enlightenment, A Study of the Cambridge Platonists and the Dutch Arminians (Cambridge: Cambridge University Press, 1957).

72 On James Cudworth, Seventeenth-Century Town Records of Scituate, ed. Bangs; Cudworth's text concerning Quakers is included as an appendix in vol. III, 390–420.

73 van Limborch, Philip, Historia inquisitionis: cui subjungitur Liber sententiarum inquisitionis Tholosanae, ab anno Christi CIƆCCVII ad annum CIƆCCXXIII (Amsterdam: Hendrik Wetstein, 1692); translated into English by Chandler, Samuel: The History of the Inquisition. By Philip à Limborch . . . to which is prefixed a large introduction concerning the rise and progress of persecution, and the real and pretended causes of it (London: J. Gray, 1731); second edition: A brief representation of the cruel and barbarous proceedings against Protestants in the Inquisition: Extracted from the history of the Inquisition, written by the celebrated Philip à Limborch (London: James Roberts, 1734); abridged edition, 1816; partially re-issued in 1825. Further, see van Limborch, , De Veritate Religionis Christianæ Amica Collatio cum Erudito Judæo (Gouda: Apud Justum ab Hoeve, 1687); an English translation appeared in 1740.

74 Arminius, Jacobus, Opera Theologica (Frankfurt: apud Guilielmum Fitzerum, 1631), 5873 (“Oratio De Componendo dissidio Religionis inter Christianos”) (My copy belonged to Galenus Abrahamsz. de Haan; it bears the bookplate of the Amsterdam Mennonite Church “Bij het Lam en den Toren” whose library was founded with their minister de Haan's books); translated in The Works of James Arminius, The London Edition, I, trans. James Nichols; intro. Carl Bangs, (Grand Rapids, Mich.: Baker, 1986), 434–541 (“On Reconciling Religious Dissensions among Christians”).

75 Caspar Sibelius, a former student, listed authors he remembered having been treated in Arminius’ lectures in 1608: “Nam in isto Collegio à lectione Operum et Tractatum Calvini, Bezae, Zanchii, Martyris, Ursini, Piscatoris, Perkensi, aliorumque; seit iuxta Socini, Acontii, Castelliones, Thomae Aquinatis, Molinae, Suaretis, aliorumque, gratushostium scripta summi nobis commendabantur.” See Gemeentearchief Deventer. 101 H 16, 17, 18 KL. (3 vols.): Caspar Sibelius, Ms. «De curriculo totiu vitae et peregrinationis suae historica narratio,» 1: 51.

76 Episcopius, Simon, Uytlegginge Over het vijfde Capittel des H. Euangelisten Mattheus, Vervatet in XXXIV. Predicatien Gedaen in de Christelijke Vergaderinge der Remonstranten, ed. van Limborch, Philippus (Franeker: Jacob Pieters, 1666), 153–55, 430–31; Episcopius, Opera Theologica, ed. sec. (London: Ex Officinia Mosis Pitt, 1678), second pagination sequence, 183–86, in “Examen Thesium Theologicarum Jacobi Capelli . . . De Controversiis quæ Fœderatum Belgium Vexant” – sections «De Tolerantia fraterna, Et de prophetandi libertate. Quam Tolerantiam perierint Remonstrantes.» This is the edition also owned by John Locke: see Harrison, John and Laslett, Peter, The Library of John Locke, 2nd ed. (Oxford: Clarendon, 1971), 130, nr. 1060. The first edition of Episcopius, Opera Theologica appeared in Amsterdam: Ioannis Blaev, 1650.

77 Van Limborch, Praestantium ac Eruditorum Virorum Epistolæ, 917–18 (misdated as January); the text translated, in: Bangs, Letters on Toleration, 149–51, documents 36, 37. My incorrect indication (on p. 52) that this was included by van Limborch first in the 1703 edition of his volume was based on an oversight.

78 Marshall, John Locke, Toleration and Early Enlightenment Culture, 481–95, passim.

79 Locke, John, Epistola de Tolerantia A Letter on Toleration, trans. Gough, J. W., ed. Klibansky, Raymond (Oxford: Clarendon, 1968), xvi, xxxi. See also Montuori, Mario, John Locke on Toleration and the Unity of God (Amsterdam: J. C. Gieben, 1983). Jonathan Israel contrasts Locke and Spinoza. See Jonathan I. Israel, “Locke, Spinoza and the Philosophical Debate Concerning Toleration in the Early Enlightenment (c. 1670– c. 1750),” Koninklijke Nederlandse Akademie van Wetenschappen, Mededelingen van de Afdeling Letterkunde, Nieuwe Reeks, 62, nr. 6 (9 November 1998). See also Israel, Jonathan I., “John Locke, Toleration and Early Enlightenment Culture: Religious Intolerance and Arguments for Religious Toleration in Early Modern and ‘Early Enlightenment’ Europe,” The English Historical Review 122, no. 498 (September 2007), 1042–44.

80 The foregoing repeats a paragraph from Bangs, Letters on Toleration, 55. The quoted sentence is found in Locke, Epistola de Tolerantia A Letter on Toleration, trans. Gough, ed. Klibansky, 142–45.

81 van Limborch, Philip, A Compleat System or Body of Divinity, Both Speculative and Practical, Founded on Scripture and Reason, trans. Jones, William (London: John Darby, 1713); an abbreviated edition appeared in 1807.

82 Bangs, Carl O., “‘All the Best Bishoprics and Deaneries’: The Enigma of Arminian Politics,” Church History 42 (1973), 516.

83 Thomas Jefferson, for example, possessed letters by Philipus van Limborch written to John Locke, included in Some Familiar Letters between Mr. Locke and Several of his Friends (London: A. Bettesworth, C. Hitch, J. Pemberton, E. Symon, 1737), for example 415–18, van Limborch to Locke, 27 Oct. 1702.

84 Van Limborch, A Compleat System . . . of Divinity, (II.), 985.

85 Brandt, Gerard, Historie der Reformatie, en andre Kerkelyke Geschiedenissen, in en ontrent de Nederlanden (Amsterdam: Jan Rieuwertsz., Hendrik and Dirk Boom, 1674); translation: The History of the Reformation and Other Ecclesiastical Transactions in and about the Low-Countries, . . . down to the Famous Synod of Dort, inclusive (London: T. Wood for T. Childe, 1720–1723). See the comments in Carl Bangs's introduction to Arminius, The Works of James Arminius, I, xxiii–xxiv.

86 On Motley's conception of history as heroics, see Peterson, Mark A., “A Brahmin Goes Dutch: John Lothrop Motley and the Lessons of Dutch History in Nineteenth-Century Boston,” in Going Dutch, The Dutch Presence in America, 1609–2009, ed. Goodfriend, Joyce D., Schmidt, Benjamin, and Stott, Annette (Leiden: Brill, 2008), 109–31.

87 Kaplan, Divided by Faith, 7.

Jeremy Dupertuis Bangs is Director of the Leiden American Pilgrim Museum.

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Church History
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