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Defining Man as Animal Religiosum in English Religious Writing ca. 1650–ca. 1700

  • R. J. W. Mills


This article surveys the emergence and usage of the redefinition of man not as animal rationale (rational animal) but as animal religiosum (religious animal) by numerous English theologians between 1650 and 1700. Across the continuum of English Protestant thought, human nature was being redescribed as unique due to its religious, not primarily its rational, capabilities. This article charts said appearance as a contribution to debates over man's relationship with God; then its subsequent incorporation into the discussion over the theological consequences of arguments in favor of animal rationality, as well as its uses in anti-atheist apologetics; and then the sudden disappearance of the definition of man as animal religiosum at the beginning of the eighteenth century. In doing so, the article hopes to make a useful contribution to our understanding of changing early modern understandings of human nature by reasserting the significance of theological writing in the dispute over the relationship between humans and beasts. As a consequence, it offers a more wide-ranging account of man as animal religiosum than the current focus on “Cambridge Platonism” and “Latitudinarianism” allows.



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Much of the research for this article was funded by a Leverhulme Trust Early Career Fellowship. I apologize to Alexandra Chadwick, Barnaby Crowcroft, Michael Edwards, Felicity Loughlin, and Sarah Hutton for having to wade through earlier drafts, but am grateful for their helpful commentary. Richard Serjeantson, Dimitri Levitin, and Angus Gowland offered judicious dissections of subsequent drafts which improved the piece immeasurably. They probably, however, will be skeptical of what remains. All errors of fact and interpretation no doubt still present, despite their efforts, are my responsibility alone.



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1 The most commonly cited source was Porphyry's Isagoge, the well-known introduction to Aristotle's Organon. Strictly speaking, man as animal rationale did not appear in Aristotle's works. For instances of use in popular university logic textbooks, see Sanderson, Robert, Logicae artis compendium (Oxford, 1615), 1314; Smith, Samuel, Aditus ad logicam (London, 1613), 13; Burgersdijk, Francis, Institutionum logicarum synopsis (Amsterdam, 1659), 19; Burgersdijk, Francis, Institutionum logicarum libri duo (Amsterdam, 1660), 49; and Aldrich, Henry, Artis logicae compendium (Oxford, 1696), 10.

2 R. W. Serjeantson, “The Soul,” in The Oxford Handbook of Philosophy in Early Modern Europe, ed. Desmond M. Clarke and Catherine Wilson (Oxford: Oxford University Press, 2011), 119–141; Fudge, Erica, Perceiving Animals: Humans and Beasts in Early Modern English Culture (Basingstroke: Macmillan, 2000), 110; Fudge, Erica, Brutal Reasoning: Animals, Rationality, and Humanity in Early Modern England (Ithaca, N.Y.: Cornell University Press, 2006); and Wolloch, Nathaniel, Subjugated Animals: Animals and Anthropocentricism in Early Modern European Culture (Amherst, N.Y.: Humanity, 2006).

3 Senior, Matthew, “The Souls of Men and Beasts, 1630–1764,” in A Cultural History of Animals, vol. 4, In the Age of Enlightenment, ed. Senior, Matthew (Oxford: Oxford University Press, 2007), 2345; Floridi, Luciano, “Scepticism and Animal Rationality: The Fortune of Chrysippus’ Dog in the History of Western Thought,” Archiv für Geschichte der Philosophie 79, no. 1 (1997): 27–57; Wilson, Margaret, “Animal Ideas,” Proceedings and Addresses of the American Philosophical Association 69, no. 2 (November 1995): 725; Harrison, Peter, “The Virtues of Animals in Seventeenth-Century Thought,” Journal of the History of Ideas 59, no. 3 (July 1998): 463484; Almond, Philip C., Adam and Eve in Seventeenth-Century Thought (Cambridge: Cambridge University Press, 1999), 110142; and Thomas, Keith, Man and the Natural World: Changing Attitudes in England 1500–1800 (London: Penguin, 1983), 137.

4 See, for example, Ellenzweig, Sarah, The Fringes of Belief: English Literature, Ancient Heresy and the Politics of Freethinking 1660–1760 (Stanford, Calif.: Stanford University Press, 2008).

5 Though, see Manning, Gillian, “Rochester's Satyr Against Reason and Mankind and Contemporary Religious Debate,” Seventeenth Century 8, no. 1 (Spring 1993): 99121. Despite its title, McWhir, Anne, “Animal Religiosum and the Witches in ‘A Voyage to the Houyhnhnms,’English Studies in Canada 12, no. 4 (December 1986): 375386 is not relevant to this article.

6 See, for example, Pailin, David, “Reconciling Theory and Fact: The Problem of ‘Other Faiths’ in Lord Herbert and the Cambridge Platonists,” in Platonism at the Origins of Modernity: Studies on Platonism and Early Modern Philosophy, ed. Hedley, Douglas and Hutton, Sarah (Dordrecht: Springer, 2008), 93111, esp. 94–97.

7 The most significant contributions in this regard are Micheletti, Mario, Animal capax religionis: Da Benjamin Whichcote a Shaftesbury (Perugia: Benucci, 1984); and Micheletti, Mario, I platonici di Cambridge: Il pensiero etico e religioso (Brescia: Morcelliana, 2011). See also Micheletti, Mario, Dai latitudinari a Hume (Perugia: Benucci, 1997).

8 Spurr, John, “‘Rational Religion’ in Restoration England,” Journal of the History of Ideas 49, no. 4 (October–December 1988): 563585; Spurr, John, “‘Latitudinarianism’ and the Restoration Church,” Historical Journal 31, no. 1 (March 1988): 6182; and Spurr, John, The Restoration Church of England, 1646–1689 (New Haven, Conn.: Yale University Press, 1991), 394396.

9 The most adept defence of the categories’ coherence on philosophical grounds is set out in Rivers, Isabel, Reason, Grace, and Sentiment: A Study of the Language of Religion and Ethics in England, 1660–1780, vol. 1, Whichcote to Wesley (Cambridge: Cambridge University Press, 1991. See also Hutton, Sarah, “Eine Cambridge-Konstellation? Perspektiven für eine Konstellationsforschung zu den Platonikern von Cambridge,” in Konstellationsforschung, ed. Mulsow, M. and Stamm, M. (Frankfurt am Main: Suhrkamp, 2005), 349358. For a recent critique, see Levitin, Dmitri, Ancient Wisdom in the Age of the New Science: Histories of Philosophy in England, c. 1640–1700 (Cambridge: Cambridge University Press, 2015), 14–16, 126138.

10 Spurr, “‘Rational Religion,’” 564. Spurr does not discuss the topic of animal rationality.

11 Thomassin, Louis, La méthode d'étudier et d'enseigner chrétiennement et solidement les historiens profanes (Paris, 1693), 1:461462. On Thomassin, see Camp, Henry Van, “La ‘Philosophie chrétienne’ de Louis Thomassin, de l'Oratoire (1619–1695),” Revue néoscolastique de Philosophie, 2nd ser., 54 (May 1937): 242266; and esp. Bosco, Domenico, “Rigorismo e perfezione appuntio sull'etica di Louis Thomassin,” Rivista di Filosofia Neo-Scolastica 80, no. 1 (January–March 1988): 2262.

12 Thomassin, Louis, La méthode d'étudier et d'enseigner chrétiennement les lettres humaines (Paris, 1681), 365–66, 410411.

13 See also Beurrier, Paul, La perpétuité de la foy et de la religion chrétienne (Paris, 1680), 394, 442, 507 where man is defined in line with “les Anciens” as “un animal religieux.”

14 John Evelyn to Edward Thurland, 20 January 1656, in The Letterbooks of John Evelyn, ed. Douglas Chambers and David Galbraith (London: University of Toronto Press, 2014), 1:193.

15 For example, Firmin, Giles, The Real Christian (London, 1670), 190; and Harley, Sir Edward, An Humble Essay towards the Settlement of Peace and Truth in the Church (London, 1681), 9. See also Quantin, Jean-Louis, The Church of England and Christian Antiquity: The Construction of a Confessional Identity in the 17th Century (Oxford: Oxford University Press, 2009), 1718, 66–68, 312.

16 Wilkins, John, Of the Principles and Duties of Natural Religion, ed. Tillotson, John (London, 1675), 289; and Fiddes, Richard, Theologia speculativa (London, 1718), 1:110111.

17 See also Cicero, Tusculanae Disputationes 1.60. See, for example, Saunders, Richard, Saunders Physiognomie, 2nd ed. (London, 1671), 4; Charleton, Walter, Exercitationes pathologicae (London, 1661), 1; and Wolveridge, James, Speculum matricis hybernicum (London, 1670), a3v.

18 Jean Calvin, Institutes of Christian Religion 1.3.3.

19 Arminius, Jacobus, “Fifth Oration,” in The Works of James Arminius, ed. Nicols, James (London, 1825), 1:374.

20 Micheletti, Animal capax religionis, 51.

21 Mortimer, Sarah, Reason and Religion in the English Revolution: The Challenge of Socinianism (Cambridge: Cambridge University Press, 2010), 2–3, 1334.

22 Edward, Lord Herbert of Cherbury, De veritate (1624; repr., London, 1633), 174–175; and Edward, Lord Herbert of Cherbury, De veritate, trans. M. H. Carré (Bristol: J. W. Arrowsmith, 1937), 293–296. On Herbert's significance, see Serjeantson, R. W., “Herbert of Cherbury before Deism: The Early Reception of the De veritate,” Seventeenth Century 16, no. 2 (2001): 217238.

23 Campanella, Tommaso, Atheismus triumphatus (Rome, 1631), 67.

24 Roberts, James Deotis, From Puritanism to Platonism in Seventeenth Century England (The Hague: Marinus Nijhoff, 1968), 1316; and Micheletti, Animal capax religionis, 55–57.

25 Whichcote, Benjamin, Theophorymena Dogmata: or, Some Select Notions of that Learned and Reverend Divine (London, 1685), 8586. For an account of Whichcote's non-Platonist scholastic naturalism, see Parkin, Jon, Science, Religion, and Politics in Restoration England: Richard Cumberland's De Legibus Naturae (Woodbridge: Royal Historical Society, 1999), 7580.

26 Whichcote, Select Notions, 96, 88, 85.

27 Whichcote, Select Notions, 92, 99.

28 See Roberts, Puritanism to Platonism, 66, 83.

29 Whichcote, Select Notions, 85.

30 Micheletti, Animal capax religionis, 55–56; Micheletti, Il platonici de Cambridge, 72–73; and Beiser, Frederick C., The Sovereignty of Reason: The Defense of Rationality in the Early English Enlightenment (Princeton, N.J.: Princeton University Press, 1996), 159165.

31 I hope the reader will excuse the following lengthy untranslated Latin quotations, but they indicate that the specific wording of animal religiosum and animal capax religionis were not present in the commonly cited sources. The two most alluded to passages from chapter 7 of Lactatnius, De ira dei, were: “Solus enim sapetientia instructus est, ut religionem solus intelligat; et haec est hominis atque mutorum, vel praecipua, vel sola distantia” and “apparet solam esse religionem, cujus in mutis nec vestigium aliquod, nec ulla suspicion inveniri potest.” The quotation from book 3, chapter 10 of Lactantius's Divinarum institutionum ran: “Summum igitur hominis bonum in sola religione est; name caetera, etiam quae putantur esse homini propria, in caeteris quoque animalibus reperiuntur.” The key passage from book 1, section 8 of Cicero's De legibus ran: “Itaque ex tot generibus nullum est animal praeter hominem, quod habeat notitiam aliquam dei.”

32 Lactantius, Divine institutes 2.1. See, similarly, Lactantius, De ira dei 14; and Lactantius, De opifico dei 8.

33 Whichcote, Select Notions, title page.

34 Whichcote, Benjamin, Select Sermons of Dr. Whichcot, ed. Ashley, Anthony Cooper (London, 1698), ar; and Whichcote, Benjamin, Moral and Religious Aphorisms, ed. Salter, Samuel (London, 1753), xi–xii. See also Roberts's similar assessment in Puritanism to Platonism, 273–274.

35 Whichcote, Moral and Religious Aphorisms, nos. 457, 291, 381, 791, 983, 211, 554, 147, 855, 854, 845, 1004.

36 Whichcote, Select Sermons of Dr. Whichcot, 59–60.

37 On Smith, see Micheletti, Mario, Il pensiero religioso di John Smith, platonico di Cambridge (Padova, 1976); and Lagrée, Jacqueline, “John Smith et le Portique,” in The Cambridge Platonists in Philosophical Context, ed. Rogers, G. A. J., Vienne, J. M., and Zarka, Y. C. (London: Kluwer Academic, 1997), 7992.

38 Smith, John, Select Discourses (London, 1660).

39 On this discourse, see Micheletti, John Smith, 288–313.

40 Porphyry, Isagoge 7.

41 Barrow, Isaac, Theological Works (Cambridge, 1859), 5:229.

42 Fowler, Edward, Reflections upon the Late Examination of the Discourse of the Descent of the Man-Christ Jesus from Heaven (London, 1706), 26; and Burton, Hezekiah, Several Discourses (London, 1684), 4142. See also Harley, Humble Essay, 9.

43 Smith, Select Discourses, 377.

44 Smith, Select Discourses, 388–389. See also Micheletti, John Smith, 293; Micheletti, Animal capax religionis, 57; and Lagrée, “John Smith,” 83–84.

45 Smith, Select Discourses, 388. See also Micheletti, Animal capax religionis, 42–45.

46 Smith, Select Discourses, 389.

47 Micheletti, John Smith, 310; and Lagrée, “John Smith,” 86–89.

48 Rust, George, A Discourse of the Use of Reason in Matters of Religion, ed. Hallywell, Henry (London, 1683), 26.

49 I am grateful to Dmitri Levitin for pointing this out to me.

50 Rust, Discourse of the Use of Reason, 38.

51 Rivers, Reason, Grace, and Sentiment, 1:63–66, 77–87; and Beiser, Sovereignty of Reason, 136–137.

52 Cf. Micheletti, Animal capax religionis.

53 Pordage, John, Theologia Mystica (London, 1683), 103104. Pordage was removed from his living because of his practice of purportedly communicating with spirits. See Henry Dodwell to Francis Lee 23 August 1698, MS Cherry 22, fols. 59–61, Bodleian Library, Oxford.

54 For example, Hobbes, Thomas, Leviathan (London, 1651), 207.

55 Pierce, Thomas, Decad of Caveats to the People of England of General Use in All Times (London, 1679), 23. See also Scrivener, Matthew, A Course of Divinity (London, 1674), 13.

56 Leigh, Edward, A Treatise of Religion (London, 1656), 1.

57 Ussher, James, A Body of Divinity (London, 1645), 3.

58 Arrowsmith, John, Armilla Catechetica (Cambridge, 1659), 73.

59 Arrowsmith, Armilla Catechetica, 74.

60 Baxter, Richard, The True and Only Way of Concord of All the Christian Churches (London, 1680), 270.

61 Charnock, Stephen, Discourses upon the Existence and Attributes of God, ed. Symington, William (1682; New York, 1856), 1:30.

62 Howe, John, The Living Temple: or, A designed improvement of that notion that a good man is the temple of God (London, 1702), 1:27.

63 Howe, Living Temple, 1:28–29.

64 These distinctions might not necessarily map neatly onto the catgories of Anglican and Nonconformist. For an argument defending the existence of a healthy Reformed tradition within the Church of England between 1660 and 1714, see Hampton, Stephen, Anti-Arminians: The Anglican Reformed Tradition from Charles II to George I (Oxford: Oxford University Press, 2008), esp. 1–38.

65 Fleming, Robert, Confirmation of Religion (London, 1693), 18; Ross, Alexander, Pansebeia: A View of All the Religions, 2nd ed. (London, 1655), A7v; Leighton, Robert, Prælectiones Theologicæ, ed. Fall, J. (London, 1693), 4243; Royse, George, A Sermon Preach'd before the King and Queen at White-Hall, on the 28th of December, 1690 (London, 1690), 10; and Cockburn, John, Jacob's View, or, Man's Felicity and Duty in Two Parts (London, 1696), 168.

66 Charnock, Discourses upon the Existence and Attributes of God, 1:30; Howard, John, The Evil of Our Dayes (London, 1698), 1718; Pierce, Decad of Caveats, 3; and The Counter-Plot, or, The Close Conspiracy of Atheism and Schism Opened and so Defeated (London, 1680), 6.

67 Wilson, W., A Sermon Preached before the Judge as the Assizes held at Nottingham (London, 1689), 78. See also Crossman, Samuel, The Young Mans Monitor (London, 1664), 91; and A Letter of Advice to a Gentlemen of the Church of Rome (Dublin, 1709), 9.

68 Hildesley, Mark, Religio Jurisprudentis (London, 1685), 22, see also 57.

69 Patrick, Simon, A Discourse Concerning Prayer (London, 1693), 138; Baxter, True and Only Way of Concord, 270; and Harrington, James, The Oceana of James Harrington and His Other Works, ed. Toland, John (London, 1700), 500.

70 Cf. Micheletti, Animal capax religionis, 38–39.

71 S., M., A Philosophical Discourse of the Nature of Rational and Irrational Souls (London, 1695), 34.

72 The Athenian Mercury, no. 18, 11 February 1693.

73 Wilkins, John, A Sermon Preached Before the King upon the Twenty Seventh of February, 1669/70 (London, 1670), 18.

74 Wilkins, Principles and Duties.

75 Rivers, Reason, Grace, and Sentiment, 1:44.

76 Wilkins, Sermon Preached Before the King, 14–15; and Wilkins, Principles and Duties, 288.

77 Wilkins, Principles and Duties, 292; and Wilkins, Sermon Preached Before the King, 18–19.

78 Wilkins, Principles and Duties, 1.

79 See Rust, Discourse of the Use of Reason, 15. On Hallywell, see Lewis, Marilyn A., “Pastoral Platonism in the Writings of Henry Hallywell (1641–1703),” Seventeenth Century 28, no. 4 (December 2013): 441463.

80 Hale, Sir Matthew, The Primitive Origination of Mankind (London, 1677); and Cromartie, Alan, Sir Matthew Hale, 1609–1676: Law, Religion and Natural Philosophy (Cambridge: Cambridge University Press 1995), 139192.

81 Shapiro, Barbara J., John Wilkins, 1614–1672: An Intellectual Biography (Berkeley: University of California Press, 1969), 176.

82 Hale, Primitive Origination of Mankind, 16, 63.

83 Hale, Sir Matthew, “A Discourse of Religion” (unpublished manuscript, ca. 1670s), in The Works, Moral and Religious, of Sir Matthew Hale, ed. Thirwall, Thomas (London, 1805), 1:288.

84 Hale, Primitive Origination of Mankind, 63.

85 Hale, Primitive Origination of Mankind, 363; and Hale, Sir Matthew, Contemplations Moral and Divine (London, 1676), 17.

86 Hale, Primitive Origination of Mankind, 365.

87 Baxter, Richard, Richard Baxter's Dying Thoughts upon Phil. I. 23 (London, 1683), 38. See also Laton, Henry, A Search after Souls and Spiritual Operations in Man (London, 1700), 41.

88 Baxter, Dying Thoughts, 14.

89 Baxter, Dying Thoughts, 2.

90 Baxter, Dying Thoughts, 4.

91 Baxter, Dying Thoughts, 20, 37–38.

92 On Cureau, see especially Edwards, MichaelMarin Cureau de la Chambre and Pierre Chanet on Time and the Passions of the Soul,” History of European Ideas 38, no. 2 (2012): 200–217; Guidi, Simone, “L'angelo e la bestia: Metafisica dell'istinto, tra Pierre Chanet e Marin Cureau de La Chambre,” Lo Sguardo—Rivista di Filosofia 18, no. 2 (2015): 233–258; and Wild, Markus, “Marin Cureau de la Chambre on the Natural Cognition of the Vegetative Soul: An Early Modern Theory of Instinct,” Vivarium 46, no. 3 (2008): 443–461.

93 Fowler, C. F., Descartes on the Human Soul: Philosophy and the Demands of Christian Doctrine (London: Kluwer Academic, 1999), 114160; Strickland, Lloyd, “God's Creatures? Divine Nature and the Status of Animals in the Early Modern Beast-Machine Controversy,” International Journal of Philosophy and Theology 74, no. 4 (2013): 291–309; Morris, Katherine, “Bêtes-machines” in Descartes’ Natural Philosophy, ed. Gaukroger, Stephen, Schuster, John, and Sutton, John (London: Routledge, 2000), 401419; and Thomson, Ann, “Animals, Humans, Machines and Thinking Matter,” Early Science and Medicine 15, no. 1–2 (2010): 337.

94 Descartes, René, Discourse on Method and Meditations on First Philosophy, ed. Weissman, David (New Haven, Conn.: Yale University Press, 1996), part 5, p. 36.

95 Richard Baxter, “Of the nature and immortality of human souls,” ca. 1669–1672, Richard Baxter Collection, DWL/RB/iv.76, Dr Williams's Library, London.

96 Hale-Baxter Correspondence, ca. 1672–1673, MS 3499, fol. 113v, Lambeth Palace Library, London.

97 Hale, Primitive Origination of Mankind, 16. On Patrizi, see Blum, Paul Richard, “Francesco Patrizi's Principles of Psychology” in Francesco Patrizi: Philosopher of the Renaissance, ed. Blum, Paul Richard and Nejeschleba, Tomáš (Olomouci: Univerzita Palackého v Olomouci, 2014), 185212; and Muccillo, M., “Il ‘De humana philosophia’ di Francesco Patrizi da Cherso nel Codice Barberiniano Greco 180,” in Miscellanea Bibliothecae Vaticana (Vatican City: Biblioteca Apostolica Vaticana, 1990), 281307, esp. 293–294.

98 Montaigne, Michel de, An Apology for Raymond Sebond, ed. Screech, M. A. (1575–1580; London: Penguin, 1987); and Charron, Pierre, On Wisdom, trans. Lennard, Samson (1601; London, 1608), 101112.

99 See the praise in Jean Balzac to Cureau de la Chambre, 15 September 1645, in Balzac, Jean-Louis Geuz, Balzac's Remaines, or, His Last Letters (London, 1658), 7880; and Bayle, Pierre, A General Dictionary, Historical and Critical, trans. Bernard, John Peter, Birch, Thomas, Lockman, John, and Sale, George (London, 1734–41), 8:762.

100 de la Chambre, Marin Cureau, “Quelle est la Connoissance des Bestes,” in Les Caractères des Passions, 2nd ed. (1645; Paris, 1663); 2:460–542.

101 de la Chambre, Marin Cureau, A Discourse of the Knowledg of Beasts, trans. Newcomb, Thomas (1648; London, 1657), 5.

102 Cureau, “Quelle est la Connoissance des Bestes,” 2:540. Unless otherwise noted, all translations are my own.

103 Cureau, “La Connoissance des Bestes,” 2:542.

104 Edwards, “Time and the Passions,” 208.

105 Cureau, “Knowledg of Beasts,” 18; and Cureau, “La Connoissance des Bestes,” 2:482–483.

106 Cureau, “Knowledg of Beasts,” 195. See also Cureau, “La Connoissance des Bestes,” 2:474.

107 Cureau, “Knowledg of Beasts,” 208. See also Cureau, “La Connoissance des Bestes,” 2:485–486.

108 Cureau, “Knowledg of Beasts,” 7. See also Guidi, “L'angelo e la bestia,” 247–248, 252.

109 Hale, Primitive Origination of Mankind, 50.

110 Hale, Primitive Origination of Mankind, 44, see also 48, 52.

111 Hale, Primitive Origination of Mankind, 48.

112 Hale, Primitive Origination of Mankind, 50.

113 Hale, Primitive Origination of Mankind, 51.

114 Hale, Primitive Origination of Mankind, 52, see also 55.

115 Hale, Primitive Origination of Mankind, 56. Hale gave an example from Cureau's Traité about the sort of artificial logic the Frenchman said a horse would be capable of: “This green is grass / this grass is good to eat / therefore this green is good to eat.”

116 Hale, Primitive Origination of Mankind, 55.

117 Hale, Primitive Origination of Mankind, 61.

118 For example, Baxter, Richard, The Reasons of the Christian Religion (London, 1667), 523; Baxter, Richard, More Reasons for the Christian Religion (London, 1672), 68; and Baxter, Dying Thoughts, 19–20.

119 Baxter, More Reasons, 68.

120 Baxter, Dying Thoughts, 38.

121 Sir Blackmore, Richard, An essay upon the immortality of the soul (Dublin, 1716), 39; Weston, Edward, The Englishman directed in the choice of his religion (London, 1729), 9; Jackson, Lawrence, An examination of a book intitled The true gospel of Jesus Christ asserted [. . .] (London, 1739), 216; and Philalethes, , A Philosophical Dissertation upon the Inlets to Human Knowledge (Dublin, 1740), 61. See also Mather, Cotton, Reasonable Religion: or, the Truths of the Christian Religion Demonstrated (London, 1713), 2.

122 For example, [Addison, Joseph], The Spectator (London), no. 201, 20 October 1711; and The Weekly Miscellany, no. 6, 20 January 1733, repeated in “A View of the Weekly Disputes and Essays in this month,” The Gentleman's Magazine, January 1733. See also The British Apollo (London, 1726), 3:1029–1029 (a pagination error means that p. 1029 is repeated).

123 Buickerood, James G., “The Natural History of the Understanding: Locke and the Rise of Facultative Logic in the Eighteenth Century,” History and Philosophy of Logic 6, no. 1 (1985): 157–190.

124 The number of usages is considerably lower than that identifiable in the seventeenth century. Hence, the vast majority of usages of animal rationale and its variants, identifiable when searching one relevant database, Eighteenth-Century Collections Online, are found in reproductions of Locke's critique, earlier logic textbooks, Alexander Pope and Jonathan Swift's exchange over book 4 of Gulliver's Travels, satirical usage in plays, and a miscellany of unimportant works.

125 The key work on the extent of religious innatism remains Yolton, John, John Locke and the Way of Ideas (Oxford: Oxford University Press, 1956), though the picture needs updating.

126 On this topic, see, most enjoyably, Barnett, S. J., The Enlightenment and Religion: The Myths of Modernity (Manchester: Manchester University Press, 2003).

127 Manuel, Frank E., The Eighteenth Century Confronts the Gods (Cambridge, Mass.: Harvard University Press, 1959), 60.

128 See O'Higgins, James, Anthony Collins: The Man and His Works (The Hague: Martinus Nijhoff, 1970), 5168.

129 Collins, Anthony, An Essay concerning the Use of Reason (London, 1707), 12.

130 On this, see Homyar Pahlan, “The Reception of John Locke's Religious and Political Thought, 1690–1710,” (PhD diss., University of Cambridge, 2009).

Much of the research for this article was funded by a Leverhulme Trust Early Career Fellowship. I apologize to Alexandra Chadwick, Barnaby Crowcroft, Michael Edwards, Felicity Loughlin, and Sarah Hutton for having to wade through earlier drafts, but am grateful for their helpful commentary. Richard Serjeantson, Dimitri Levitin, and Angus Gowland offered judicious dissections of subsequent drafts which improved the piece immeasurably. They probably, however, will be skeptical of what remains. All errors of fact and interpretation no doubt still present, despite their efforts, are my responsibility alone.

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Defining Man as Animal Religiosum in English Religious Writing ca. 1650–ca. 1700

  • R. J. W. Mills


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