1. “Darwinism” is too narrow a term, however. The entire complex of developmental, historical, and evolutionary ways of thinking is meant. Why Darwinism per ye made so deep a mark and why Social Darwinism cut so wide a swath in American intellectual life is a separate question of great importance.
2. See Holt, W. S., “The Idea of Scientific History in America,” Journal of the History of Ideas, I (1940); Strout, Cushing, The Pragmatic Revolt in American History: Carl Becker and Charles Beard (New Haven: Yale University Press, 1958); and White, Morton G., Social Thought in America: The Revolt Against Formalism (New York: Viking, 1949; reprint, Beacon Press).
3. Schaff, Philip, What Is Church History? A Vindication of the Idea of Historical Development (Philadelphia: Lippiacott, 1846). The fact that the A.H.A. represents a dominant stream in American thought and the early A.S.C.H. only a substream helps answer the question raised in my first footnote.
4. With post-Civil War problems — urbanism, industrialism, immigration, evolution, and scientific method—Bushnell was less able to cope.
5. Reprinted in his Work and Play; or, Literary Varieties (New York: Scribners, 1864).
6. See the two essays on language in God in Christ (Hartford, 1849) and Christ in Theology (Hartford, 1851); and also the discussion in Feidelson, Charles Jr, Symbolism and American Literature (University of Chicago Press, 1953; Phoenix paper).
7. Bornkamm, Heinrich, Grundriss zum Studium der Kirchengeschichte (Gütersloh: Bertelsmann, 1949), p. 11.
8. Cheney, Mary Bushnell, Life and Letters of Horace Bushnell (New York: Scribners, 1888), p. 489.
9. “O felix culpa!” See Lewis, R. W. B., The American Adam (University of Chicago Press, 1955; Phoenix paper), chap. iii.
10. See Bayne, Stephen F., The OptionalGod (New York: Oxford University Press, 1953); Donald, David, LinoolnReconsidered (New York: Knopf, 1956); Mead, Sidney E., “Abraham Lincoln's ‘Last Beet Hope of Earth’: The American Dream of Destiny and Democracy,” Church History, XXIII (03 1954); Marech, Wolf-Dieter, Christlicher Glaube und Demokratisches Ethos (Hamburg: Furche-Verlag, 1958); and Wolf, Wiilliam J., The Almost Chosen People: A Study of the Religion of Abraham Lincoln (New York: Doubleday, 1959) which cites the major literature on the subject.
11. This passing referenee to Karl Barth occasioned more comment and correspondence than anything else I said. It was not a studied or scholarly observation, however. Barth's universalistic interpretation of God's gracious sovereignty is one link, I think. Others are suggested in his “Letter to an East German Pastor” in Brown, R. M., ed., Serving God in a Communist and Land (New York: Association Press, 1960).