Although closure of ductus arteriosus requires multiple intriguing cell signalling pathways, current treatment options merely act through cyclooxygenase inhibition. Expectedly, medical management of ductus arteriosus is quite far away from optimum and there is an ongoing debate on its efficiency and safety. The ideal therapeutic agent for patent ductus arteriosus should target vascular remodelling and support the arrested molecular steps that should completely eventuate during anatomical closure.
Platelet-rich plasma injection, which has been used as a treatment alternative for many musculoskeletal conditions, can be a promising solution in this context by compensating the relative platelet dysfunction in preterms and providing a convenient microenvironment for proper cellular communication for ductal closure.
First, by inducing hyaluronan synthase, platelet-rich plasma can induce mount formation in the intima, which is the significant defective milestone in preterms. Second, by providing platelet-derived growth factor, it can further stimulate platelet agregation and occlusion of the lumen. Finally, it can provide an increment in local vascular endothelial growth factor and transforming growth factor-β levels, which cannot be achieved because of insufficient intramural hypoxia. Migration of the vascular smooth muscles would further be triggered by transforming growth factor-β and vascular endothelial growth factor, aiding a major contribution to ductal closure.
Above and beyond all other considerations, opportunity of local application would render maximum effectiveness and minimum side effects.