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We Are Caregivers: Social Identity Is Associated with Lower Perceived Stress among Rural Informal Caregivers

  • Lisa Carroll (a1), Jessica Chippior (a1), Shazya Karmali (a1), Deepika Sriram (a1) and Renate Ysseldyk (a1)...

Abstract

Informal caregivers often experience high stress levels with little support, especially in rural settings. With a mixed-methods approach, this research explored experiences of rural informal caregivers, including how social identification as a caregiver, social interactions, and formal and informal coping support related to perceived stress. Major focus group themes (n = 8) included lacking available services, balancing challenges, unmet practical needs, and strong community identity. Survey data (n = 22) revealed that perceived coping support (e.g., having someone to turn to), social interactions, and caregiver identity (e.g., perceiving the role as important to one’s self-concept) were associated with lower life upset stress, but only caregiver identity was associated with managing the personal distress and negative feelings associated with caregiving stress. Results suggest that, although available rural services may fall short, other options might alleviate caregiver stress, including facilitating access to coping support, encouraging social interactions, and enhancing caregiver social identity.

Les aidants naturels ressentent fréquemment de hauts niveaux de stress dans des contextes où les sources d’appuis sont limitées, particulièrement en milieu rural. Cette recherche a fait appel à une approche à méthodes mixtes afin d’explorer les expériences d’aidants naturels vivant en milieu rural, en considérant les liens entre le stress perçu et l’identité sociale de l’aidant, les interactions sociales, ainsi que les appuis formels et informels favorisant l’adaptation. Les thèmes principaux qui sont ressortis dans les groupes de discussion (n = 8) incluaient : le manque de services accessibles, la conciliation des difficultés rencontrées, les besoins pratiques non satisfaits, la forte identité communautaire. Les données de l’enquête (n = 22) ont révélé que le soutien perçu (p. ex. pouvoir compter sur quelqu’un), les interactions sociales et l’identité d’aidant (rôle perçu comme important pour l’image de soi) étaient tous associés à une diminution du stress provenant de bouleversements de la vie, mais seule l’identité d’aidant était associée à une atténuation de la détresse personnelle et des émotions négatives liées au stress de l’aidant. Ces résultats suggèrent que, bien que la disponibilité des services dans les milieux ruraux soit insuffisante, d’autres options pourraient aider à amoindrir le stress de l’aidant, telles que l’accroissement de l’accès à des services de soutien, la promotion des interactions sociales pour les aidants et les personnes âgées et la valorisation de l’identité sociale de l’aidant.

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Corresponding author

La correspondance et les demandes de tirés-à-part doivent être adressées à : / Correspondence and requests for offprints should be sent to: Renate Ysseldyk, Ph.D. Department of Health Sciences Carleton University 1125 Colonel By Drive Ottawa, ON K1S 5B6 (renate.ysseldyk@carleton.ca)

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Our appreciation to the staff and volunteers of Almonte General Hospital and Mills Community Support. Thanks also to Sue Aitken for her assistance. Student authors Carroll, Chippior, Karmali, and Sriram contributed equally to the study.

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