Brush, B.L., & Capezuti, E. (2001). Historical analysis of siderail use in American hospitals. Journal of Nursing Scholarship, 33(4), 381–385.
Burton, L.C., German, P.S., Rovner, B.W., Brant, L.J., & Clark, R.D. (1992). Mental illness and the use of restraints in nursing homes. Gerontologist, 32(2), 164–170.
Capezuti, E., Maislin, G., Strumpf, N.E., & Evans, L.K. (2002). Side rail use and bed-related fall outcomes among nursing home residents. Journal of the American Geriatric Society, 50, 90–96.
CapitalCare (1999). Restraints, safety and positioning devices policy ADM-b-130. CapitalCare policy manual. Edmonton, AB: Author.
Castle, N.G., & Fogel, B. (1998). Characteristics of nursing homes that are restraint free. Gerontologist, 38, 181–188.
Coleman, E.A. (1993). Physical restraint use in nursing home patients with dementia. Journal of the American Medical Association, 270, 2114–2115.
Dimant, J. (2003). Avoiding physical restraints in long-term care facilities. Journal of the American Medical Directors Association, 4, 207–215.
Dunbar, J.M., Neufeld, R.R., Libow, L.S., Cohen, C.E., & Foley, W. (1997). Taking charge: The role of nursing administrators in removing restraints. Journal of Nursing Administrators, 27(3), 42–48.
Ejaz, F.K., Folmar, S.J., Kaufmann, M., Rose, M.S., & Goldman, B. (1994). Restraint reduction: Can it be achieved? Gerontologist, 34, 694–699.
Ejaz, F.K., Rose, M.S., & Jones, J.A. (1996). Changes in attitudes toward restraints among nursing home staff and residents' families following restraint reduction. Journal of Applied Gerontology, 15(4), 433–449.
Evans, L.K., & Strumpf, N.E. (1989). Tying down the elderly: A review of the literature on physical restraints. Journal of the American Geriatrics Society, 37, 65–74.
Evans, L.K., Strumpf, N.E., Allen-Taylor, S.L., Capezuti, E., Maislin, G., & Jacobsen, B. (1997). A clinical trial to reduce restraints in nursing homes. Journal of the American Geriatrics Society, 45(6), 675–681.
Garrard, J., Makris, L., Dunham, T., Heston, L.L., Cooper, S., Ratner, E.R., et al. (1991). Evaluation of neuroleptic drug use by nursing home elderly under proposed Medicare and Medicaid regulations. Journal of the American Medical Association, 265, 463–467.
Hamers, J.P.H., Gulpers, MJM, & Strik, W. (2004). Use of physical restraints with cognitively impaired nursing home residents. Journal of Advanced Nursing, 45, 246–251.
Hammond, M., & Levine, J.M. (1999). Bedrails: Choosing the best alternative. Geriatric Nursing, 20, 297–300.
Hantikainen, V. (2001). Nursing staff perceptions of the behaviour of older nursing home residents and decision making on restraint use: A qualitative and interpretive study. Journal of Clinical Nursing, 10, 246–256.
Hirdes, J.P., Mitchell, L., Ljunggren, G., & Schroll, M. (1999). International and regional variations in restraint use: Implications for selecting benchmarks. Canadian Journal of Quality in Health Care, 15(2), 19–23.
Kane, R.L., Williams, C.C., Williams, T.F., & Kane, R.A. (1993). Restraining restraints: Changes in a standard of care. Annual Review of Public Health, 14, 545–584.
Koch, S., & Lyon, C. (2001). Case study approach to removing physical restraint. International Journal of Nursing Practice, 7, 156–161.
Laurin, D., Voyer, P., Verreault, R., & Durand, P.J. (2004). Physical restraint use among nursing home residents: A comparison of two data collection methods. BMC Nursing, 3(5), 1–7.
Levine, J.M., Marchello, V., & Totolos, E. (1995). Progress toward a restraint-free environment in a large academic nursing facility. Journal of the American Geriatric Society, 43, 914–918.
Locock, L., Dopson, S., Chambers, D., & Gabbay, J. (2001). Understanding the role of opinion leaders in improving clinical effectiveness. Social Sciences and Medicine, 53(2001), 745–757.
Mackey, M., & Rossy, D. (2002). Physical restraint practices. Canadian Nurse, 98(6), 28–31.
Macpherson, D.S., Lofgren, R.P., Granieri, R., & Myllenbeck, S. (1990). Deciding to restrain medical patients. Journal of the American Geriatrics Society, 38(5), 516–520.
Mahoney, D.F. (1995). Analysis of restraint-free nursing homes. Image: The Journal of Nursing Scholarship, 27(2), 155–160.
Marcy-Edwards, D. (2005). Bed rails: Is there an upside? Canadian Nurse, 101(1), 30–34.
McHutchinson, E., & Morse, J.M. (1989). Releasing restraints: A nursing dilemma. Journal of Gerontological Nursing, 15(2), 16–21.
Miles, S.H., & Irvine, P. (1992). Deaths caused by physical restraints. Gerontologist, 32(6), 762–766.
Mion, L., Frengley, J.D., Jakovcic, C.A., & Marino, J.A. (1989). A further exploration of the use of physical restraints in hospitalized patients. Journal of the American Geriatrics Society, 37(10), 949–956.
Phillips, C.D., Hawes, C., Mor, V., Fries, B.E., Morris, J.N., & Nennstiel, M.E. (1996). Facility and area variation affecting the use of physical restraints in nursing homes. Medical Care, 34, 1149–1162.
Powell, C., Mitchell-Pedersen, L., Fingerote, E., & Edmund, L. (1989). Freedom from restraint: Consequences of reducing restraints in the management of the elderly. Canadian Medical Association Journal, 141, 561–564.
Rantz, M., Hicks, L., Grando, V., Petroski, G., Madsen, R., Mehr, D., et al. (2007). Nursing home quality, cost, staffing, and staff mix. Gerontologist, 44, 24–38.
Rycroft-Malone, J., Kitson, M., Harvey, G., McCromack, B., Seers, K., Titchen, A., & Estabrooks, C. (2006). Ingredients for change: Revisiting a conceptual framework. Quality and Safety in Health Care, 11(2), 174–180.
Strumpf, N.E., Robinson, J.P., Wagner, J.S., & Evans, L.K. (1998). Restraint-free care: Individualized approaches for frail elders. New York: Springer.
Sullivan-Marx, E.M., Strumpf, N.E., Evans, L.K., Baugarten, M., & Maislin, G. (1999). Predictors of continued physical restraint use in nursing home residents following restraint reduction efforts. Journal of the American Geriatric Society, 47, 342–348.
Sundel, M., Garrett, R.M., & Horn, R.D. (1994). Restraint reduction in a nursing home and its impact on employee attitudes. Journal of the American Geriatric Society, 42, 381–387.
Verbecke, W., Volgering, M., & Hessels, M. (1998). Exploring the conceptual expansion within the field of organizational behaviour: Organizational climate and organizational culture. Journal of Management Studies, 35, 303–329.
Werner, P., Cohen-Mansfield, J., Braun, J., & Marx, M.S. (1989). Physical restraints and agitation in nursing home residents. Journal of the American Geriatrics Society, 37(12), 1122–1126.
Zinn, J.S. (1993). The influence of nurse wage differentials on nursing home staffing and resident care decisions. Gerontologist, 33(6), 721–729.