Skip to main content Accessibility help
×
Home

Creating Canadians through Private Sponsorship

  • Stacey Haugen (a1), Patti Tamara Lenard (a2) and Emily Regan Wills (a3)

Abstract

We investigate how refugee sponsors and sponsorship groups approach their responsibility to “create new Canadians.” We set the stage by reflecting on the history of Canada as an immigrant-receiving, multicultural country, as well as on the role of acculturation attitudes of host community members in establishing the integration environment for newcomers in general. We use findings from nearly 60 interviews with sponsors in the Ottawa area to outline the different approaches that sponsors take. Approaches to sponsorship fall into three general orientations: paternalistic, passive paternalistic and mutualistic. These approaches manifest in the actions that sponsors take during the sponsorship process. In our discussion, we consider the implications of these approaches for the sponsor–refugee relationship, as well as the broader project of Canadian multiculturalism. We argue that mutualistic approaches best demonstrate welcoming acculturation orientations to newcomers, and that they are an important component of supporting privately sponsored refugees to become Canadians.

Résumé

Nous étudions la façon dont les parrains et les groupes de parrainage de réfugiés assument leur responsabilité visant à « créer de nouveaux Canadiens ». Le sujet est introduit par une réflexion sir l'histoire du Canada en tant que pays multiculturel d'accueil, ainsi qu'au rôle des attitudes d'acculturation des membres de la communauté de parrainage dans l'établissement d'un environnement facilitant l'intégration des nouveaux arrivants en général. Des constatations se sont dégagées à l'issue d'une soixantaine d'entretiens avec des parrains de la région d'Ottawa pour décrire les différentes approches adoptées. Celles-ci se répartissent en trois orientations générales : paternaliste, paternaliste passif et mutualiste. Elles se manifestent dans les actions que les répondants entreprennent au cours du processus de parrainage. Dans notre discussion, nous examinons les implications de ces approches pour la relation entre parrains et réfugiés ainsi que pour le projet plus large de multiculturalisme canadien. Nous soutenons que les approches mutualistes sont celles qui démontrent le mieux les orientations d'acculturation accueillantes pour les nouveaux arrivants, et qu'elles constituent un élément important du soutien apporté aux réfugiés parrainés dans la sphère privée pour qu'ils deviennent Canadiens.

Copyright

Corresponding author

*Corresponding author. Email: patti.lenard@uottawa.ca

References

Hide All
Abu-Laban, Yasmeen. 1998. “Welcome/Stay Out. The Contradiction of Canadian Integration and Immigration Policies at the Millennium.” Canadian Ethnic Studies 30 (3): 190211.
Besco, Randy, and Tolley, Erin. 2019. “Does Everyone Cheer? The Politics of Immigration and Multiculturalism in Canada.” In Federalism and the Welfare State in a Multicultural World, ed. Goodyear-Grant, Elizabeth, Johnston, Richard, Kymlicka, Will and Myles, John. Kingston: McGill-Queen's University Press.
Bond, Jennifer, and Kwadrans, Ania. 2019. “Resettling Refugees through Community Sponsorship: A Revolutionary Operational Approach Built on Traditional Legal Infrastructure.” Refuge 35 (2): 86108.
Boucher, François, and Maclure, Jocelyn. 2018. “Moving the Debate Forward: Interculturalism's Contribution to Multiculturalism.” Comparative Migration Studies 6 (1): 110.
Canada. Department of Finance Canada. 2018. “Backgrounder: Strengthening the Canada Child Benefit.” https://www.canada.ca/en/department-finance/news/2018/03/backgrounder-strengthening-the-canada-child-benefit.html (May 27, 2020).
Canada. Immigration, Refugees and Citizenship Canada. 2019a. “By the Numbers—40 Years of Canada's Private Sponsorship of Refugees Program.” https://www.canada.ca/en/immigration-refugees-citizenship/news/2019/04/by-the-numbers--40-years-of-canadas-private-sponsorship-of-refugees-program.html (May 27, 2020).
Canada. Immigration, Refugees and Citizenship Canada. 2019b. “Guide to the Private Sponsorship of Refugees Program.” https://www.canada.ca/en/immigration-refugees-citizenship/corporate/publications-manuals/guide-private-sponsorship-refugees-program.html (May 27, 2020).
Canada. Statistics Canada. 2017. “Immigration and Ethnocultural Diversity: Key Results from the 2016 Census.” https://www150.statcan.gc.ca/n1/daily-quotidien/171025/dq171025b-eng.htm (May 27, 2020).
Environics. 2015. “Focus Canada—Spring 2015 Canadian Public Opinion about Immigration and Multiculturalism.” https://www.environicsinstitute.org/docs/default-source/project-documents/focus-canada-2015-survey-on-immigration-and-multiculturalism/final-report.pdf?sfvrsn=71f7c79e_2 (May 27, 2020).
Environics. 2018. “Focus Canada—Fall 2018 Canadian Public Opinion about Immigration, Refugees and the USA.” https://www.environicsinstitute.org/docs/default-source/default-document-library/focus-canada-fall-2018---final-report.pdf?sfvrsn=fe91cb12_0 (May 27, 2020).
Holland, Kenneth M. 2007. “A History of Chinese Immigration in the United States and Canada.” American Review of Canadian Studies 37 (2): 150160.
Hyndman, Jennifer, Payne, William, and Jimenez, Shauna. 2016. “The State of Private Sponsorship in Canada: Trends, Issues, and Impacts.” RRN/CRS Policy Brief, Submitted to the Government of Canada. https://refugeeresearch.net/wp-content/uploads/2017/02/hyndman_feb%E2%80%9917.pdf (May 27, 2020).
Kelley, Ninette, and Trebilcock, Michael. 1998. The Making of the Mosaic: A History of Canadian Immigration Policy. Toronto: University of Toronto Press.
Knowles, Valerie. 2016. Strangers at Our Gates: Canadian Immigration and Immigration Policy, 1540–2015. Toronto: Dundurn.
Krivenko, Ekaterina Yahyaoui. 2012. “Hospitality and Sovereignty: What Can We Learn from the Canadian Private Sponsorship of Refugees Program?International Journal of Refugee Law 24 (3): 579602.
Kymlicka, Will. 1998. Finding Our Way: Rethinking Ethnocultural Relations in Canada. Oxford: Oxford University Press.
Kyriakides, Christopher, Mcluhan, Arthur, Anderson, Karen, Bajjali, Lubna, and Elgendy, Noheir. 2019. “(Mis)Trusted Contact: Resettlement Knowledge Assets and the Third Space of Refugee Reception.Refuge 35 (2): 2435.
Labman, Shauna. 2016. “Private Sponsorship: Complementary or Conflicting Interests?Refuge 32 (2): 6780.
Lenard, Patti Tamara. 2016. “Resettling Refugees: Is Private Sponsorship a Just Way Forward?Journal of Global Ethics 12 (3): 300310.
Lenard, Patti Tamara. 2019. “How Do Sponsors Think about ‘Month 13’?Refuge 35 (2): 6473.
Li, Peter S. 2003. Destination Canada: Immigration Debates and Issues. Oxford: Oxford University Press.
Macklin, Audrey, Barber, Kathryn, Goldring, Luin, Hyndman, Jennifer, Korteweg, Anna, Labman, Shauna, and Zyfi, Jona. 2018. “A Preliminary Investigation into Private Refugee Sponsors.” Canadian Ethnic Studies Journal 50 (2): 3557.
Molloy, Michael J., Duschinsky, Peter, Jensen, Kurt F., and Shalka, Robert J.. 2017. Running on Empty: Canada and the Indochinese Refugees, 1975–1980. Montreal: McGill-Queen's University Press.
Montreuil, Annie, and Bourhis, Richard Y.. 2004. “Acculturation Orientations of Competing Host Communities Toward Valued and Devalued Immigrants.” International Journal of Intercultural Relations 28 (6): 507532.
Panesar, Nilum. 2017. “Month 13 and Reflection on the Economic Impact of Refugees in Canada.” NATO Association of Canada. http://natoassociation.ca/month-13-and-a-reflection-on-the-economic-impact-of-refugees-in-canada/ (May 27, 2020).
Pettigrew, Thomas F., and Tropp, Linda. 2011. When Groups Meet: The Dynamics of Intergroup Contact. New York: Psychology Press.
Proctor, Jason. 2016. “CBC-Angus Reid Institute Poll: Canadians Want Immigrants to Do More to Fit In.” CBC Online. https://www.cbc.ca/news/canada/british-columbia/poll-canadians-multiculturalism-immigrants-1.3784194 (May 27, 2020).
Refugee Sponsorship Training Program (RSTP). 2018. “Fact Sheet: Sponsorship Cost Table.” http://www.rstp.ca/wp-content/uploads/2018/09/Sponsorship-Cost-Table_May-2018.pdf (May 27, 2020).
Soroka, Stuart, and Robertson, Sarah. 2010. A Literature Review of Public Opinion Research on Canadian Attitudes Towards Multiculturalism and Immigration, 2006–2009. Prepared for Citizenship and Immigration Canada. https://www.canada.ca/content/dam/ircc/migration/ircc/english/pdf/research-stats/2012-por-multi-imm-eng.pdf (May 27, 2020).
Statistics Canada. 2019. “Dimensions of Poverty Hub.” https://www.statcan.gc.ca/eng/topics-start/poverty (May 27, 2020).
Wilkins-Laflamme, Sarah. 2018. “Islamophobia in Canada: Measuring the Realities of Negative Attitudes Towards Muslims and Religious Discrimination.” Canadian Review of Sociology 55 (1): 86110.

Keywords

Creating Canadians through Private Sponsorship

  • Stacey Haugen (a1), Patti Tamara Lenard (a2) and Emily Regan Wills (a3)

Metrics

Altmetric attention score

Full text views

Total number of HTML views: 0
Total number of PDF views: 0 *
Loading metrics...

Abstract views

Total abstract views: 0 *
Loading metrics...

* Views captured on Cambridge Core between <date>. This data will be updated every 24 hours.

Usage data cannot currently be displayed.