Skip to main content Accessibility help
×
Home

The Impact of Economic and Cultural Cues on Support for Immigration in Canada and the United States

Published online by Cambridge University Press:  14 November 2012

Allison Harell
Affiliation:
Université du Québec à Montréal
Stuart Soroka
Affiliation:
McGill University
Shanto Iyengar
Affiliation:
Stanford University
Nicholas Valentino
Affiliation:
University of Michigan

Abstract

Abstract. Past research suggests that citizens' attitudes toward immigration are driven by perceptions of immigrants' (a) economic status and (b) ethnicity. In this study, we use an online survey conducted with a representative sample of Canadians to test to what extent economic and cultural cues influence support for individual immigrants. In particular, by drawing on a parallel US survey, we explore whether Canadians' relatively unique (positive) attitudes toward immigration make them more immune to economic and cultural threat manipulations than their American counterparts. The analysis is based on an experimental design embedded in a series of immigrant vignettes that vary the ethnoracial background and social status of an individual applying for immigration. We examine overall support for immigration, as well as the extent to which both ethnic and economic status cues affect support for individual immigrants. We also explore variance within Canada, specifically, in Quebec versus the rest of the country. Results offer new and unique information on the structure of attitudes on diversity and immigration in Canada. Most importantly, they suggest the relative importance of economic cues in support for immigration in both countries.

Résumé. Divers travaux de recherche ont suggéré que les attitudes des citoyens au sujet de l'immigration sont influencées par leur perception (a) du statut économique et (b) de l'ethnie des immigrants. Afin de tenter de savoir jusqu'à quel point les informations socioéconomiques et culturelles ont effectivement un impact sur le soutien des citoyens envers les immigrants, la présente étude fait usage d'un sondage mené en ligne avec un échantillon représentatif de la population canadienne. En nous appuyant sur un sondage américain similaire, nous cherchons plus précisément à savoir si l'attitude (positive) relativement unique des Canadiens vis-à-vis de l'immigration les rend moins susceptibles d'être manipulés par l'évocation de menaces économiques et culturelles que leurs voisins américains. Notre analyse se fonde sur une expérience utilisant une série de vignettes qui modifient les caractéristiques ethnoraciales ainsi que le statut social d'un individu procédant à une demande d'immigration. Nous examinons non seulement le soutien pour l'immigration en général, mais aussi la mesure dans laquelle les informations relatives à l'ethnie et au statut économique d'un immigrant affectent le soutien que les citoyens lui offrent. Nous étudions aussi la variance à l'intérieur du Canada, plus spécifiquement entre le Québec et le reste du pays. Les résultats ainsi obtenus fournissent de l'information nouvelle et unique ayant trait à la structure des attitudes par rapport à la diversité et l'immigration au Canada. De surcroît, ces résultats suggèrent le rôle relativement important que jouent les informations d'ordre socioéconomique dans le soutien de l'immigration tant aux États-Unis qu'au Canada.

Type
Symposium: Immigration, Multiculturalism, and Identity Politics in Canada and the United States
Copyright
Copyright © Canadian Political Science Association 2012

Access options

Get access to the full version of this content by using one of the access options below.

References

Adams, Michael. 2007. Unlikely Utopia: The Surprising Triumph of Canadian Pluralism. Toronto: Viking Canada.Google Scholar
Aksoy, Deniz. 2011. “The Flag or the Pocketbook: To What Are Immigrants a Threat.” International Migration Review 49: 14682435.Google Scholar
Ayers, John W., Hofstetter, C. Richard, Schnakenberg, Keith and Kolody, Bohdan. 2009. “Is Immigration a Racial Issue? Anglo Attitudes on Immigration Policies in a Border County.” Social Science Quarterly 90 (3): 593610.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
Banting, Keith, Johnston, Richard and Soroka, Stuart. 2006. “Immigration and Redistribution in the Global Era.” In Globalization and Social Redistribution, ed. Wallerstein, M., Bardhan, P. and Bowles, S.. Princeton: Princeton University Press.Google Scholar
Banting, Keith and Soroka, Stuart. 2012. “Minority Nationalism and Immigrant Integration in Canada.” In Nations and Nationalism 18 (1): 156176.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
Berry, John W., Kalin, Rudolf, and Taylor, Donald M.. 1977. Multiculturalism and Ethnic Attitudes in Canada. Ottawa: Supply and Services Canada.Google Scholar
Berry, John W. and Kalin, Rudolf. 1995. “Multicultural and Ethnic Attitudes in Canada: An Overview of the 1991 National Survey.” Canadian Journal of Behavioural Science 27: 301.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
Berry, John, Kalin, Rudolf and Taylor, Donald. 1976. Multiculturalism and Ethnic Attitudes in Canada. Ottawa: Supply and Services Canada.Google Scholar
Bilodeau, Antoine, White, Stephen and Nevitte, Neil. 2010. “The Development of Dual Loyalties: Immigrants' Integration to Canadian Regional Dynamics.” Canadian Journal of Political Science 43 (3): 515–44.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
Bloemraad, Irene. 2006. Becoming a Citizen: Incorporating Immigrants and Refugees in the United States and Canada. Berkeley: University of California Press.Google Scholar
Blumer, Herbert. 1958. “Race Prejudice as a Sense of Group Position.” Pacific Sociological Review 1 (1): 37.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
Bouchard, G. and Taylor, C.. 2008. Fonder l'avenir: Le temps de la conciliation. Montreal: Commission de Consultation sur les Pratiques d'Accommodement Reliées aux Différence Culturelles.Google Scholar
Brader, Ted, Valentino, Nicholas and Suhay, Elizabeth. 2008. “What Triggers Public Opposition to Immigration? Anxiety, Group Cues, and Immigration.” American Journal of Political Science 52 (4): 959–78.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
Breton, R. 1999. “Intergroup Competition in the Symbolic Construction of Canadian Society.” In Race and Ethnic Relations in Canada, ed. Li, P.. Don Mills ON: Oxford University Press.Google Scholar
Burns, Peter and Gimpel, James. 2000. “Economic Insecurity, Prejudicial Stereotypes, and Public Opinion on Immigration Policy.” Political Science Quarterly 115 (2): 201–25.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
Carens, Joseph. 1995. “Immigration, Political Community, and the Transformation of Identity: Quebec's Immigration Politics in Critical Perspective.” In Is Quebec Nationalism Just? Perspectives from Anglophone Canada, ed. Carens, Joseph. Montreal: McGill-Queen's University Press.Google Scholar
Chandler, Charles and Tsai, Yung-mei. 2001. “Social Factors Influencing Immigration Attitudes: An Analysis of Data from the General Social Survey.” The Social Science Journal 38 (2): 177–88.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
Citizenship and Immigration Canada. 2010. Canada Facts and Figures: Immigrant Overview, Permanent and Temporary Residents 2009. Ottawa ON.Google Scholar
Citrin, Jack, Green, Donald, Muste, Christopher and Wong, Cara. 1997. “Public Opinion toward Immigration Reform: The Role of Economic Motivations.” Journal of Politics 59 (3): 858–81.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
Citrin, Jack, Reingold, Beth and Green, Donald. 1990. “American Identity and the Politics of Ethnic Change.” Journal of Politics 52 (4): 1124–54.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
Citrin, Jack and Sides, John. 2008. “Immigration and the Imagined Community in Europe and the United States.” Political Studies 56 (1): 3356.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
Coebanu, Alin and Escandell, Xavier. 2010. “Comparative Analyses of Public Attitudes Toward Immigrants and Immigration Using Multinational Survey Data: A Review of Theories and Research.” Annual Review of Sociology 36: 309–28.Google Scholar
Coenders, Marcel, Lubbers, Marcel, Scheepers, Peer and Verkuyten, Maykel. 2008. “More than Two Decades of Changing Ethnic Attitudes in the Netherlands.” Journal of Social Issues 64 (2): 269–85.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
Dixon, Travis and Maddox, Keith. 2005. “Skin Tone, Crime News and Social Reality Judgments: Priming the Stereotype of the Dark and Dangerous Black Criminal.” Journal of Applied Social Psychology 35 (8): 1555–70.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
Dustmann, Christian and Preston, Ian P.. 2007. “Racial and Economic Factors in Attitudes to Immigration.” The B.E. Journal of Economic Analysis and Policy 7 (1). http://www.bepress.com/bejeap/vol7/iss1/art62 (November 11, 2011).CrossRefGoogle Scholar
Eberhardt, Jennifer. 2005. “Imaging race.” American Psychologist 60 (2): 181–90.CrossRefGoogle ScholarPubMed
Esses, Victoria, Jackson, Lynne and Armstrong, Tamara. 1998. “Intergroup Competition and Attitudes toward Immigrants and Immigration: An Instrumental Model of Group Conflict.” Journal of Social Issues 54 (4): 699724.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
Facchini, Giovanni and Mayda, Anna Maria. 2009. “Does the Welfare State Affect Individual Attitudes toward Immigrants? Evidence across Countries.” Review of Economics and Statistics 91 (2): 295314.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
Fetzer, Joel S. 2000. Public Attitudes toward Immigration in the United States, France and Germany. Cambridge UK: Cambridge University Press.Google Scholar
Gagnon, Alain-G. and Iacovino, Raffaele. 2007. Federalism, Citizenship and Quebec: Debating Multinationalism. Toronto: University of Toronto Press.Google Scholar
Gidengil, E., Blais, A., Nadeau, R. and Nevitte, N.. 2003. “La Langue Française et l'Insécurité Culturelle.” In Québec: Etat et Société, ed. Gagnon, A.-G.. Montreal: Québec Amérique.Google Scholar
Gilliam, F.D., Iyengar, S., Simon, A. and Wright, O.. 1996. “Crime in Black and White: The Violent, Scary World of Local News.” Harvard International Journal of Press and Politics 1 (3): 623.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
Goff, Phillip, Eberhardt, Jennifer, Williams, Melissa and Jackson, Mathew Christian. 2008. “Not Yet Human: Implicit Knowledge, Historical Dehumanisation and Contemporary Consequences.” Journal of Personality and Social Psychology 94 (2): 292306.CrossRefGoogle ScholarPubMed
Green, Eva G. T. 2007. “Guarding the Gates of Europe: A Typological Analysis of Immigration Attitudes across 21 Countries.” International Journal of Psychology 42 (6): 365–79.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
Green, Eva G.T. 2009. “Who Can Enter? A Multilevel Analysis on Public Support for Immigration Criteria across 20 European Countries.” Group Processes and Intergroup Relations 12 (1): 4160.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
Gyimah-Brempong, Kwabena and Price, Gregory. 2006. “Crime and Punishment: And Skin Hue Too?American Economic Review Papers and Proceedings 96(2): 246250.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
Ha, Shang E. 2010. “The Consequences of Multiracial Contexts on Public Attitudes toward Immigration.” Political Research Quarterly 63 (1): 2942.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
Hainmueller, Jens, and Hiscox, Michael. 2007. “Educated Preferences: Explaining Attitudes toward Immigration in Europe.” International Organization 61: 399442.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
Hainmueller, Jens and Hiscox, Michael. 2010. “Attitudes toward Highly Skilled and Low-Skilled Immigration: Evidence from a Survey Experiment.” American Political Science Review 104 (1): 6184.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
Hanson, Gordon, Scheve, Kenneth and Slaughter, Matthew. 2007. “Public Finance and Individual Preferences over Globalization Strategies.” Economics and Politics 19 (1): 133.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
Harell, Allison. 2009. “Minority–Majority Relations in Canada: The Rights Regime and the Adoption of Multicultural Values.” Paper presented at Canadian Political Science Association, May 27–29, Ottawa.Google Scholar
Helly, Denise. 2002. “Le lien societal: Une enquète à Montréal.” GLOBE : Revue international d'études québécoises 5 (2): 137–70.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
Helly, Denise and van Schendel, Nicolas. 1995. Appartenir au Québec: Citoyenneté, nation et société civile. Quebec: Les Presses de L'Université Laval.Google Scholar
Henry, Francis and Tator, Carol. 2009. The Colour of Democracy: Racism in Canadian Society. 4th ed.Toronto: Nelson Publishing.Google Scholar
Hiebert, Daniel. 2006. “Winning, Losing, and Still Playing the Game: The Political Economy of Immigration in Canada.” Tijdschrift voor Economische en Sociale Geografie 97 (1): 3848.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
Hopkins, Daniel J. 2010. “Politicized Places: Explaining Where and When Immigrants Provoke Local Opposition.” American Political Science Review 104 (1): 4060.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
Hunter, Margaret L. 2005. Race, Gender and the Politics of Skin Tone. New York: Routledge.Google Scholar
IPSOS Polls. 2004. Reactions to Immigration in Leading Nations. Associated Press.Google Scholar
Iyengar, Shanto, Messing, Solomon and Bailenson, Jeremy. 2010. “Do Explicit Racial Cues Influence Candidate Preference? The Case of Skin Complexion in the 2008 Campaign.” Paper presented at the Annual Meeting of the APSA, Washington.Google Scholar
Iyengar, Shanto and Morin, Richard. 2006. “Natural Disasters in Black and White: How Racial Cues Influenced Public Response to Hurricane Katrina.” WashingtonPost.com. http://www.washingtonpost.com/wpdyn/content/article/2006/06/07/AR2006060701177.html (November 11, 2011).Google Scholar
Jackson, James S., Brown, T. Kendrick, Brown, Tony N. and Marks, Bryant. 2001. “Contemporary Immigration Policy Orientations among Dominant-Group Members in Western Europe.” Journal of Social Issues 57 (3): 431–56.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
Kessler, Alan and Freeman, Gary. 2005. “Public Opinion in the EU on Immigration from Outside the Community.” Journal of Common Market Studies 43 (4): 825–50.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
Key, V.O. 1949. Southern Politics in State and Nation. New York: Knopf.Google Scholar
Kinder, Donald R. and Kam, Cindy D.. 2009. Us against Them: Ethnocentric Foundations of American Opinion. Chicago: University of Chicago Press.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
Kinder, Donald and Sears, David. 1981. “Prejudice and Politics: Symbolic Racism versus Racial Threats to the Good Life.” Journal of Personality and Social Psychology 40: 414–31.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
Koopmans, Ruud, Statham, Paul, Giugni, Marco and Passy, Florence. 2005. Contested Citizenship: Immigration and Cultural Diversity in Europe. Minneapolis: University of Minnesota Press.Google Scholar
Kymlicka, Will. 2003. “Canadian Multiculturalism in Historical and Comparative Perspective: Is Canada Unique?Constitutional Forum 13 (1): 18.Google Scholar
Labelle, Micheline and Rocher, François. 2004. “Debating Citizenship in Canada: The Collide of Two Nation-Building Projects.” In From Subjects to Citizens: A Hundred Years of Citizenship in Australia and Canada, ed. Boyer, P.. Ottawa: University of Ottawa Press.Google Scholar
Lahav, G. 2004. Immigration and Politics in the New Europe: Reinventing Borders. Cambridge: Cambridge University Press.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
Lambert, R. and Curtis, J.. 1982. “The French and English Canadian Language Communities and Multicultural Attitudes.” Canadian Ethnic Studies 16: 3046.Google Scholar
Lambert, R. and Curtis, J.. 1983. “Opposition to Multiculturalism among Québécois and English-Canadians.” Canadian Review of Sociology and Anthropology 20: 193206.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
Lambert, R. and Curtis, J.. 2008. “Opposition to Multiculturalism among Québécois and English-Canadians.” Canadian Review of Sociology 20: 193207.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
Lapinsky, J., Peltola, P., Shaw, G. and Yang, A.. 1997. “Trends: Immigrants and Immigration.” Public Opinion Quarterly 61: 356–83.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
Lee, Yueh-Tink, and Ottati, Victor. 2002. “Attitudes toward U.S. Immigration Policy: The Roles of In-Group Out-Group Bias, Economic Concern and Obedience to Law.” Journal of Social Psychology 142 (5): 617–34.CrossRefGoogle ScholarPubMed
LeVine, R. A. and Campbell, D. T.. 1972. Ethnocentrism: Theories of confiict. ethnic attitudes, and group behavior. New York: Wiley.Google Scholar
Lubbers, Marcel, Gijsberts, Mérove and Scheepers, Peer. 2002. “Extreme Right-Wing Voting in Western Europe.” European Journal of Political Research 41 (3): 345–78.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
Maddox, K.B. and Gray, S.A.. 2002. “Cognitive Representations of Black Americans: Re-exploring the Role of Skin Tone.” Personality and Social Psychology Bulletin 28 (2): 250–59.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
McAndrew, Marie, Rossell, J., Pagé, M. and Jodoin, M.. 2000. “L'Aptitude au français des élèves montréalais d'origine immigrée.” Cahier Québécois de Démographie 29 (1): 89117.Google Scholar
McLaren, Lauren M. 2003. “Anti-Immigrant Prejudice in Europe: Contact, Threat Perception and Preferences for the Exclusion of Migrants.” Social Forces 81 (3): 909–36.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
McLaren, Lauren and Johnson, Mark. 2007. “Resources, Group Conflict and Symbols: Explaining Anti-Immigration Hostility in Britain.” Political Studies 55: 709–32.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
Meuleman, Bart, Davidov, Eldad and Billiet, Jaak. 2009. “Changing Attitudes toward Immigration in Europe, 2002–2007: A Dynamic Group Conflict Theory Approach.” Social Science Research 38 (2): 352–65.CrossRefGoogle ScholarPubMed
O'Connell, Michael. 2011. “How Do High-Skilled Natives View High-Skilled Immigrants: Trade Theory Predictions.” European Journal of Political Economy 27 (2): 230–40.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
Office of Immigration Statistics. 2011. 2010 Yearbook of Immigration Statistics. Washington DC: Department of Homeland Security.Google Scholar
Oliver, J. Eric and Wong, Janelle. 2003. “Intergroup Prejudice in Multiethnic Settings.” American Journal of Political Science 47 (4): 567–82.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
Oswald, Debra. 2006. “Understanding Anti-Arab Reactions Post-9/11: The Role of Threats, Social Categories, and Personal Ideologies.” Journal of Applied Social Psychology 35 (9): 1775–99.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
Palmer, Douglas L. 1996. “Determinants of Canadian Attitudes toward Immigration: More than Just Racism?Canadian Journal of Behavioural Science 28 (3): 180.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
Pettigrew, Thomas F. 1998. “Reactions toward the New Minorities of Western Europe.” Annual Review of Sociology 24: 77103.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
Poynting, Scott and Mason, Victoria. 2007. “The Resistible Rise of Islamophobia.” Journal of Sociology 43 (1): 6186.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
Quillian, Lincoln. 1995. “Prejudice as a Response to Perceived Group Threat: Population Composition and Anti-Immigrant and Racial Prejudice in Europe.” American Sociological Review 60 (4): 586611.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
Rossi, Peter and Nock, Steven. 1982. Measuring Social Judgments: The Factorial Survey Approach. Newbury: Sage Publications.Google Scholar
Rustenbach, Elisa. 2010. “Sources of Negative Attitudes toward Immigrants in Europe: A Multi-Level Analysis.” International Migration Review 44 (1): 5377.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
Salée, Daniel and Labelle, Michelene. 2001. “Immigrant and Minority Representations of Citizenships in Quebec.” In Citizenship Today: Global Perspectives and Practices, ed. Aleinikoff, T. Alexander and Klusmeyer, Douglas. Washington: Brookings Institution.Google Scholar
Schain, Martin. 2008. The Politics of Immigration in France, Britain and the United States: A Comparative Study. New York: Palgrave Macmillan.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
Scheve, Kenneth and Slaughter, Matthey. 2001. “Labor-Market Competition and Individual Preferences over Immigration Policy.” Review of Economics and Statistics 83 (1): 133–45.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
Schlueter, Elmar and Davidov, Eldad. Forthcoming. “Contextual Sources of Perceived Group Threat: Negative Immigration-related News Reports, Immigrant Group Size and their Interaction, Spain 1996–2007.” European Sociological Review.Google Scholar
Segovia, Francine and Defever, Renatta. 2010. “The polls—Trends: American Public Opinion on Immigrants and Immigration Policy.” Public Opinion Quarterly 74 (2): 375–94.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
Seltzer, Richard and Smith, R.C.. 1991. “Color Differences in the Afro-American Community and the Differences They Make.” Journal of Black Studies 21 (3): 279–86.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
Simon, Rita and Lynch, James. 1999. “A Comparative Assessment of Public Opinion toward Immigrants and Immigration Policies.” International Migration Review 33 (2): 455–67.CrossRefGoogle ScholarPubMed
Sniderman, Paul and Hagendoorn, Louk. 2007. When Ways of Life Collide: Multiculturalism and Its Discontents in the Netherlands. Princeton NJ: Princeton University Press.Google Scholar
Sniderman, Paul M., Peri, Pierangelo, Figueiredo, Rui J.P. and Piazza, Thomas. 2000. The Outsider: Prejudice and Politics in Italy. Princeton NJ.: Princeton University Press.Google Scholar
Statistics Canada. 2007. Immigration in Canada: A Portrait of the Foreign-Born Population, 2006 Census (Catalogue no. 97-557).Google Scholar
Statistics Canada. 2008. Education Portrait of Canada, 2006 Census. (Catalogue no. 97-560-X).Google Scholar
Tajfel, Henry and Turner, John C.. 1986. “The Social Identity Theory of Intergroup Behavior.” In Psychology of Intergroup Relations, ed. Austin, W. G. and Worchel, S.. Chicago: Nelson-Hall.Google Scholar
Terkildsen, Nadya. 1993. “When White Voters Evaluate Black Candidates: The Processing Implications of Candidate Skin Color, Prejudice, and Self-Monitoring.” American Journal of Political Science 37 (4): 1032–53.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
US Census Bureau. 2009. Foreign-Born Population of the United States: Current Population Survey—March 2009. http://www.census.gov/population/www/socdemo/foreign/cps2009.html (November 11, 2011).Google Scholar
US Census Bureau. 2011. “The Foreign Born from Latin America and the Caribbean: 2010.” American Community Survey Briefs, ACSBR/10-15. http://www.census.gov/prod/2011pubs/acsbr10-15.pdfGoogle Scholar
Valentino, Nicholas, Brader, Ted and Jardina, Ashley. Forthcoming. “Antecedents of Immigration Opposition among US Whites: General Ethnocentrism or Media Priming of Latino Attitudes?Political Psychology.Google Scholar
Vavreck, Lynn and Iyengar, Shanto. 2011. “New developments in experimental methods.” In Sage Handbook of Political Communication, ed. Semetko, Holli A. and Scammell, Margaret. Beverly Hills CA: Sage.Google Scholar
Weaver, Vesla M. 2009. “The Electoral Consequences of Skin Color: The Hidden Side of Race in Politics.” Political Behavior 34 (1): 159–92.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
Wilkes, Rima, Guppy, Neil and Farris, Lily. 2008. “No Thanks, We're Full: Individual Characteristics, National Context, and Changing Attitudes toward Immigration.” International Migration Review 42 (2): 203329.CrossRefGoogle Scholar

Altmetric attention score

Full text views

Full text views reflects PDF downloads, PDFs sent to Google Drive, Dropbox and Kindle and HTML full text views.

Total number of HTML views: 194
Total number of PDF views: 1053 *
View data table for this chart

* Views captured on Cambridge Core between September 2016 - 16th January 2021. This data will be updated every 24 hours.

Hostname: page-component-77fc7d77f9-2nq4t Total loading time: 0.585 Render date: 2021-01-16T17:03:32.589Z Query parameters: { "hasAccess": "0", "openAccess": "0", "isLogged": "0", "lang": "en" } Feature Flags last update: Sat Jan 16 2021 17:01:28 GMT+0000 (Coordinated Universal Time) Feature Flags: { "metrics": true, "metricsAbstractViews": false, "peerReview": true, "crossMark": true, "comments": true, "relatedCommentaries": true, "subject": true, "clr": true, "languageSwitch": true, "figures": false, "newCiteModal": false, "shouldUseShareProductTool": true, "shouldUseHypothesis": true, "isUnsiloEnabled": true }

Send article to Kindle

To send this article to your Kindle, first ensure no-reply@cambridge.org is added to your Approved Personal Document E-mail List under your Personal Document Settings on the Manage Your Content and Devices page of your Amazon account. Then enter the ‘name’ part of your Kindle email address below. Find out more about sending to your Kindle. Find out more about sending to your Kindle.

Note you can select to send to either the @free.kindle.com or @kindle.com variations. ‘@free.kindle.com’ emails are free but can only be sent to your device when it is connected to wi-fi. ‘@kindle.com’ emails can be delivered even when you are not connected to wi-fi, but note that service fees apply.

Find out more about the Kindle Personal Document Service.

The Impact of Economic and Cultural Cues on Support for Immigration in Canada and the United States
Available formats
×

Send article to Dropbox

To send this article to your Dropbox account, please select one or more formats and confirm that you agree to abide by our usage policies. If this is the first time you use this feature, you will be asked to authorise Cambridge Core to connect with your <service> account. Find out more about sending content to Dropbox.

The Impact of Economic and Cultural Cues on Support for Immigration in Canada and the United States
Available formats
×

Send article to Google Drive

To send this article to your Google Drive account, please select one or more formats and confirm that you agree to abide by our usage policies. If this is the first time you use this feature, you will be asked to authorise Cambridge Core to connect with your <service> account. Find out more about sending content to Google Drive.

The Impact of Economic and Cultural Cues on Support for Immigration in Canada and the United States
Available formats
×
×

Reply to: Submit a response


Your details


Conflicting interests

Do you have any conflicting interests? *