Charcot, JM. Lectures on the diseases of the nervous system. London: The New Sydenham Society, 1877.
Barbeau, A. The pathogenesis of Parkinson’s disease: a new hypoth-esis. Can Med Assoc J
1962; 87: 802–807.
Comella, C, Tanner, CM. Anticholinergic drugs in the treatment of Parkinson’s disease. In: Koller, WC, Paulson, G, eds. Therapy of Parkinson’s disease. New York: Marcel Dekker, 1990; 123–160.
Schwab, RS, England, ECJ, Poskanzer, DC, Young, KR. Amantadine in the treatment of Parkinson’s disease. JAMA
1969; 208: 1168–1170.
Parkes, JD, Zilkha, KH, Marsden, D, Baxter, RC, Knill-Jones, RP. Amantadine dosage in treatment of Parkinson’s disease. Lancet
Walker, JE, Albers, JW, Tourtelotte, WW, Henderson, WG, Potvin, AR, Smith, A. A qualitative and quantitive evaluation of amantadine in the treatment of Parkinson’s disease. J Chron Dis
Parkes, JD, Calver, DM, Zilkha, KH, Knill-Jones, RP. Controlled trial of amantadine hydrochloride in Parkinson’s disease. Lancet
1970; 1: 259–262.
Grelak, RP, Clark, R, Stump, JM, Vernier, VG. Amantadine-dopamine interaction: possible mode of action in parkinsonism. Science
1970; 169: 203–204.
Von Voightlander, PF, Moore, KE. Dopamine: release from the brain in vivo by amantadine. Science
1971; 174: 408–409.
Merrick, EM, Schmitt, PP. A controlled study of the clinical effects of amantadine in hydrochloride (Symmetrel). Cur Thera Res
1973; 15: 552–558.
Farnebo, LO, Fuxe, K, Goldstein, M, Hamberger, B, Ungerstedt, U. Dopamine an noradrenaline releasing action of amantadine in the central and peripheral nervous system: a possible mode of action in Parkinson’s disease. Eur J Pharm
1971; 16: 27–38.
Bormann, J. Memantine is a potent blocker of NMDA receptor chan-nels. Eur J Pharm
1989; 166: 591–592.
Uitti, RJ, Rajput, AH, Ahlskog, JE, et al. Amantadine treatment is an independent predictor of improved survival in Parkinson’s disease. Neurology
1996; 46: 1551–1556.
Koller, WC, Silver, DE, Lieberman, A. An algorithim for the manage-ment of Parkinson’s disease. Neurology
1994; 33 (12 Suppl 10): S1–S52.
Hoehn, M. Parkinson’s disease: progression and mortality. Adv Neurol
1986; 45: 457–461.
Birkmayer, W, Hornykiewicz, O. Der L-3, 4-diphenylalanin(=DOPA) Effekt bei der Parkinson-Akinese. Wien Klin Wochenschr
1961; 73: 787–788.
Cotzias, GC, Papvasilou, PS. Therapeutic studies of parkinsonian patients: long term effects of D,L- and L-Dopa. Presented at the Second International Congress of Neuro-ophthalmology; Sept 19, 1967; Montreal, Canada.
Yeh, KC, August, TF, Bush, DF, et al. Pharmacokinetics and bioavail-ability of Sinemet CR: a summary of human studies. Neurology
1989; 39: 25–38.
Gauthier, S, Rajput, A, Suchowersky, O, et al. Canadian multicenter study of initiating Sinemet CR treatment in patients with idio-pathic Parkinson’s disease. 11th International Symposium on Parkinson’s disease
Marsden, CD, Parkes, JD. Success and problems of long-term lev-odopa therapy in Parkinson’s disease. Lancet
1977; 1: 349.
Poewe, WH, Lees, AJ, Stern, GM. Low dose L-dopa therapy in Parkinson’s disease: A 6–year follow-up study. Neurology
1986; 36: 1528–1530.
Muenter, MD, Sharpless, NS, Tyce, SM, Darley, FL. Patterns of dysto-nia (“I-D-I” and “D-I-D”) in response to L-dopa therapy for Parkinson’s disease. Mayo Clin Proc
1977; 52: 163–174.
Lhermitte, F, Agid, Y, Signoret, JL. Onset and end of dose levodopa-induced dyskinesias. Possible treatment by increasing the daily doses of levodopa. Arch Neurol
1978; 35: 261–263.
Chase, TN, Engber, TM, Mouradian, MM. Palliative and prophylactic benefits of continously administered dopaminomimetics in Parkinson’s disease. Neurology
1994; 44: S15–S18.
Koller, WC, Pahwa, R. Treating motor fluctuations with controlled release levodopa preparations. Neurology
1994; 44: S23–S28.
Block, G, Liss, C, Reines, S, et al. Comparison of immediate-release and controlled release carbidopa/levodopa in Parkinson’s disease. Eur J Neurol
1997; 37: 23–27.
Caplideo, R. Implications of the 5-year CR FIRST trial. Neurology
50 (Suppl 6) June 1998 S11–S14.
Juncos, JL, Mouradian, MM, Fabbrini, G, Chase, TN. Levodopa infu-sion therapy. In: Koller, WC, Paulson, G, eds. Therapy of Parkinson’s disease. New York: Marcel Dekker Inc. 1990.
Kurlan, R, Nutt, JG, Woodward, WR, et al. Duodenal and gastric deliv-ery of levodopa in parkinsonism. Ann Neurol
1988; 23: 589–595.
Sage, JI, Trooskin, S, Sonsalla, PK, Heikkila, R, Duvoisin, RC. Long-term duodenal infusion of levodopa for motor fluctuations in parkinsonism. Ann Neurol
1988; 24: 87–89.
Cohen, G. Oxidative stress in the nervous system. In: Sies, H; emer-gency department. Oxidative stress. New York: Academic Press; 1985: 383–402.
Adams, JD, Odunze, N. Oxygen Free Radicals and Parkinson’s dis-ease. Free Radical Biology and Medicine, 1991; 10: 161–169.
Agid, Y. Levodopa: is toxicity a myth?
1998 Apr; 50(4): 858–63.
Rajput, AH, Uitti, RJ, Rajput, AH, Offord, KP. Timely Levodopa (LD) Administration prolongs survival in Parkinson’s disease. Parkinsonism and Related Disorders
1997; 3(3): 159–165.
Wolters, EC, Tissingh, G, Bergmans, PLM, Kuiper, MA. Dopamine agonists in Parkinson’s disease. Neurology
1995; 43: S28–S34.
Pezzoli, G, Martignoni, E, Pacchetti, C, et al. A crossover, controlled study comparing pergolide with bromocriptine as an adjunct to levodopa for the treatment of Parkinson’s disease. Neurology
1995; 43: S22–S27.
Demonet, JF, Rostin, M, Dueymes, JM, Iovalalen, A, Montastruc, JL, Rascol, A. Retroperitoneal fibrosis and treatment of Parkinson’s disease with high doses of bromocriptine. Clin Neuropharmacol
1986; 9: 200–201.
Jimenez-Jimemez, FJ, Lopez-Alvarez, J, Sanchez-Chapado, M, et al. Retroperitoneal fibrosis in a patient with Parkinson’s disease treated with pergolide. Clin Neuropharmacol
1995; 18: 277–279.
Adler, C, Sethi, KD, Hauser, RA, et al. Ropinirole for the treatment of early Parkinson’s disease. Neurology
1997; 49: 393–399.
Brooks, DJ, Torjanski, N, Burn, DJ. Ropinirole in the symptomatic treatment of Parkinson’s disease. J Neural Transm
1995; 45(suppl): 231–238.
Rascol, O, Lees, AJ, Senard, JM, et al. Ropinirole in the treatment of levodopa induced motor fluctuation in patients with Parkinson’s disease. Clin Neuropharmacol
1996; 19: 234–245.
Boothman, BR, Spokes, EGS. Pharmacokinetic data for ropinirole. Lancet
1990; 336: 814.
Hubble, JP, Koller, WC, Cutler, NR, et al. Pramipexole in patients with early Parkinson’s disease. Clin Neuropharmacol
1995; 18: 338–347.
Lieberman, A, Ranhosky, A, Korts, D.
Clinical evaluation of pramipexole in advance Parkinson’s disease: results of a double-blind, placebo controlled, parallel-group study. Neurology
1997; 49: 162–168.
Guttman, M and the International Pramipexole-Bromocriptine Study Group. Double-blind comparison of pramipexole and bromocrip-tine treatment with placebo in advanced Parkinson’s disease. Neurology
1997; 49: 1060–1065.
Christian Shilling, J, Adamus, WS, Palluk, R. Neuroendrocrine and side effect profile of pramipexole, a new dopamine receptor agonist, in humans. Clin Pharmacoly and Therapeutics
1992; 51: 541–548.
Korczyn, M, Brooks, DJ, Brunt, ER
et al. Ropinirole vs. bromocriptine in the treatment of early Parkinson’s disease: a 6 month interim report of a 3-year study. Mov Dis
1998; 13: 46–51.
Geminiani, G, Fetoni, V, Genitrini, S, Giovannine, P, Tamma, F, Caraceni, T. Cabergoline in Parkinson’s disease complicated by motor fluctuations. Mov Dis
1996; 11: 495–500.
Carvey, PM, Pieri, S, Ling, ZD. Attenuation of levodopa induced tox-icity in mesencephalic cultures by pramipexole. J Neural Trasm
1997; 104: 209–228.
Yoshikawa, T, Minamiyama, Y, Naito, Y, Kondo, M. Antioxidant properities of bromocriptine, a dopamine agonist. J Neurochem
1994; 62: 0134–1038.
Olanow, CW. A rationale for using dopamine agonists as primary symptomatic therapy in Parkinson’s disease. In: Olanow, CW, Obeso, JA eds. Dopamine agonists in early Parkinson’s disease.Kent, UK: Wells Medical, 1997; 37–52.
Goetz, C. Dopaminergic agonists in the treatment of Parkinson’s dis-ease. Neurology
1990; 40: 50–54.
Poewe, W, Kleedorfer, B, Gerstenbrand, F. Subcutaneous apomor-phine in Parkinson’s disease. Lancet
1988; 23: 943.
Poewe, W, Kleedorfer, B, Wagner, M, Bosch, S, Schelosky, L. Continuous apomorphine infusions for fluctuating Parkinson’s disease: Long-term follow-up in 18 patients. Adv Neurol
1993; 60: 656–659.
Hughes, AJ, Bishop, S, Kleedorfer, B, et al. Subcutaneous apomor-phine in Parkinson’s disease: response to chronic administration for up to five years. Mov Disord
1993; 8: 165–170.
Kapoor, R, Turjanski, N, Frankel, J, Kleedorfer, B, Lees, A, Stern, G. Intranasal apomorphine: a new treatment in Parkinson’s disease (letter). J Neurol Neurosurg Psychiatry
1990; 1: 1015.
Van Laar, T, Jansen, EN, Essink, AW, Neef, C. Intranasal apomorphine in parkinsonian on-off fluctuations. Arch Neurol
1992; 49: 482–484.
Galvez-Jimenez, N, Lang, AE. Perioperative problems in Parkinson’s disease and their management: Apomorphine with rectal domperidone. Can J Neurol Sci
1996; 23: 198–203.
Parkinson Study Group. Effect of lazabemide on the progression of disability in early Parkinson’s disease. Ann Neurol, 1996; 40: 99–107.
Parkinson Study Group. Effect of tocopherol and deprenyl on the progression of disability in early Parkinson’s disease. N Eng J Med
1993; 328: 176–183.
Schulzer, M, Mak, E, Calne, DB. The antiparkinsonian effiacy of deprenyl derives from transient improvement that is likely to be symptomatic. Ann Neurol
1992; 32: 795–798.
Parkinson Study Group. Impact of deprenyl and tocopherol treat- ment of Parkinson’s disease in DATATOP subjects not requiring levodopa. Ann Neurol, 1996; 39: 29–36.
Parkinson Study Group. Impact of deprenyl and tocopherol treat- ment of Parkinson’s disease in DATATOP patients requiring lev-odopa. Ann Neurol, 1996; 39: 37–45.
Olanow, CW, Hauser, RA, Gauger, L, et al. The effect of deprenyl and levodopa on the progression of Parkinson’s disease. Ann Neurol
1995; 38: 771–777.
Lees, AJ, Parkinson’s Disease Research Group of the United Kingdom. Comparisonof therapeutic effects and mortality data of levodopa and levodopa combined with selegiline in patients with early mild Parkinson’s disease. Br Med J
1995; 311: 1602–1607.
Parkinson Study Group. Mortality in DATATOP: a multicenter trial in early Parkinson’s disease. Ann Neurol
1998; 43: 318–325.
DaPrada, M, Borgulya, J, Napolitano, A, Zurcher, G. Improved ther-apy of Parkinson’s disease with tolcapone, a central and peripheral COMT inhibitor with an S-adenosyl-l-methionine-sparing effect. Clin Neuropharmacol
1994; 17: S26–S37.
Davis, TL, Roznoski, M, Burns, RS. Acute effects of COMT inhibi-tion on L-Dopa pharmacokinetics in patients treated with car-bidopa and selegiline. Clin Neuropharmacol
1995; 18: 333–337.
Limousin, P, Pollack, P, Pfefen, JP, et al. Acute administration of lev-odopa-benserazide and tolcapone, a COMT inhibitor in Parkinson’s disease. Clin Neuropharmacol
1995; 18: 258–265.
Waters, CH, Kurth, H, Baily, P
et al. Tolcapone in stable Parkinson’s disease: efficacy and safety in long term treatment. Neurology
1997; 49: 665–671.
Rajput, A, Martin, WRW, Sainte-Hillaire, MH
et al. Tolcapone improves motor function in Parkinsonian patients with the ‘wearing off’ phenomenon: a double-blind placebo controlled multi-center trial. Neurology
1997; 49: 1066–1071.
Assal, F, Spahr, L, Hadengue, A
et al. Tolcapone and fuminant hep-atitis. Lancet
1998; 352: 9132.
Parkinson Study Group. Entacapone improves motor fluctuations in levodopa treated Parkinson's disease patients. Annals of Neurology
1997; 42: 747–755.
Shoulson, I. Protective therapy for Parkinson’s disease. In: Marsden, CD, Fahn, S, eds. Movement Disorders. 3rd Emergency Department. Butterworth-Heinemann Ltd. 1994: 165–179.
Chase, TN, Engler, TM, Maral Mouradin, M. Contributions of dopaminergic and glutaminergic mechanisms to the pathgenisis of motor response complications in PD. Adv Neurology
1996; 69: 497–501.
Greenmayre, JT, Eller, RV, Zhang, Z
et al. Antiparkinsonian effects of remacemide hydrochloride, a glutamate antagonist in rodent and primate models. Ann Neurol
1994; 35: 655–661.
Selby, G. Stereotactic surgery for the relief of Parkinson’s disease. J Neurol Sci
1967; 5: 315–342.
DeLong, MR. Primate models of movement disorders of basal gan-glia origin. TINS
1990; 13: 281–285.
Miller, WC, DeLong, MR. Altered tonic activity of neurons in the globus pallidus and subthalamic nucleus in the primate MPTP model of parkinsonism. In: Carpenter, MB, Jayaraman, A, editors. The basal ganglia II. New York: Plenum Press, 1987: 15–427.
Alexander, GE, Crutcher, MD, DeLong, MR. Basal ganglia-thalamo-cortical circuits: Parallel substrates for motor, oculomotor, “pre-frontal” and “limbic” functions. Prog Brain Res
1990; 85: 119–146.
Rand, RW, Jacques, DB, Melbye, RW, Copcutt, BG, Fisher, MR, Levenick, MN. Gamma knife thalamotomy and pallidotomy in patients with movement disorders: preliminary results. Stereotact Funct Neurosurg
1993; 61(suppl 1): 65–92.
Fox, MW, Ahlskog, JE, Kelly, PJ. Stereotactic ventrolateralis thala-motomy of medically refractory tremor in post-levodopa era Parkinson’s disease patients. J Neurosurg
1991; 75: 723–730.
Diederich, N, Goetz, CG, Stebbins, GT, Klawans, HL, Nittner, K, Koulosakis, A, et al. Blinded evaluation confirms long-term asymmetric effect of unilateral thalamotomy or subthalamotomy on tremor in Parkinson’s disease. Neurology
1992; 42: 1311–1314.
Matsumoto, K, Shichijo, F, Fukami, T. Long-term follow-up review of cases of Parkinson’s disease after unilateral or bilateral thala-motomy. J Neurosurg
1984; 60: 1033–1044.
The use of thalamotomy in the treatment of levodopa-induced dyskinesia. Acta Neurochir (Wien)
1992; 114: 77–117.
Benabid, AL, Pollack, P, Gervason, C, Hoffman, D, Gao, DM, Hommel, M, et al. Long-term suppression of tremor by chronic stimulation of the ventral intermediate thalamic nucleus. Lancet
1991; 337: 403–406.
Caparros-Lefebvre, D, Blond, S, Vermersch, P, Pecheux, N, Guieu, J-D, Petit, H. Chronic thalamic stimulation improves tremor and levodopa induced dyskinesias in Parkinson’s disease. J Neurol Neurosurg Psychiatry
1993; 56: 268–273.
Strafella, A, Ashby, P, Munz, M, Dostrovsky, JO, Lozano, AM, Lang, AE. Inhibition of voluntary activity by thalamic stimulation in humans: Relevance for the control of tremor. Mov Disord
1997; 12: 727–737.
Caparros-Lesebvre, D, Ruchoux, MM, Blond, S, Petit, H, Percheron, G.
Long-term thalamic stimulation in Parkinson’s disease: postmortem anatomoclinical study. Neurology
1994; 44: 1856–1860.
Svennilson, E, Torvik, A, Lowe, R, Leksell, L. Treatment of parkin-sonism by stereotactic thermo lesions in the pallidal region. A clinical evaluation of 81 cases. Acta Psychiatr Neurol Scand
1960; 35: 358–377.
Goetz, CG, De Long, MR, Penn, RD, Bakay, RAE. Neurosurgical horizons in Parkinson’s disease. Neurology
1993; 43: 1–7.
Ceballos-Baumann, AO, Obeso, JA, Vitek, JL, DeLong, MR, Bakay, R, Linazasoro, G, et al. Restoration of thalamocortical activity after posteroventral pallidotomy in Parkinson’s disease. Lancet
1994; 344: 814
Grafton, ST, Waters, C, Sutton, J, Lew, MF, Couldwell, W. Pallidotomy increases activity of motor association cortex in Parkinson’s disease: A positron emission tomographic study. Ann Neurol
1995; 37: 776–783.
Laitinen, LV, Bergenheim, AT, Hariz, MI. Leksell’s posteroventral pallidotomy in the treatment of Parkinson’s disease. J Neurosurg
1992; 76: 53–61.
Dogali, M, Fazzini, E, Kolodny, E, Eidelberg, D, Sterio, D, Devinsky, O, et al. Stereotactic ventral pallidotomy for Parkinson’s disease. Neurology
1995; 45: 753–761.
Sutton, JP, Couldwell, W, Lew, MF, Mallory, L, Grafton, S, DeGiorgio, C, et al. Ventroposterior medial pallidotomy in patients with advanced Parkinson’s disease. Neurosurgery
1995; 36: 1112–1117.
Iacono, RP, Shima, F, Lonser, RR, Kuniyoshi, S, Maeda, G, Yamada, S. The results, indications, and physiology of posteroventral pal-lidotomy for patients with Parkinson’s disease. Neurosurgery
1995; 36: 1118–1127.
Baron, MS, Vitek, JL, Bakay, RAE, Green, J, Kaneoke, Y, Hashimoto, T, et al. Treatment of Advanced Parkinson’s Disease by Posterior GPi Pallidotomy: 1-Year Results of a Pilot Study. Ann Neurol
1996; 40: 355–366.
Johansson, F, Malm, J, Nordh, E, Hariz, M. Usefulness of pallidoto-my in advanced Parkinson’s disease. J Neurol Neurosurg Psychiatry
1997; 62: 125–132.
Kishore, A, Turnbull, IM, Snow, BJ, R, De la Fuente-Fernandez, Schulzer, M, Mak, E, et al. Efficacy, stability and predictors of outcome of pallidotomy for Parkinson’s disease – Six-month follow-up with additional 1-year observations. Brain
1997; 120: 729–737.
Kopyov, O, Jacques, D, Duma, C, Buckwalter, G, Kopyov, A, Lieberman, A, et al. Microelectrode-guided posteroventral medial radiofrequency pallidotomy for Parkinson’s disease. J Neurosurg
1997; 87: 52–59.
Uitti, RJ, Wharen, RE, Turk, MF, Lucas, JA, Finton, MJ, Graff-Radford, NR, et al. Unilateral pallidotomy for Parkinson’s disease: Comparison of outcome in younger versus elderly patients. Neurology
1997; 49: 1072–1077.
Samuel, M, Caputo, E, Brooks, DJ, Schrag, A, Scaravilli, T, Branston, NM, et al. A study of medial pallidotomy for Parkinson’s disease: clinical outcome, MRI location and complications. Brain
1998; 121: 59–75.
Ondo, WG, Jankovic, J, Lai, EC, Sankhla, C, Khan, M, Ben-Arie, L, et al. Assessment of motor function after stereotactic pallidotomy. Neurology
1998; 50: 266–270.
Shannon, KM, Penn, RD, Kroin, JS, Adler, CH, Janko, KA, York, M, et al. Stereotactic pallidotomy for the treatment of Parkinson’s disease – Efficacy and adverse effects at 6 months in 26 patients. Neurology
1998; 50: 434–438.
Scott, R, Gregory, R, Hines, N, Carroll, C, Hyman, N, Papanasstasiou, V, et al. Neuropsychological, neurological and functional outcome following pallidotomy for Parkinson’s disease – A consecutive series of eight simultaneous bilateral and twelve unilateral procedures. Brain
1998; 121: 659–675.
Lozano, AM, Lang, AE, Galvez-Jimenez, N, Miyasaki, J, Duff, J, Hutchison, WD, et al. Effect of GPi pallidotomy on motor function in Parkinson’s disease. Lancet
1995; 346: 1383–1387.
Lang, AE, Lozano, AM, Montgomery, E, Duff, J, Tasker, R, Hutchison, W. Posteroventral Medial Pallidotomy in Advanced Parkinson’s Disease. N Engl J Med
1997; 337: 1036–1042.
Giller, CA, Dewey, RB, Ginsburg, MI, Mendelsohn, DB, Berk, AM. Stereotactic pallidotomy and thalamotomy using individual variations of anatomic landmarks for localization. Neurosurgery
1998; 42: 56–62.
Schuurman, PR, De Bie, RMA, Speelman, JD, Bosch, DA. Bilateral posteroventral pallidotomy in advanced Parkinson’s disease in three patients. Mov Disord
1997; 12: 752–755.
Baron, MS, Vitek, JL, Bakay, RAE, Green, J, Kaneoke, Y, Hashimoto, T, et al. Neuropsychological and behavioral changes and weight gain after medial pallidotomy – Reply. Ann Neurol
1997; 41: 835–836.
Soukup, VM, Ingram, F, Schiess, MC, Bonnen, JG, Nauta, HJW, Calverley, JR. Cognitive sequelae of unilateral posteroventral pal-lidotomy. Arch Neurol
1997; 54: 947–950.
Perrine, K, Dogali, M, Fazzini, E, Sterio, D, Kolodny, E, Eidelberg, D, et al. Cognitive functioning after pallidotomy for refractory Parkinson’s disease. J Neurol Neurosurg Psychiatry
1998; 65: 150–154.
Trépanier, LL, Saint-Cyr, JA, Lozano, AM, Lang, AE. Neuropsychological consequences of posteroventral pallidotomy for the treatment of Parkinson’s disease. Neurology
1998; 51: 207–215.
Lozano, A, Hutchison, W, Kiss, Z, Tasker, R, Davis, K, Dostrovsky, J. Methods for microelectrode-guided posteroventral pallidotomy. J Neurosurg
1996; 84: 194–202.
Siegfried, J, Lippitz, B. Bilateral chronic electrostimulation of ven-troposterolateral pallidum: A new therapeutic approach for alleviating all parkinsonian symptoms. Neurosurgery
1994; 35: 1126–1130.
Krack, P, Pollak, P, Limousin, P, Hoffmann, D, Xie, J, Benazzouz, A, et al. Subthalamic nucleus or internal pallidal stimulation in young onset Parkinson’s disease. Brain
1998; 121: 451–457.
Pahwa, R, Wilkinson, S, Smith, D, Lyons, K, Miyawaki, E, Koller, WC. High-frequency stimulation of the globus pallidus for the treatment of Parkinson’s disease. Neurology
1997; 49: 249–253.
Kumar, R, Lozano, AM, Montgomery, E, Lang, AE. Pallidotomy and deep brain stimulation of the pallidum and subthalamic nucleus in advanced Parkinson’s disease. Mov Disord
1998; 13: 73–82.
Galvez-Jimenez, N, Lang, AE, Lozano, A, Tasker, R, Duff, J, Hutchinson, WD, et al. Deep brain stimulation in Parkinson’s disease: new methods of tailoring functional surgery to patient needs and response. Neurology
1996; 46: A402
Krack, P, Pollak, P, Limousin, P, Hoffmann, D, Benazzouz, A, Benabid, AL. Inhibition of levodopa effects by internal pallidal stimulation. Mov Disord
1998; 13: 648–652.
Krack, P, Pollak, P, Limousin, P, Hoffman, D, Benazzouz, A, Le Bas, JF, et al. Opposite motor effects of pallidal stimulation in Parkinson’s disease. Ann Neurol
1998; 43: 180–192.
Bejjani, B, Damier, P, Arnulf, I, Bonnet, AM, Vidailhet, M, Dormont, D, et al. Pallidal stimulation for Parkinson’s disease – Two targets?
1997; 49: 1564–1569.
Bergman, H, Wichmann, T, DeLong, MR. Reversal of experimental parkinsonism by lesions of the subthalamic nucleus. Science
1990; 249: 1436–1438.
Sellal, F, Hirsch, E, Lisovoski, F, Mutschler, V, Collard, M, Marescaux, C. Contralateral disappearance of parkinsonian signs after subthalamic hematoma. Neurology
1992; 42: 255–256.
Gill, SS, Heywood, P. Bilateral dorsolateral subthalamotomy for advanced Parkinson’s disease. Lancet
1997; 350: 1224–1224.
Limousin, P, Pollak, P, Benazzouz, A, Hoffmann, D, Le Bas, J-F, Broussolle, E, et al. Effect on parkinsonian signs and symptoms of bilateral subthalamic nucleus stimulation. Lancet
1995; 345: 91–95.
Limousin, P, Pollak, P, Benazzouz, A, Hoffmann, D, Broussolle, E, Perret, JE, et al. Bilateral subthalamic nucleus stimulation for severe Parkinson’s disease. Mov Disord
1995; 10: 672–674.
Kumar, R, Lozano, AM, Kim, YJ, Hutchison WD, SE, Halket, E, Lang, AE. Double-blind evaluation of subthalamic nucleus deep brain stimulation in advanced PD. Neurology
1998; 51: 850–855.
Krack, P, Pollak, P, Limousin, P, Benazzouz, A, Benabid, AL. Stimulation of subthalamic nucleus alleviates tremor in Parkinson’s disease. Lancet
1997; 350: 1675–1675.
Krack, P, Limousin, P, Benabid, AL, Pollak, P. Chronic stimulation of subthalamic nucleus improves levodopa-induced dyskinesias in Parkinson’s disease. Lancet
1997; 350: 1676–1676.
Madrazo, I, Drucker-Colin, R, Diaz, V, Martinez-Mata, J, Torres, C, Becerril, JJ. Open Microsurgical Autograft of Adrenal Medulla to the Right Caudate Nucleus in Two Patients with Intractable Parkinson’s Disease. N Engl J Med
1987; 316: 831–873.
Goetz, GC, Olanow, WC, Koller, W. Multicenter study of autologous adrenal medullary transplantation to the corpus striatum in patients with advanced Parkinson’s disease. N Engl J Med
1989; 320: 337–341.
Ahlskog, JE, Kelly, PJ, van Heerden, JA, Stoddard, SL, Tyce, GM, Windebank, AJ, et al. Adrenal Medullary Transplantation Into the Brain for Treatment of Parkinson’s Disease: Clinical OUtcome and Neurochemical Studies. Mayo Clin Proc
1990; 65: 305–328.
Allen, GS, Burns, S, Tulipan, NB, Parker, RA. Adrenal Medullary Transplantation to the Caudate Nucleus in Parkinson’s Disease. Arch Neurol
1989; 46: 487–491.
Diamond, SG, Markham, CH, Rand, RW, Becker, DP, Treciokas, LJ.Four-year follow-up of adrenal-to-brain transplants in Parkinson’s disease. Arch Neurol
1994; 51: 559–563.
Olanow, CW, Koller, W, Goetz, CG, Stebbins, GT, Cahill, DW, Gauger, LL, et al. Autologous Transplantation of Adrenal Medulla in Parkinson’s Disease. Arch Neurol
1990; 47: 1286–1289.
Watts, RL, Freeman, A, Goetz, C, Graham, S, Zakers, GO, Bakay, AE, et al. Autologous Intrastriatal Adrenal Medulla/Nerve Cografts in Parkinson’s Disease (PD): Early Results. Neurology
1993; 43: A222
Widner, H, Tetrud, J, Rehncrona, S, Snow, B, Brundin, P, Gustavii, B, etal. Bilateral Fetal Mesencephalic Grafting in Two Patients with Parkinsonism Induced by 1-methyl-4-Phenyl-a,2,3,6-Tetrahydropyridine (MPTP). N Engl J Med
1992; 327: 1556–1563.
Lindvall, O, Widner, H, Rehncrona, S, Brudin, P, Odin, P, gustavii, J, et al. Transplantation of Fetal Dopamine Neurons in Parkinson’s Disease: One-hear Clinical and Neurophysiological Observations in Two Patients with Putaminal Implants. Arch Neurol
1992; 31: 155–173.
Spencer, DD, Robbins, RJ, Naftolin, F, Marek, KL, Vollmer, T, Leranth, C, et al. Unilateral Transplantation of Human Fetal Mesencephalic Tissue into the Caudate Nucleus of Patients with Parkinson’s Disease. N Engl J Med
1992; 327: 1541–1548.
Freed, CR, Breeze, RE, Rosenberg, NL, Schneck, SA, Kriek, E, Qi, J-X, et al. Survival of Implanted Fetal Dopamine Cells and Neurologic Improvement 12 to 46 months after Transplantation for Parkinson’s Disease. N Engl J Med
1992; 327: 1549–1555.
Freeman, TB, Olanow, CW, Hauser, RA, Nauert, GM, Smith, DA, Borlongan, CV, et al. Bilateral fetal nigral transplantation into the postcommissural putamen in Parkinson’s disease. Ann Neurol
1995; 38: 379–388.
Lindvall, O, Sawle, G, Widner, H, Rothwell, JC, Björklund, A, Brooks, D, et al. Evidence for long-term survival and function of dopaminergic grafts in progressive Parkinson’s disease. Ann Neurol
1994; 35: 172–180.
Kordower, JH, Freeman, TB, Snow, BJ, Vingerhoets, FJG, Mufson, EJ, Sanberg, PR, et al. Neuropathological evidence of graft survival and striatal reinnervation after the transplantation of fetal mesencephalic tissue in a patient with Parkinson’s disease. N Engl J Med
1995; 332: 1118–1124.
Dooneief, G, Mirabello, E, Bell, K
et al. An estimate of the incidence of depression in idiopathic Parkinson’s disease. Archives of Neurology
Huber, SJ, Friedenberg, DL, Paulson, GW, Shuttleworth, EC and Christy, JA. The pattern of depressive symptoms varies with progression of Parkinson’s disease. J Neurol Neurosurg Psychiatry, 1990; 53; 527–278.
Depression in Parkinson’s disease. J Psychology
1996; 130(6) 659–667.
Brown, R, Jahanshahi, M. Behavioural Neurology of Movement Disorders. Advances in Neurology
1995; 6: 61–84.
Rao, SM, Huber, SJ & Bornstein, RA. Emotional changes with mul-tiple sclerosis and Parkinson’s disease. J Consult Clin Psychology
1992: 60: 369–378.
Sano, M, Stern, Y, Williams, J, Cote, L, Rosenstein, R, Mayeux, R: Coexisting Dementia and Depression in Parkinson’s Disease. Arch Neurol
1989; 46: 1284–1286.
Tom, T, Cummings, JL. Jan 1998. Drugs-Aging; 12(1): 55–74.
Richard, IH, Kurlan, R: A survery of antidepressant use in PD. PSG Neurology
1997 Oct; 49(4): 1168–70.
Ritter, JL, Alexander, B: Retrospective study of selegiline-antide-pressant drug interactions and a review of the literature. Ann Clin Psychiatry. 1997 Mar; 9(1): 7–13.
Lieberman, A. Depression in PD. BNI Quarterly
1997; 13: 27–33.
Stein, MB, Heuser, IJ, Vade, TW. Anxiety disorders in patients with PD. Am. J. Psychiatry
1990; 147: 217–220.
Lieberman, A. Managing the neuropsychiatric symptoms of PD. Neurology. June 1998; 50 Suppl 6: S27–S32.
Balldin, J, Eden, S, Granerus, AK, et al. Electroconvulsive therapy in Parkinson's syndrome with “on-off” phenonenon. J Neural Transm
1980; 47: 11–21.
Andersen, K, Balldin, J, Gottfries, CG, et al. A double-blind evalua-tion of electroconvulsive therapy in Parkinson’s disease with “on-off” phenomenona. Acta Neurol Scand
1987; 76: 191–199.
Baruch, P, Jouvent, R, Vincreau, R, Drouillon, C, Widlocher, D, Agid, Y. Improvement of parkinsonism in ECT-treated depressed patients: Parkinson’s disease or depression-related extrapyradmi-dal disorder?
World Congress Biological Psychiatry
161. Editorial. ECT for Parkinson’s disease?
1988; 4: 189–191.
Abrams, R, Swartz, CM. Electroconvulsive therapy and prolactin release: Relation to treatment response in melancholia. Convulsive Ther
1985; 1: 38–42.
Bolwig, TG, Hertz, MM, Paulson, OB, Spotoft, H, Rafaelson, OJ. The permeability of the blood brain barrier during electrically induced seizures in man. Eur J Clin Investigation
1977; 7: 87–93.
Sandyk, R. Mechanisms of action of ECT in Parkinson’s disease:possible role of pineal melantonin. Int J Neurosci
1990; 50: 83–94.
Saint-Cyr, JA, Taylor, AE, Lang, AE. Neuropsychological and psy-chiatric side effects in the treatment of Parkinson’s disease. Neurology
1993; 43 Suppl.6.S47–S52.
Goetz, CG, Stebbins, GT. Risk factors for nursing home placement in advanced Parkinson’s disease. Neurology
1993; 43: 2227–2229.
Goetz, CG, Tanner, CM, Klawans, HL. Pharmacology of hallucina-tions induced by long-term drug therapy. Am J Psychiatry
1982; 139: 494–497.
Lloyd, KG, Kornykiewicz, O. Occurrence and distribution of aro-matic acid (L-dopa) decarboxylase in human brain. J Neurochem
1972; 19: 1549–1559.
Kalat, JW. Biological psychology. 3rd ed. Belmont, California: Wadsworth Publishing Co. 1988.
Moskovitz, C, Moses, H, Klawans, HL. Levodopa-induced psy-chosis: a kindling phenomenon. Am J Psychiatry
1978; 135: 669–675.
Klawans, HL. Psychiatric side effects during the treatment of Parkinson’s disease. J Neurol Transm Suppl
1988; 27: 117–122.
Marsden, CD, Fahn, S. Problems in Parkinson’s disease. In: Marsden, CD, Fahn, S, eds. Movement Disorders. London: Butterworth Scientific, 1981: 1–7.
Friedman, JH, Lannon, MC. Clozapine in the treatment of psychosis in PD. Neurology
1989; 39: 1219–1221.
Pakkenberg, H, Pakkenberg, B. Clozapine in the treatment of tremor. Acta Neurol Scand
1986; 73: 295–297.
Bennett, JP Jr., Landow, ER, Schuh, LA. Suppression of dyskinesias in advanced Parkinson’s disease. II. Increasing daily clozapine doses suppress dyskinesias and improve parkinsonism symptoms. Neurology
1993; 43: 1551–1555.
Mendis, T, Barclay, CL, Mohr, E. Drug-induced psychosis in Parkinson’s disease: a review of management. CNS Drugs
1996; 5: 166–174.
Ford, B, Lynch, T, Greene, P. Risperidone in Parkinson’s disease. Lancet
1994; 344: 681.
Zoldan, J, Friedberg, G, Goldberg-Stern, H, Melamed, E. Ondansetron for hallucinosis in advanced Parkinson’s disease. Lancet
1993; 341: 562–563.
Zoldan, J, Friedberg, G, Livneh, M, Melamed, E. Psychosis in advanced Parkinson’s disease: treatment with odansetron, a 5-HT3 receptor antagonist. Neurology
1995; 45: 1305–1308.
Pars, MA, Bastani, B. Quetiapine (Seroquel) in the treatment of psy-chosis in patients with PD. J Neuropsychiatry Clin Neurosci
1998 Spring; 10(2): 216–9.
Mohr, E, Mendis, T, Grimes, Jd. Late cognitive changes in Parkinson’s disease with an emphasis on dementia. Behavioural Neurology of Movement Disorders. Emergency department. WJ Werner and AE Lang. Advances in Neurology, Vol 65. Raven Press Ltd. New York
Levin, BE, Katzen, HL. Early cognitive changes and non-dementing behavioural abnormalities in Parkinson’s disease. Behavioural Neurology of Movement Disorders Emergency department. WJ Weiner and AE Lang. Advances in Neurology Vol 65. Raven Press Ltd. New York
Rho, JP, Lipson, LG. Focus on donezepil: a reversible acethyl-cholinesterace inhibitor for the treatment of Alzheimer’s disease. Formulary
1997; 32: 677–684.
Tanner, CM, Goetz, CG, Klawans, HL. Autonomic nervous system in Parkinson’s disease. In: Koller, WC, ed. Handbook of Parkinson’s disease. New York: Marcel Dekker, 1992: 185–215.
Suchowersky, O, Furtado, S, Rohs, G. Beneficial effect of intranasal desmopressin for nocturnal polyuria in patients with Parkinson’s disease. Mov Dis
1995; 10: 337–340.
Carter, JH, Stewart, BJ, Archbold, PG
et al. Living with a person who has Parkinson’s disease; the spouse’s perspective by stage of disease. Mov Dis
1998; 13: 20–28