Faul, M, Xu, L, Wald, MM, Coronado, VG. Traumatic Brain Injury in the United States: Emergency Department Visits, Hospitalizations and Deaths 2002–2006. Atlanta (GA): Centers for Disease Control and Prevention, National Center for Injury Prevention and Control; 2010. https://www.cdc.gov/traumaticbraininjury/pdf/blue_book.pdf
Finkelstein, E, Corso, P, MIller, T. The incidence and economic burden of injuries in the United States. New York: Oxford University Press; 2006.
Thurman, DJ. The epidemiology of traumatic brain injury in children and youths: a review of research since 1990. J Child Neurol. 2016;21:20-27.
DeKosky, ST, Blennow, K, Ikonomovic, MD, Gandy, S. Acute and chronic traumatic encephalopathies: pathogenesis and biomarkers. Nat Rev Neuro. 2013;9:192-200.
Selassie, AW, Zaloshnja, E, Langlois, JA, Miller, T, Jones, P, Steiner, C. Incidence of long-term disability following traumatic brain injury hospitalization, United States, 2003. J Head Trauma Rehabil. 2008;23:123-131.
Bruns, J Jr., Hauser, WA. The epidemiology of traumatic brain injury: a review. Epilepsia. 2003;44(Suppl 10):2-10.
Corrigan, JD, Selassie, AW, Orman, JA. The epidemiology of traumatic brain injury. J Head Trauma Rehabil.J
Cassidy, JD, Carroll, LJ, Peloso, PM, Borg, J, von Holst, H, Holm, L, et al. Incidence, risk factors and prevention of mild traumatic brain injury: results of the WHO Collaborating Centre Task Force on Mild Traumatic Brain Injury. J Rehabil Medi. 2004(43 Suppl):28-60.
Topolovec-Vranic, J, Ennis, N, Colantonio, A, Cusimano, MD, Hwang, SW, Kontos, P, et al. Traumatic brain injury among people who are homeless: a systematic review. BMC Public Health. 2012;12:1059.
Farrer, TJ, Hedges, DW. Prevalence of traumatic brain injury in incarcerated groups compared to the general population: a meta-analysis. Prog NeuropsychopharmacolBiological Psychiatry. 2011;35:390-394.
Moher, D, Liberati, A, Tetzlaff, J, Altman, D, Group, P. Preferred reporting items for systematic reviews and meta-analyses: the PRISMA Statement. PLoS Med. 2009;6(7). PMID: 19621072.
13. Endnote X5 software. Thompson Reuters; 2011.
Boyle, MH. Guidelines for evaluating prevalence studies. Evidence Based Mental Health. 1998;1:37-39. doi:10.1136/ebmh.1.2.37.
Loney, PL, Chambers, LW, Bennett, KJ, Roberts, JG, Strafford, PW. Critical appraisal of health literature: prevalence or incidence of a health problem. Chronic Dis Can. 1998;19:170-176.
Schwarzer, G. meta: Meta-Analysis with R. R package version 16-1. 2010.
Begg, C, Mazumdar, M. Operating characteristics of a rank correlation test for publication bias. Biometrics. 1994;50:1088-1101.
Egger, M, Smith, G. Bias in meta-analysis detected by simple, graphical test. Br Med J. 1997;315:629-634.
Viechtbauer, W. Conducting meta-analyses in R with the metafor package. J Stat Software. 2010;36:1-48.
Traumatic brain injury--Colorado, Missouri, Oklahoma, and Utah, 1990-1993. MMWR Morb Mortal Wkly Rep. 1997;46:8-11.
Incidence rates of hospitalization related to traumatic brain injury--12 states, 2002. Morb Mortal Wkly Rep. 2006;55:201-204.
Andersson, EH, Bjorklund, R, Emanuelson, I, Stalhammar, D. Epidemiology of traumatic brain injury: a population based study in western Sweden. Acta Neurol Scand. 2003;107:256-259.
Asemota, AO, George, BP, Bowman, SM, Haider, AH, Schneider, EB. Causes and trends in traumatic brain injury for united states adolescents. J Neurotrauma. 2013;30:67-75.
Bazarian, JJ, McClung, J, Shah, MN, Cheng, YT, Flesher, W, Kraus, J. Mild traumatic brain injury in the United States, 1998--2000. Brain Inj. 2005;19:85-91.
Bowman, SM, Bird, TM, Aitken, ME, Tilford, JM. Trends in hospitalizations associated with pediatric traumatic brain injuries. Pediatrics. 2008;122:988-993.
Coronado, VG, Thomas, KE, Sattin, RW, Johnson, RL. The CDC traumatic brain injury surveillance system: characteristics of persons aged 65 years and older hospitalized with a TBI. J Head Trauma Rehabil. 2005;20:215-228.
Day, H, Roesler, J, Gaichas, A, Kinde, M. Epidemiology of emergency department-treated traumatic brain injury in Minnesota. Minn Med. 2006;89:40-44.
Fletcher, AE, Khalid, S, Mallonee, S. The epidemiology of severe traumatic brain injury among persons 65 years of age and older in Oklahoma, 1992-2003. Brain Inj. 2007;21:691-699.
Gordon, KE, Dooley, JM, Wood, EP. Descriptive epidemiology of concussion. Pediatr Neurol. 2006;34:376-378.
Guerrero, JL, Thurman, DJ, Sniezek, JE. Emergency department visits associated with traumatic brain injury: United States, 1995-1996. Brain Inj. 2000;14:181-186.
Jager, TE, Weiss, HB, Coben, JH, Pepe, PE. Traumatic brain injuries evaluated in U.S. emergency departments, 1992-1994. Acad Emerg Med. 2000;7:134-140.
Koepsell, TD, Rivara, FP, Vavilala, MS, Wang, J, Temkin, N, Jaffe, KM, et al. Incidence and descriptive epidemiologic features of traumatic brain injury in King County, Washington. Pediatrics. 2011;128:946-954.
Leibson, CL, Brown, AW, Ransom, JE, Diehl, NN, Perkins, PK, Mandrekar, J, et al. Incidence of traumatic brain injury across the full disease spectrum: A population-based medical record review study. Epidemiology. 2011;22:836-844.
Piatt, JH Jr, Neff, DA. Hospital care of childhood traumatic brain injury in the United States, 1997-2009: a neurosurgical perspective: clinical article. J Neurosurg Pediatr. 2012;10:257-267.
Sosin, DM, Sniezek, JE, Thurman, DJ. Incidence of mild and moderate brain injury in the United States, 1991. Brain Inj. 1996;10:47-54.
Thurman, DJ, Alverson, C, Dunn, KA, Guerrero, J, Sniezek, JE. Traumatic brain injury in the United States: a public health perspective. J Head Trauma Rehabil. 1999;14:602-615.
Engberg, Aa W, Teasdale, TW. Traumatic brain injury in Denmark 1979-1996. A national study of incidence and mortality. Eur J Epidemiol. 2001;17:437-442.
Rates of hospitalization related to traumatic brain injury--nine states, 2003. MMWR Morb Mort Wkly Rep. 2007;56:167-170.
Alaranta, H, Koskinen, S, Leppanen, L, Palomaki, H. Nationwide epidemiology of hospitalized patients with first-time traumatic brain injury with special reference to prevention. Wien Med Wochenschr. 2000;150:444-448.
Andelic, N, Sigurdardottir, S, Brunborg, C, Roe, C. Incidence of hospital-treated traumatic brain injury in the Oslo population. Neuroepidemiology. 2008;30:120-128.
Arnarson, EO, Halldorsson, JG. Head trauma among children in Reykjavik. Acta Paediatr. 1995;84:96-99.
Baldo, V, Marcolongo, A, Floreani, A, Majori, S, Cristofolettil, M, Dal Zotto, A, et al. Epidemiological aspect of traumatic brain injury in Northeast Italy. Eur J Epidemiol. 2003;18:1059-1063.
Bener, A, Omar, AO, Ahmad, AE, Al-Mulla, FH, Abdul Rahman, YS. The pattern of traumatic brain injuries: a country undergoing rapid development. Brain Inj. 2010;24:74-80.
Bouillon, B, Raum, M, Fach, H, Buchheister, B, Lefering, R, Menzel, J, et al. The incidence and outcome of severe brain trauma - Design and first results of an epidemiological study in an urban area. Restor Neurol Neurosci. 1999;14:85-92.
Chiu, WT, Huang, SJ, Tsai, SH, Lin, JW, Tsai, MD, Lin, TJ, et al. The impact of time, legislation, and geography on the epidemiology of traumatic brain injury. J Clinl Neurosci. 2007;14:930-935.
Chiu, WT, Hung, CC, Shih, CJ. Epidemiology of head injury in rural Taiwan - a four year survey. J Clin Neurosci. 1995;2:210-215.
Dahl, E, von Wendt, L, Emanuelson, I. A prospective, population-based, follow-up study of mild traumatic brain injury in children. Injury. 2006;37:402-409.
Diamond, PT. Brain injury in the Commonwealth of Virginia: an analysis of Central Registry data, 1988-1993. Brain Inj. 1996;10:413-419.
Eisele, JA, Kegler, SR, Trent, RB, Coronado, VG. Nonfatal traumatic brain injury-related hospitalization in very young children-15 states, 1999. J Head Trauma Rehabil. 2006;21:537-543.
Emanuelson, I, von Wendt, L. Epidemiology of traumatic brain injury in children and adolescents in south-western Sweden. Acta Paediatr. 1997l;86:730-735.
Gabella, B, Hoffman, RE, Marine, WW, Stallones, L. Urban and rural traumatic brain injuries in Colorado. Ann Epidemiol. 1997;7:207-212.
Hawley, CA, Ward, AB, Long, J, Owen, DW, Magnay, AR. Prevalence of traumatic brain injury amongst children admitted to hospital in one health district: a population-based study. Injury. 2003;34:256-260.
Heskestad, B, Baardsen, R, Helseth, E, Romner, B, Waterloo, K, Ingebrigtsen, T. Incidence of hospital referred head injuries in Norway: a population based survey from the Stavanger region. Scand J Trauma Resus Emerg Med. 2009;17:6.
Hillier, SL, Hiller, JE, Metzer, J. Epidemiology of traumatic brain injury in South Australia. Brain Inj. 1997;11:649-659.
Ingebrigtsen, T, Mortensen, K, Romner, B. The epidemiology of hospital-referred head injury in northern Norway. Neuroepidemiology. 1998;17:139-146.
Kim, H, McCarthy-Barnett, K, Garneau, D. Traumatic brain injury in Rhode Island. Med Health R I. 2009;92:109-110.
Kleiven, S, Peloso, PM, von Holst, H. The epidemiology of head injuries in Sweden from 1987 to 2000. Inj Control Safety Promotion. 2003;10:173-180.
Koskinen, S, Alaranta, H. Traumatic brain injury in Finland 1991-2005: a nationwide register study of hospitalized and fatal TBI. Brain Inj. 2008;22:205-214.
Langlois, JA, Kegler, SR, Butler, JA, Gotsch, KE, Johnson, RL, Reichard, AA, et al. Traumatic brain injury-related hospital discharges. Results from a 14-state surveillance system, 1997. MMWR Surveill Summ. 2003;52:1-20.
Langlois, JA, Rutland-Brown, W, Thomas, KE. The incidence of traumatic brain injury among children in the United States: differences by race. The J Head Trauma Rehabil. 2005;20:229-238.
MacKenzie, EJ, Edelstein, SL, Flynn, JP. Hospitalized head-injured patients in Maryland: incidence and severity of injuries. Md Med J. 1989;38:725-732.
MacKenzie, EJ, Edelstein, SL, Flynn, JP. Trends in hospitalized discharge rates for head injury in Maryland, 1979-86. Am J Public Health. 1990;80:217-219.
Maegele, M, Engel, D, Bouillon, B, Lefering, R, Fach, H, Raum, M, et al. Incidence and outcome of traumatic brain injury in an urban area in Western Europe over 10 years. Eur Surg Res. 2007;39:372-379.
Masson, F, Thicoipe, M, Aye, P, Mokni, T, Senjean, P, Schmitt, V, et al. Epidemiology of severe brain injuries: a prospective population-based study. J Trauma. 2001;51:481-489.
McCarthy, ML, Serpi, T, Kufera, JA, Demeter, LA, Paidas, C. Factors influencing admission among children with a traumatic brain injury. Acad Emerg Med. 2002;9:684-693.
McKinlay, A, Grace, RC, Horwood, LJ, Fergusson, DM, Ridder, EM, MacFarlane, MR. Prevalence of traumatic brain injury among children, adolescents and young adults: prospective evidence from a birth cohort. Brain Inj. 2008;22:175-181.
Murgio, A, Fernandez Mila, J, Manolio, A, Maurel, D, Ubeda, C. Minor head injury at paediatric age in Argentina. J Neurosurg Sci. 1999;43:15-24.
Peloso, PM, von Holst, H, Borg, J. Mild traumatic brain injuries presenting to Swedish hospitals in 1987-2000. J Rehabil Medicine. 2004(43 Suppl):22-27.
Polinder, S, Meerding, WJ, van Baar, ME, Toet, H, Mulder, S, van Beeck, EF. Cost estimation of injury-related hospital admissions in 10 European countries. J Trauma. 2005;59:1283-1291.
Reid, SR, Roesler, JS, Gaichas, AM, Tsai, AK. The epidemiology of pediatric traumatic brain injury in Minnesota. Arch Pediatr Adolesc Med. 2001;155:784-789.
Rickels, E, von Wild, K, Wenzlaff, P. Head injury in Germany: a population-based prospective study on epidemiology, causes, treatment and outcome of all degrees of head-injury severity in two distinct areas. Brain Inj. 2010;241:491-504.
Rutland-Brown, W, Langlois, JA, Thomas, KE, Xi, YL. Incidence of traumatic brain injury in the United States, 2003. J Head Trauma Rehabil. 2006;21:544-548.
Sallee, D, Moore, M, Johnson, M. Traumatic brain injuries in Alaska, 1996-1998. Alaska Med. 2000;42:37-40.
Schneier, AJ, Shields, BJ, Hostetler, SG, Xiang, H, Smith, GA. Incidence of pediatric traumatic brain injury and associated hospital resource utilization in the United States. Pediatrics. 2006;118:483-492.
Servadei, F, Antonelli, V, Betti, L, Chieregato, A, Fainardi, E, Gardini, E, et al. Regional brain injury epidemiology as the basis for planning brain injury treatment. The Romagna (Italy) experience. J Neurosurg Sci. 2002;46:111-119.
Sills, MR, Libby, AM, Orton, HD. Prehospital and in-hospital mortality: a comparison of intentional and unintentional traumatic brain injuries in Colorado children. Arch Pediatr Adolesc Med. 2005;159:665-670.
Steudel, WI, Cortbus, F, Schwerdtfeger, K. Epidemiology and prevention of fatal head injuries in Germany—trends and the impact of the reunification. Acta Neurochir. 2005;147:231-242.
Styrke, J, Stalnacke, BM, Sojka, P, Bjornstig, U. Traumatic brain injuries in a well-defined population: epidemiological aspects and severity. J Neurotrauma. 2007;24:1425-1436.
Tate, RL, McDonald, S, Lulham, JM. Incidence of hospital-treated traumatic brain injury in an Australian community. Aust N Z J Public Health. 1998;22:419-423.
Thurman, DJ, Jeppson, L, Burnett, CL, Beaudoin, DE, Rheinberger, MM, Sniezek, JE. Surveillance of traumatic brain injuries in Utah. West J Med. 1996;165:192-196.
Tieves, KS, Yang, H, Layde, PM. The epidemiology of traumatic brain injury in Wisconsin, 2001. WMJ. 2005;104:22-25, 54.
Tiret, L, Hausherr, E, Thicoipe, M, Garros, B, Maurette, P, Castel, JP, et al. The epidemiology of head trauma in Aquitaine (France), 1986: a community-based study of hospital admissions and deaths. International J Epidemiol. 1990;19:133-140.
Vazquez-Barquero, A, Vazquez-Barquero, JL, Austin, O, Pascual, J, Gaite, L, Herrera, S. The epidemiology of head injury in Cantabria. Eur J Epidemiol. 1992;8:832-837.
Ventsel, G, Kolk, A, Talvik, I, Vali, M, Vaikmaa, M, Talvik, T. The incidence of childhood traumatic brain injury in Tartu and Tartu County in Estonia. Neuroepidemiology. 2008;30:20-24.
von Elm, E, Osterwalder, JJ, Graber, C, Schoettker, P, Stocker, R, Zangger, P, et al. Severe traumatic brain injury in Switzerland - feasibility and first results of a cohort study. Swiss Med Wkly. 2008;138:327-334.
von Wild, KR, Wenzlaff, P. Quality management in traumatic brain injury (TBI) lessons from the prospective study in 6.800 patients after acute TBI in respect of neurorehabilitation. Acta Neurochir Suppl. 2005;93:15-25.
Willer, B, Dumas, J, Hutson, A, Leddy, J. A population based investigation of head injuries and symptoms of concussion of children and adolescents in schools. Inj Prevent. 2004;10:144-148.
Zygun, DA, Laupland, KB, Hader, WJ, Kortbeek, JB, Findlay, C, Doig, CJ, et al. Severe traumatic brain injury in a large Canadian health region. Can J Neurol Sci. 2005;32:87-92.
Coronado, VG, McGuire, LC, Sarmiento, K, Bell, J, Lionbarger, MR, Jones, CD, et al. Trends in traumatic brain injury in the U.S. and the public health response: 1995-2009 [Erratum appears in J Safety Res. 2014;48:117]. J Safety Res. 2012;43:299-307.
Nell, V, Brown, DS. Epidemiology of traumatic brain injury in Johannesburg—II. Morbidity, mortality and etiology. Social Sci Med. 1991;33:289-296.
Di Maggio, C. Emergency department visits for traumatic brain injury in a birth cohort of publicly insured children. Am J Epidemiol. 2011;173:S232.
Piatt, JH Jr., Neff, DA. Hospital care of childhood traumatic brain injury in the United States, 1997-2009: a neurosurgical perspective. J Neurosurg Pediatr. 2012;10:257-267.
Mauritz, W, Brazinova, A, Majdan, M, Leitgeb, J. Epidemiology of traumatic brain injury in Austria. Wien Klin Wochenschr. 2014;126:42-52.
Numminen, HJ. The incidence of traumatic brain injury in an adult population--how to classify mild cases?
Eu J Neurol. 2011;18:460-464.
Feigin, VL, Theadom, A, Barker-Collo, S, Starkey, NJ, McPherson, K, Kahan, M, et al. Incidence of traumatic brain injury in New Zealand: a population-based study. Lancet Neurol. 2013;12:53-64.
Perez, K, Novoa, AM, Santamarina-Rubio, E, Narvaez, Y, Arrufat, V, Borrell, C, et al. Incidence trends of traumatic spinal cord injury and traumatic brain injury in Spain, 2000-2009. Accid Anal Prevent. 2012;46:37-44.
Kerr, ZY, Harmon, KJ, Marshall, SW, Proescholdbell, SK, Waller, AE. The epidemiology of traumatic brain injuries treated in emergency departments in North Carolina, 2010-2011. N C Med J. 2014;75:8-14.
Harrison, JE, Berry, JG, Jamieson, LM. Head and traumatic brain injuries among Australian youth and young adults, July 2000-June 2006. Brain Inj. 2012;26:996-1004.
Harvey, LA, Close, JCT. Traumatic brain injury in older adults: characteristics, causes and consequences. Injury. 2012;43:1821-1826.
Cameron, KL, Marshall, SW, Sturdivant, RX, Lincoln, AE. Trends in the incidence of physician-diagnosed mild traumatic brain injury among active duty U.S. military personnel between 1997 and 2007. J Neurotrauma. 2012;29:1313-1321.
Andelic, N, Anke, A, Skandsen, T, Sigurdardottir, S, Sandhaug, M, Ader, T, et al. Incidence of hospital-admitted severe traumatic brain injury and in-hospital fatality in Norway: A national cohort study. Neuroepidemiology. 2012;38:259-267. English.
Walder, B, Haller, G, Bottequin, E, Schoettker, P, Ravussin, P, Brodmann, M, et al. Severe traumatic brain injury in a high income country: a population-based prospective cohort study. Intens Care Med. 2012;38:S14.
Rusnak, M. Traumatic brain injury: giving voice to a silent epidemic. Nat Rev Neurol. 2013;9:186-187.
Thompson, HJ, McCormick, WC, Kagan, SH. Traumatic brain injury in older adults: epidemiology, outcomes, and future implications. J Am Geriatr Soc. 2006;54:1590-1595.
Steinberg, L. A social neuroscience perspective on adolescent risk-taking. Dev Rev. 2008;28:78-106.
Tomei, KL, Doe, C, Prestigiacomo, CJ, Gandhi, CD. Comparative analysis of state-level concussion legislation and review of current practices in concussion. Neurosurg Focus. 2012;33:E11:1-9.
Ellenbogen, RG, Berger, MS, Batjer, HH. The National Football League and concussion: leading a culture change in contact sports. World Neurosurg. 2010;74:560-565.
Maas, AI, Stocchetti, N, Bullock, R. Moderate and severe traumatic brain injury in adults. Lancet Neurol. 2008;7:728-741.
Roozenbeek, B, Maas, AI, Menon, DK. Changing patterns in the epidemiology of traumatic brain injury. Nat Rev Neurol. 2013;9:231-236.
Bazarian, JJ, Veazie, P, Mookerjee, S, Lerner, EB. Accuracy of mild traumatic brain injury case ascertainment using ICD-9 codes. Acad Emerg Med. 2006;13:31-38.
Carroll, CP, Cochran, JA, Guse, CE, Wang, MC. Are we underestimating the burden of traumatic brain injury? Surveillance of severe traumatic brain injury using Centers for Disease Control International Classification of Disease, ninth revision, clinical modification, traumatic brain injury codes. Neurosurgery. 2012;71:1064-1070.
Peloso, PM, Carroll, LJ, Cassidy, JD, Borg, J, von Holst, H, Holm, L, et al. Critical evaluation of the existing guidelines on mild traumatic brain injury. J Rehabil Med. 2004(43 Suppl):106-112.
Mild Traumatic Brain Injury Committee of the Head Injury Interdisciplinary Special Interest Group of the American Congress of Rehabilitation Medicine. Definition of mild traumatic brain injury. J Head Trauma Rehabil. 1993;8:86-87.
Carroll, LJ, Cassidy, JD, Holm, L, Kraus, J, Coronado, VG, WHO Colloborating Centre Task Force on Mild Traumatic Brain Injury. Methodological issues and research recommendations for mild traumatic brain injury: the WHO Collaborating Centre Task Force on Mild Traumatic Brain Injury. J Rehabil Med. 2004(43 Suppl):113-125.
Menon, DK, Schwab, K, Wright, DW, Maas, AI; Demographics and Clinical Assessment Working Group of the International and Interagency Initiative toward Common Data Elements for Research on Traumatic Brain Injury and Psychological Health. Position statement: definition of traumatic brain injury. Arch Phys Med Rehabil. 2010;91:1637-1640.