Skip to main content Accessibility help
×
Home

The Epidemiology of Traumatic Spinal Cord Injury in Alberta, Canada

  • Donna M. Dryden (a1), L. Duncan Saunders (a1), Brian H. Rowe (a1) (a2), Laura A. May (a3), Niko Yiannakoulias (a4), Lawrence W. Svenson (a1) (a4), Donald P. Schopflocher (a1) (a4) and Donald C. Voaklander (a5)...

Abstract:

Objectives:

To describe the incidence and pattern of traumatic spinal cord injury and cauda equina injury (SCI) in a geographically defined region of Canada.

Methods:

The study period was April 1, 1997 to March 31, 2000. Data were gathered from three provincial sources: administrative data from the Alberta Ministry of Health and Wellness, records from the Alberta Trauma Registry, and death certificates from the Office of the Medical Examiner.

Results:

From all three data sources, 450 cases of SCI were identified. Of these, 71 (15.8%) died prior to hospitalization. The annual incidence rate was 52.5/million population (95% CI: 47.7, 57.4). For those who survived to hospital admission, the incidence rate was 44.3/million/year (95% CI: 39.8, 48.7). The incidence rates for males were consistently higher than for females for all age groups. Motor vehicle collisions accounted for 56.4% of injuries, followed by falls (19.1%). The highest incidence of motor vehicle-related SCI occurred to those between 15 and 29 years (60/million/year). Fall-related injuries primarily occurred to those older than 60 years (45/million/year). Rural residents were 2.5 times as likely to be injured as urban residents.

Conclusion:

Prevention strategies for SCI should target males of all ages, adolescents and young adults of both sexes, rural residents, motor vehicle collisions, and fall prevention for those older than 60 years.

RÉSUMÉ Objectifs:

Décrire l'incidence et le profil des lésions traumatiques de la moelle épinière et des lésions de la queue de cheval (LMÉ) dans une région géographiquement définie du Canada.

Méthodes:

L'étude a été effectuée du premier avril 1997 au 31 mars 2000. Les données ont été tirées de trois sources provinciales: des données administratives du Ministry of Health and Wellness de l'Alberta, des dossiers du registre des traumatismes de l'Alberta et des certificats de décès du Bureau du coronaire.

Résultats:

Quatre cent cinquante cas de LMÉ ont été identifiés. Le taux d'incidence annuel était de 52,5/million de population (IC 95%: 47,7 à 57,4). Pour ceux qui ont survécu au-delà de l'admission à l'hôpital, le taux d'incidence était de 44,3/million/année (IC 95%: 39,8 à 48,7). Les taux d'incidence pour les hommes étaient plus élevés que pour les femmes de tous les groupes d'âge. Les accidents de la route étaient responsables de 56,4% des lésions et les chutes de 19,1%. L'incidence la plus élevée de lésions due à des accidents de la route se retrouve chez les individus entre 15 et 29 ans (60/million/année) et les blessures reliées aux chutes chez ceux de plus de 60 ans (45/million/année). Les résidents de régions rurales étaient 2,5 fois plus susceptibles de subir une telle blessure que les résidents de régions urbaines.

Conclusion:

Les stratégies de prévention des LMÉ devraient cibler les hommes de tous âges, les adolescents et les jeunes adultes des deux sexes, les résidents ruraux, la prévention des collisions automobiles et des chutes pour ceux qui ont plus de 60 ans.

    • Send article to Kindle

      To send this article to your Kindle, first ensure no-reply@cambridge.org is added to your Approved Personal Document E-mail List under your Personal Document Settings on the Manage Your Content and Devices page of your Amazon account. Then enter the ‘name’ part of your Kindle email address below. Find out more about sending to your Kindle. Find out more about sending to your Kindle.

      Note you can select to send to either the @free.kindle.com or @kindle.com variations. ‘@free.kindle.com’ emails are free but can only be sent to your device when it is connected to wi-fi. ‘@kindle.com’ emails can be delivered even when you are not connected to wi-fi, but note that service fees apply.

      Find out more about the Kindle Personal Document Service.

      The Epidemiology of Traumatic Spinal Cord Injury in Alberta, Canada
      Available formats
      ×

      Send article to Dropbox

      To send this article to your Dropbox account, please select one or more formats and confirm that you agree to abide by our usage policies. If this is the first time you use this feature, you will be asked to authorise Cambridge Core to connect with your <service> account. Find out more about sending content to Dropbox.

      The Epidemiology of Traumatic Spinal Cord Injury in Alberta, Canada
      Available formats
      ×

      Send article to Google Drive

      To send this article to your Google Drive account, please select one or more formats and confirm that you agree to abide by our usage policies. If this is the first time you use this feature, you will be asked to authorise Cambridge Core to connect with your <service> account. Find out more about sending content to Google Drive.

      The Epidemiology of Traumatic Spinal Cord Injury in Alberta, Canada
      Available formats
      ×

Copyright

References

Hide All
1. DeVivo, MJ, Stover, SL, Black, KJ. Prognostic factors for 12-year survival after spinal cord injury. Arch Phys Med Rehabil 1992; 73:156162.
2. Kraus, JF, Franti, CE, Borhani, NO, Riggins, RS. Survival with anacute spinal-cord injury. J Chronic Dis 1979; 32:269283.
3. Trieschmann, RB. Spinal cord injuries: psychological, social and vocational rehabilitation. 2nd ed. New York: Demos; 1988.
4. Dijkers, MP, Abela, MB, Gans, BM, Gordon, WA. The aftermath of spinal cord injury. In: Stover, SL, De Lisa, JA, Whiteneck, GG, (Eds). Spinal Cord Injury: Clinical Outcomes from the Model Systems. Gaithersburg (MD): Aspen Publishers; 1995:185212.
5. McColl, MA, Walker, J, Stirling, P, et al. Expectations of life and health among spinal cord injured adults. Spinal Cord 1997; 35:818828.
6. Rice, DP, MacKenzie, EJ, and Associates. Cost of Injury in the United States: a Report to Congress. San Francisco: Institute for Health & Aging, University of California and Injury Prevention Center, The Johns Hopkins University; 1989.
7. Gerhart, KA. Spinal cord injury outcomes in a population-based sample. J Trauma 1991; 31(11):15291535.
8. Berkowitz, M, O’Leary, PK, Kruse, DL, Harvey, C. Spinal cord injury: an analysis of medical and social costs. New York: Demos Medical Publishing; 1998.
9. DeVivo, MJ, Whiteneck, GG, Charles, ED. The economic impact of spinal cord injury. In: Stover, SL, De Lisa, JA, Whiteneck, GG, (Eds). Spinal Cord Injury: Clinical Outcomes from the Model Systems. Gaithersburg (MD): Aspen Publishers; 1995:234271.
10. Woodruff, BA, Baron, RC. A description of nonfatal spinal cord injury using a hospital-based registry. Am J Prev Med 1994; 10(1):1014.
11. Canadian Paraplegic Association. Spinal cord injury in Canada.Available from: URL: http://www.canparaplegic.org/national/level2.tpl?var1=story&var2=20001027122552.Accessed November 8, 2001.
12. Griffin, MR, Optiz, JL, Kurland, LT, et al. Traumatic spinal cord injury in Olmstead County, Minnesota, 1935–1981. Am J Epidemiol 1985; 121(8):884895.
13. Kraus, JF, Franti, CE, Riggins, RS, et al. Incidence of traumatic spinalcord lesions. J Chronic Dis 1975; 28(9):471492.
14. Pickett, W, Simpson, K, Walker, J, Brison, RJ. Traumatic spinal cord injury in Ontario, Canada. J Trauma 2002; (in press).
15. Price, C, Makintubee, S, Herndon, W, Istre, GR. Epidemiology of traumatic spinal cord injury and acute hospitalization and rehabilitation charges for spinal cord injuries in Oklahoma, 1988–1990. Am J Epidemiol 1994; 139(1):3747.
16. Surkin, J, Smith, M, Penman, A, et al. Spinal cord injury incidence in Mississippi: a capture-recapture approach. J Trauma 1998; 45(3):502504.
17. Burke, DA, Linden, RD, Zhang, YP, et al. Incidence rates and populations at risk for spinal cord injury: a regional study. Spinal Cord 2001; 39:274278.
18. Nobunaga, AI, Go, BK, Karunas, RB. Recent demographic and injury trends in people served by the model spinal cord injury care systems. Arch Phys Med Rehabil 1999; 80(11):13721382.
19. Surkin, J, Colley Gilbert, BJ, Harkey, HL, et al. Spinal cord injury in Mississippi: findings and evaluation, 1992–1994. Spine 2000; 25(6):716721.
20. Botterell, EH, Jousse, AT, Kraus, AS, et al. A model for the future care of acute spinal cord injuries. Ann R Coll Physicians Surg Can 1975; 8:193218.
21. Tator, CH, Duncan, EG, Edmonds, VE, et al. Complications and costs of management of acute spinal cord injury. Paraplegia 1993; 31:700714.
22. Tator, CH, Duncan, EG, Edmonds, VE, et al. Changes in epidemiology of acute spinal cord injury from 1947 to 1981. Surg Neurol 1993; 40(3):207215.
23. Hu, R, Mustard, CA, Burns, C. Epidemiology of incident spinal fracture in a complete population. Spine 1996; 21(4):492499.
24. Canadian Paraplegic Association. Workforce participation study of Canadians with spinal cord injuries: demographics, education, employment, income: final report. Ottawa (ON): CPA; 1997.
25. Martins, F, Freitas, F, Martins, L, et al. Spinal cord injuries: epidemiology in Portugal’s central region. Spinal Cord 1998; 36(8):574578.
26. Thurman, DJ, Burnett, CL, Jeppson, L, et al. Surveillance of spinal cord injuries in Utah, USA. Paraplegia 1994; 32(10):665669.
27. Tator, CH, Edmonds, VE. Acute spinal cord injury: analysis of epidemiologic factors. Can J Surg 1979; 22(6):575578.
28. Alberta Health and Wellness. Accessing data for research purposes: a researcher’s handbook. Edmonton (AB): Alberta Health and Wellness; 1999.
29. International classification of diseases, 9th revision, clinical modification (ICD-9-CM). Geneva: World Health Organization; 1977.
30. Thurman, DJ, Sniezek, JE, Johnson, D, et al. Guidelines for surveillance of central nervous system injury. Atlanta: Centers for Disease Control and Prevention; 1995.
31. O’Connor, P. Incidence and patterns of spinal cord injury in Australia. Accid Anal Prev 2002; 34:405415.
32. Baker, SP, O’Neill, B, Haddon, W Jr, Long, WB. The injury severity score: a method for describing patients with multiple injuries and evaluating emergency care. J Trauma 1974; 14:187196.
33. Statistics Canada. 1996 census dictionary. Final edition (Cat. No.92-351-UIE). Ottawa (ON): Statistics Canada; 1999.
34. Acton, PA, Farley, T, Freni, LW, et al. Traumatic spinal cord injury in Arkansas, 1980 to 1989. Arch Phys Med Rehabil 1993; 74(10):10351040.
35. Johnson, RL, Gabella, BA, Gerhart, KA, et al. Evaluating sources of traumatic spinal cord injury surveillance data in Colorado. Am J Epidemiol 1997; 146(3):266272.
36. Burney, RE, Maio, RF, Maynard, F, Karunas, R. Incidence, characteristics, and outcome of spinal cord injury at trauma centers in North America. Arch Surg 1993; 128(5):596599.
37. Warren, S, Moore, M, Johnson, MS. Traumatic head and spinal cord injuries in Alaska (1991–1993). Alaska Med 1995; 37(1):1119.
38. Mikawa, Y, Watanabe, R, Fuse, K. Quadriplegia caused by push-up exercises. Arch Orthop Trauma Surg 1994; 113:174175.
39. Baker, SP, Whitfield, RA, O’Neill, B. County mapping of injury mortality. J Trauma 1988; 28(6):741745.
40. Gabella, B, Hoffman, RE, Marine, WW, Stallones, L. Urban and rural traumatic brain injuries in Colorado. Ann Epidemiol 1997; 7(3):207212.
41. Hwang, H-C, Stallones, L, Keefe Thomas, J. Childhood injury deaths:rural and urban differences, Colorado 1980–8. Inj Prev 1997; 3(1):3547.
42. Gerhart, KA, Johnson, RL, Whiteneck, GG. Health and psychosocial issues of individuals with incomplete and resolving spinal cord injuries. Paraplegia 1992; 30(4):282287.
43. Quam, L, Ellis, L, Venus, P, et al. Using claims data for epidemiologic research: the concordance of claims-based criteria with the medical record and patient survey for identifying a hypertensive population. Med Care 1993; 31:498507.
44. Roos, LL, Nicol, JP, Cageorge, SM. Using administrative data for longitudinal research: comparison with primary data collection. J Chronic Dis 1987; 40:4149.

Related content

Powered by UNSILO

The Epidemiology of Traumatic Spinal Cord Injury in Alberta, Canada

  • Donna M. Dryden (a1), L. Duncan Saunders (a1), Brian H. Rowe (a1) (a2), Laura A. May (a3), Niko Yiannakoulias (a4), Lawrence W. Svenson (a1) (a4), Donald P. Schopflocher (a1) (a4) and Donald C. Voaklander (a5)...

Metrics

Altmetric attention score

Full text views

Total number of HTML views: 0
Total number of PDF views: 0 *
Loading metrics...

Abstract views

Total abstract views: 0 *
Loading metrics...

* Views captured on Cambridge Core between <date>. This data will be updated every 24 hours.

Usage data cannot currently be displayed.