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TOXICITY OF INSECTICIDES TO FIRST-INSTAR LARVAE OF THE SPRUCE BUDMOTH, ZEIRAPHERA CANADENSIS MUT. AND FREE. (LEPIDOPTERA: TORTRICIDAE): LABORATORY AND FIELD STUDIES

  • B.V. Helson (a1), P. de Groot (a1), J.J. Turgeon (a1) and E.G. Kettela (a2)

Abstract

Laboratory tests with selected carbamate, organophosphorus, and pyrethroid insecticides demonstrated that the pyrethroid permethrin has the best potential for controlling newly hatched larvae of Zeiraphera canadensis Mut. and Free. Permethrin possessed high crawling contact toxicity (toxicity of insecticide deposits on foliage when contacted by crawling larvae) and direct contact toxicity to first-instar larvae and exhibited long residual effectiveness on potted, white spruce trees. Chlorpyrifos, fenitrothion, mexacarbate, and methomyl had high crawling contact toxicity but short residual activity. Azinphos-methyl appeared to possess long residual effectiveness but relatively low crawling contact toxicity. Aminocarb and thiodicarb exhibited short residual effectiveness and relatively low toxicity. In field trials, an aerial application of permethrin (70 g/ha) at egg hatch resulted in an 81% population reduction and limited the destruction of tree leaders to 9%. Leader destruction was greater than 19% after treatments of permethrin at 35 g AI/ha or aminocarb at 180 g AI/ha or aminocarb twice at 90 g AI/ha. Leader destruction in an untreated plantation was 51%.

Des essais réalisés en laboratoire avec des insecticides ont démontré que parmi les carbamates, les organophosphates, et les pyréthroides testés, la perméthrine qui est un pyréthroide était le candidat le plus prometteur pour le contrôle sur le terrain des larves de Zeiraphera canadensis Mut. et Free, lors de la période d’éclosion. La toxicité de la perméthrine appliquée directement sur les larves ou sur du feuillage sur lequel on a permis à des larves du premier stade de se déplacer librement avant de s’établir sous les bourgeons fut très élevé. Le taux de mortalité des larves déposées sur le feuillage d’épinettes blanches en pots, 5 jours après l’application de la perméthrine fut similaire à celui obtenu pour les larves déposées 1 h après l’application, indiquant ainsi une longue rémanence. La toxicité du chlorpyrifos, du fénitrothion, du mexacarbate et du méthomyle via le feuillage fut élevée, mais leur rémanence sur le feuillage des épinettes blanches en pot fut de courte durée. Bien que la rémanence de l’azinphos-méthyl sembla de longue durée, sa toxicité via le feuillage fut relativement faible. L’aminocarbe et le thiodicarbe ont démontré une rémanence courte et une toxicité via le feuillage faible. Un épandage aérien de perméthrine réalisé au Nouveau Brunswick, à raison de 70 g IA/ha au début de la période d’éclosion des larves, a réduit la population de Z. canadensis de 81%, et a limité à 9% la destruction des flèches apicales des épinettes blanches. Pour les placettes traitées avec de la perméthrine à raison de 35 g IA/ha, avec de l’aminocarbe à raison de 180 g IA/ha ou avec deux applications d’aminocarbe à 90 g IA/ha, la destruction des flèches fut supérieure à 19%. Dans la placette témoin, la proportion des flèches apicales détruites atteignit 51%.

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References

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TOXICITY OF INSECTICIDES TO FIRST-INSTAR LARVAE OF THE SPRUCE BUDMOTH, ZEIRAPHERA CANADENSIS MUT. AND FREE. (LEPIDOPTERA: TORTRICIDAE): LABORATORY AND FIELD STUDIES

  • B.V. Helson (a1), P. de Groot (a1), J.J. Turgeon (a1) and E.G. Kettela (a2)

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