Oil-based formulations of Bacillus thuringiensis Berliner var. kurstaki, Dipel 132, Dipel 176, and Dipel 264, were aerially applied at rates of 1.18–2.36 L/ha over five 30-ha plots in a balsam fir, Abies balsamea (L.) Mill., forest in efficacy tests against the eastern hemlock looper, Lambdina fiscellaria fiscellaria (Guen.), in Newfoundland. Double applications of 30 Billion International Units (BIU) per hectare of each formulation and single applications of 40 BIU per hectare of Dipel 176 and Dipel 264 were tested. Larval population reductions of more than 95% and no defoliation of old or new foliage were observed in the plots receiving double applications and in the plot treated with a single application of Dipel 264. Larval numbers were reduced by 85% and defoliation was 4% in the plot treated once with Dipel 176.
These treatments were applied against low to moderate larval populations, and their success was attributed to excellent spray coverage and early application when 50% or more of the larvae were still in their first instar.