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ALLELOCHEMIC ACTIVITY OF AGGREGATION PHEROMONES BETWEEN THREE SYMPATRIC SPECIES OF AMBROSIA BEETLES (COLEOPTERA: SCOLYTIDAE)1

  • J. H. Borden, L. Chong, K. N. Slessor, A. C. Oehlschlager, H. D. Pierce and B. S. Lindgren...

Abstract

Field experiments tested lineatin, the aggregation pheromone of Trypodendron lineatum (Olivier), in combination with either S-(+)- or (±)-sulcatol, the pheromones of Gnathotrichus retusus (LeConte) and G. sulcatus (LeConte), respectively. Beetles of each species responded maximally to their own pheromone alone or in a binary combination. Slight, but significant cross attraction between Gnathotrichus spp. was evident, and G. retusus was slightly attracted to lineatin. Both Gnathotrichus spp., but not T. lineatum, responded to α-pinene with ethanol. These two compounds had no effect on the allelochemic activity of the pheromones. While mutually inhibitory communication would be of adaptive advantage in bark beetles which compete for an essentially 2-dimensional host, the phloem tissue, little selection pressure would occur among ambrosia beetles which share a more bountiful host, the 3-dimensional sapwood; hence the lack of mutual inhibition between Gnathotrichus spp. and T. lineatum. On the other hand, enantiomer-based specificity in pheromone communication between Gnathotrichus spp. may have been at least a partial basis for speciation. Compatibility of lineatin with either S-(+)- or (±)-sulcatol indicates that in pheromone-based pest management, 2-binary pheromone stimulus release systems can be used instead of 3 single ones.

Des expériences de terrain ont permis d’évaluer la linéatine, phéromone d’aggrégation de Trypodendron lineatum (Olivier), en combinaison avec soit le S-(+)- ou (±)-sulcatol, les phéromones de Gnathotrichus retusus (LeConte) et G. sulcatus, respectivement. Pour chaque espèce, les réponses maximales ont été observées avec leur propre phéromone soit seule ou en combinaisons binaires. Un degré faible mais significatif de réactivité croisée a été observé entre les Gnathotrichus spp., et G. retusus était légèrement attiré par la linéatine. Les deux Gnathotrichus spp. répondent à l’α-pinène dans l’éthanol, mais pas T. lineatum. Ces deux composés n’ont pas d’effet sur l’activité allélochimique des phéromones. Bien qu’une communication mutuellement inhibitrice serait adaptative chez les scolytes compétitionnant pour un hôte essentiellement bi-dimensionnel soit le phloème, une pression de sélection réduite serait en opération chez les "ambrosias" qui se partagent un hôte plus abondant, soit le xylème tridimensionnel; ceci expliquerait l’absence d’inhibition entre Gnathotrichus spp. et T. lineatum. Par ailleurs, la spécificité de communication entre les Gnathotrichus spp., basée sur l’utilisation d’énantiomères de la même phéromone, a pu servir, au moins partiellement, de base à leur spéciation. La compatibilité de la linéatine avec soit le S-(+)- ou (±)-sulcatol indique qu’en lutte intégrée à l’aide de phéromones, 2 systèmes binaires d’émission de phéromone pourraient être utilisés au lieu de 3 systèmes simples.

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References

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ALLELOCHEMIC ACTIVITY OF AGGREGATION PHEROMONES BETWEEN THREE SYMPATRIC SPECIES OF AMBROSIA BEETLES (COLEOPTERA: SCOLYTIDAE)1

  • J. H. Borden, L. Chong, K. N. Slessor, A. C. Oehlschlager, H. D. Pierce and B. S. Lindgren...

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