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Building Brand Reputation through Third-Party Endorsement: Fair Trade in British Chocolate

  • Teresa da Silva Lopes

Abstract

This article looks at the evolution of the British chocolate industry from the 1860s to the 1960s, a period during which it was dominated by Quaker businesses: Cadbury, Rowntree, and their predecessor, Fry. It provides evidence of early forms of fair trade by these Quaker businesses, showing that, before the fair trade movement took off in the 1970s, they contributed to social change and to improvement in living standards and long-term sustainable economic growth in developing countries. This article argues that when the mechanisms for enforcing food standards were weak and certification bodies did not exist, the Religious Society of Friends acted as an indirect independent endorser, reinforcing the imagery and reputation of the Quaker-owned brands and associating them both with purity and quality and with honest and fair trading.

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References

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1 Clarkson, Thomas, The History of the Rise, Progress, and Accomplishment of the Abolition of the African Slave Trade by the British Parliament (London, 1968); Brown, Christopher L., Moral Capital: Foundations of British Abolitionism (Chapel Hill, 2006); Anderson, Matthew, A History of Fair Trade in Contemporary Britain: From Civil Society Campaigns to Corporate Compliance (Basingstoke, U.K., 2015).

2 Simon, Herbert, “A Behavioral Model of Rational Choice,” Quarterly Journal of Economics 69, no. 1 (1956): 99188 ; Akerlof, George A., “The Market for ‘Lemons’: Quality, Uncertainty and the Market Mechanism,” Quarterly Journal of Economics 84, no. 3 (1970): 488500 .

3 A brand is a name, term, symbol, or design (or combination of these) used by an institution to identify its goods or services and differentiate them from their competition. da Silva Lopes, Teresa, Global Brands: The Evolution of Multinationals in Alcoholic Beverages (New York, 2007).

4 Casson, Mark and Wadeson, Nigel, “Export Performance and Reputation,” in Trademarks, Brands, and Competitiveness, ed. da Silva Lopes, Teresa and Duguid, Paul (New York, 2010), 33 ; Fombrun, Charles J., “The Building Blocks of Corporate Reputation: Definitions, Antecedents, Consequences,” in Oxford Handbook of Corporate Reputation, ed. Barnett, Michael L. and Pollock, Timothy G. (Oxford, 2012), 100 .

5 The process has been well explained in a number of historical works. See, for example, Laird, Pamela Walker, Advertising Progress: American Business and the Rise of Consumer Marketing (Baltimore, 1998). Reputations are not always favorable. Enron provides an illustration of how a strong negative reputation can be built in a short period of time. On this subject, see Kobrak, Christopher, “The Concept of Reputation in Business History,” Business History Review 87, no. 4 (2013): 769, 784.

6 Agrawal, Jagdish and Kamajura, Wagner A., “The Economic Worth of Celebrity Endorsers: An Even Study Analysis,” Journal of Marketing 59, no. 3 (1995): 5662 ; Friedman, Hershey H. and Friedman, Linda, “Endorser Effectiveness by Product Type,” Journal of Advertising Research 19, no. 5 (1979): 6371 ; Grossman, Gene M. and Helpman, Elhanan, “Competing for Endorsements,” American Economic Review 89, no. 3 (1999): 501–24; Kamins, Michael A., Brand, Meribeth J., Hoeke, Stuart A., and Moe, John C., “Two-Sided versus One-Sided Celebrity Endorsements: The Impact on Advertising and Credibility,” Journal of Advertising 18, no. 2 (1989): 410 ; Therese Louie, A. and Obermiller, Carl, “Consumer Response to a Firm's Endorser (Dis)Association Decisions,” Journal of Advertising 31, no. 4 (2002): 4152 . For a historical perspective, see, for example, Lopes, , Global Brands, chap. 8; and Geoffrey Jones, Beauty Imagined: A History of the Global Beauty Industry (Oxford, 2010).

7 Goldsmith, Ronald E., Lafferty, Barbara A., and Newell, Stephen J., “The Influence of Corporate Credibility on Consumer Attitudes and Purchase Intent,” Corporate Reputation Review 3, no. 4 (2000): 304–18; Lafaret, Sylvie and Saunders, John, “Managing Brand Portfolios: How Strategies Have Changed,” Journal of Advertising Research 45, no. 3 (2005): 314–27.

8 Fairtrade is a certification and labeling system. It goes beyond the manifest roles of communication between consumers and producers and introduces elements of morality and sociopolitical regulation into business practices. It relies on principles of security, economic efficiency, trust, charity, social justice, and corporate reputation. European Fair Trade Association, EFTA Yearbook: Challenges of Fair Trade 2001–2003 (Maastricht, 2002), 24 .

9 Carroll, A. B., Lipartito, Kenneth J., Post, James E., and Werhane, Patricia H., Corporate Responsibility: The American Experience (New York, 2012), 2 ; Jeremy, David J., “Debates about Interactions between Religion, Business and Wealth in Modern Britain,” in Religion, Business and Wealth in Modern Business, ed. Jeremy, David E. (London, 1998), 1, 13; Dunning, John H., ed., Making Globalization Good: The Moral Challenges of Global Capitalism (Oxford, 2003).

10 On corporate philanthropy, see Berle, A. A., “Corporate Powers as Powers in Trust,” Harvard Law Review 44, no. 7 (1931): 1049–74; Ben-Amos, Ilana Krausman, The Culture of Giving: Informal Support and Gift-Exchange in Early Modern England (Cambridge, U.K., 2008); Grimm, Robert T. Jr., Notable American Philanthropists: Biographies of Giving and Volunteering (Santa Barbara, Calif., 2002).

11 Famous names in British Quaker business include Lloyds Banks and Barclays (banking), Allen and Hanbury (pharmaceuticals), Huntley & Palmer (biscuits), Cadbury, Fry, and Rowntree (chocolate), Wedgwood (fine bone china), Reckitt's (blue starch), Clark's (shoes), Truman and Hambury's (breweries), Crosfield (soap), Price Waterhouse & Co. (accounting), and J. Walter Thompson (advertising). Windsor, David B., The Quaker Enterprise: Friends in Business (London, 1980); Milligan, Edward H., Biographical Dictionary of British Quakers in Commerce and Industry, 1775–1920 (York, U.K., 2007).

12 Gospel, Howard F., Markets, Firms, and the Management of Labour in Modern Britain (Cambridge, U.K., 1992), 2728 ; Dellheim, Charles, “The Creation of a Company Culture: Cadbury's, 1861–1931,” American Economic Review 92, no. 1 (1987): 1344 .

13 Quakerism was founded in Britain by George Fox in the late 1640s as a Puritan sect. Pink Dandelion, An Introduction to Quakerism (Cambridge, U.K., 2007), 13–24.

14 Ibid., 130; Pratt, David H., English Quakers and the First Industrial Revolution (New York, 1985), 1920 .

15 Weber, Max, The Protestant Ethic and the Spirit of Capitalism (Oxford, 2011). See also Marshall, Gordon, In Search of the Spirit of Capitalism: An Essay on Max Weber's Protestant Ethic Thesis (New York, 1983); Freeman, Mark, “Quakers, Business and Capitalism,” in The Oxford Handbook of Quaker Studies, ed. Angell, Stephen W. and Dandelion, Pink (Oxford, 2013), 420–33; Landes, David, The Wealth and Poverty of Nations (New York, 1998), 174–79; and MacFarlane, Alan, The Origins of English Individualism: The Family, Property, and Social Transition (Oxford, 1978).

16 “Friends Reading Society, Birmingham,” Friend, Feb. 1855, 29; “Outsider Status Leads to the Inside Track,” Financial Times, 11 July 2007, 18; Jeremy, David, “Ethics, Religion, and Business in Twentieth Century Britain,” in Business in Britain in the Twentieth Century: Decline and Renaissance?, ed. Coopey, Richard and Lyth, Peter (Oxford, 2009), 356–84.

17 “The Kaiser's Twenty-Five Years,” Friend, 20 June 1913, 408.

18 “Quakerism and Industry: Quaker Employers Conference,” North of England Newspaper Co., 11–14 Apr., 1918, Priestgate; “Quakerism and Industry – Quaker Employers Conference,” 22–25 Apr. 1938, D. McMichael, Birmingham. Both in Rowntree Archive, Borthwick Institute, University of York U.K. (hereafter RABI).

19 “Mr. George Cadbury,” British Monthly, May 1901, 299–301; FHL Press cuttings, BB199, Cadbury Archive, Bournville, U.K. (hereafter, CA).

20 Walvin, James, The Quakers: Money and Morals (London, 1998), 33, 72–75, 208–9. When fraud or improper conduct was discovered, the Society could be quite ruthless. Those whose behavior left something to be desired were visited, questioned, helped, or shunned. Pratt, English Quakers, 115.

21 Cocoa is said to have been used in the production of chocolate in Central and Southern America before Europeans discovered the cocoa bean in the sixteenth century. In the seventeenth and eighteenth centuries cocoa was sold as a drink to the upper classes, having been brought to Europe by the Spanish conquistadores, together with the knowledge of how to use it. Knapp, Arthur W., Cocoa and Chocolate: Their History from Plantation to Consumer (London, 1920), 516 .

22 Chandler, Alfred, Scale and Scope: The Dynamics of Industrial Capitalism (London, 1990), 242–47. Jones, Geoffrey analyzes the internationalization strategies of these two firms from 1918 to 1939 in “The Chocolate Multinationals: Cadbury, Fry and Rowntree, 1918–1939,” in British Multinationals: Origins, Management, and Performance, ed. Jones, Geoffrey (Aldershot, U.K., 1986), 96118 .

23 Isichei, Elizabeth, Victorian Quakers (Oxford, 1970), 186 .

24 “Tea and Coffee Warehouse: No. 93, Bull Street,” Aris's Birmingham Gazette, 1 Mar. 1824.

25 Williams, Iolo A., The Firm of Cadbury, 1831–1931 (London, 1931), chaps. 1 and 2.

26 “Preliminary Agreement of Fusion of Interests” and “Merger between Cadbury Brothers and J. S. Fry,” Deeds and Documents relating to the Fusion of Interests, 1919, 190003901, CA; Chandler, Scale and Scope, 246.

27 “Speech given by Sir Egbert Cadbury,” South Africa, 1965, MS466/39, Cadbury Papers, Cadbury Research Library, University of Birmingham, U.K.; Diaper, Stefanie, “J. S. Fry and Sons: Growth and Decline in the Chocolate Industry, 1753–1918,” in Studies in the Business History of Bristol, ed. Harvey, Charles and Press, Jon (Bristol, 1988), 3353 ; Wagner, Gillian, “Joseph Storrs Fry,” in Dictionary of Business Biography, vol. 2, ed. Jeremy, David J. and Shaw, Christine (London, 1984).

28 Sessions, William K. and Sessions, E. Margaret, The Tukes of York in the Seventeenth, Eighteenth and Nineteenth Centuries (York, U.K., 1971); Midgley, Clare, “Slave Sugar Boycotts, Female Activism, and the Domestic Base of British Anti-Slavery Culture,” Slavery and Abolition 17, no. 3 (1996): 137–62; William Fox, “An Address to the People of Great Britain, Proving the Necessity of Refraining from Sugar and Rum, in Order to Abolish the African Slave Trade,” London, 1791, Library of the Society of Friends, Friends House, London, U.K. (hereafter LSF); Heyrick, Elizabeth, Immediate, Not Gradual Abolition (Philadelphia, 1837); Carey, Brycchan and Plank, Geoffrey, eds., Quakers and Abolition (Urbana, Ill., 2014).

29 Vernon, Anne, A Quaker Business Man: The Life of Joseph Rowntree, 1836–1925 (London, 1958); Higham, M., “Joseph Rowntree,” in Dictionary of Business Biography, vol. 4, ed. Jeremy, David J. and Shaw, Christine (London, 1985).

30 Heer, Jean, Nestlé: 125 Years, 1866–1991 (Vevey, Switzerland, 1991), 449–57; “Putting Fizz into Fruit and Nut,” Economist, 1 Feb. 1969, 72; “Nestlé Offers £2.1 Billion for Rowntree,” Herald Tribune, 27 Apr. 1988; “Pressure Increases on Rowntree and Cadbury,” Financial Times, 28 Apr. 1988, 1, 10, 24, 26, 33; “Eat to Be Eaten,” Financial Times, 13 Mar. 2010, 30–31.

31 “Implementing the New Organization: Cadbury Brothers Limited, 1967,” Report Prepared by McKinsey and Company Inc. “Implementing the New Organization: Cadbury Brothers Limited,” 1967, 000003275/277; and  “Introducing Cadbury Schweppes, 1969,” 000000017, all in CA; Fitzgerald, Robert, Rowntree and the Marketing Revolution, 1862–1969 (Cambridge, U.K., 1995), 414, 422; da Silva Lopes, Teresa and Casson, Mark, “Entrepreneurship and the Development of Global Brands,” Business History Review 81, no. 4 (2007): 651–80.

32 “Top U.K. Chocolate Brands,” Food Manufacture, 23 Oct. 2013; “The Sugar Life,” Financial Times, 24 Jan. 2006, 13.

33 “Cadbury Wraps Up Fairtrade Agreement,” Financial Times, 4 Mar. 2009, 4; “American at Home in Cadbury,” Financial Times, 28 Nov. 2009, 13; “Nestlé’s Kit Kat Goes Fairtrade,” Telegraph, 7 Dec. 2009.

34 However, the trademarks “Cadbury” and “Cadbury Brothers” were first registered in 1886 under the numbers 53575 and 53576 for cocoa and chocolate (class 42), respectively, with a user claim of about twenty years before the Trade Mark Registration Act was passed in 1875. Trade Mark Journal: Britain (London, 1886).

35 “A History of Cadbury's Sweet Success,” London Times (hereafter, Times), 19 Jan. 2010.

36 “Chairman's Reports on York to General Board, 1933–1935,” R/B/2/2 RABI; Memo “Cocoa,” 29 Nov. 1932; “Rowntree's Cocoa,” 16 Aug. 1932; Memo “Cocoa,” undated, ca. 1932–1933, all in box 293, Rowntree, J. Walter Thompson, History of Advertising Trust, Norwich, U.K.

37 The brand Kit Kat was first registered by Rowntree in 1911 and subsequently renewed in 1925, 1939, 1953, and 1967. “Register Relating to Applications for the Registration of Trademarks,” R/DP/F/19, RABI.

38 “In the Name of Sweet Success,” Financial Times, 10 Mar. 1969.

39 Corley, T. A. B., “Changing Quaker Attitudes to Wealth, 1690–1950,” in Religion, Business and Wealth in Modern Britain, ed. Jeremy, David J. (London, 1998), 137–50.

40 Wagner, Gillian, The Chocolate Conscience (London, 1987), 4 ; Briggs, Asa, Social Thought and Social Action: A Study of the Work of Seebohm Rowntree, 1871–1954 (London, 1961).

41 The fair trade movement is different from the Fairtrade labeling system. Anderson, History of Fair Trade; Moore, Geoff, “The Fair Trade Movement: Parameters, Issues, and Future Research,” Journal of Business Ethics 53, nos. 1–2 (2004): 7386 .

42 See Hall, Catherine, “Turning a Blind Eye: Memories of Empire,” in Memory, ed. Fara, Patricia and Patterson, Karalyn (Cambridge, U.K., 1998), 2746 ; Porter, Andrew, “Anti-Slavery and Humanitarianism,” in The Oxford History of the British Empire: The Nineteenth Century, ed. Porter, Andrew (Oxford, 1999), 198221 ; Grant, Kevin, A Civilised Savagery: Britain on the New Slaveries in Africa (New York, 2005); and Moss, Sarah, Chocolate: A Global History (London, 2009).

43 See Miers, Suzanne, Slavery in the Twentieth Century: The Evolution of a Global Problem (Walnut Creek, Calif., 2003), chaps. 1 and 2.

44 Among the early critics of slavery was George Fox, the founder of Quakerism. The aim for the creation of the Anti-Slavery Society was to campaign for the universal extinction of slavery and the slave trade, by moral, religious, and pacific means. With the abolition of slavery in British dominions this organization remained committed to abolishing slavery worldwide. Carroll, Kenneth L., “George Fox and Slavery,” Quaker History 86, no. 2 (1997): 1625 ; Forclaz, Amalia Ribi, Humanitarian Imperialism: The Politics of Anti-Slavery Activism, 1880–1940 (Oxford, 2015); Hollis, Patricia, Pressure from Without in Early Victorian England (London, 1974).

45 Kaye, Mike, 1807–2007: Over Two Hundred Years of Campaigning against Slavery (London, 2005).

46 Anna Vaughan-Kett, “Quaker Women, the Free Produce Movement, and British Anti-Slavery Campaigns: The Free Labour Cotton Depot in Street, 1853–1858” (PhD diss., University of Brighton, 2012); Nuermberger, Ruth Ketring, The Free Produce Movement: A Quaker Protest against Slavery (Durham, N.C., 1942 ).

47 “Our West Indian Estates,” CWM: The Monthly Journal of Rowntree's Cocoa Works York (hereafter, CWM), July 1902, 49–51; Morrell, J. B., “A Dance in Dominica,” CWM, April 1930, 583–85.

48 The report prepared by the agent became available to the British public in 1908. An article published in The Harper's Magazine in September 1907 commended the Quaker chocolate firms for their investigation into labor conditions in Portuguese West Africa, criticized the British Foreign Office for its caution, and advocated a boycott of São Tomé cocoa. Burtt, Joseph, “Slavery in São Thomé,” Friend, 22 July 1910, 485 ; Nevisson, Henry H., “The Angola Slave Trade,” Fortnightly Review 82 (Sept. 1907): 488–97.

49 Cadbury, criticized for taking too long to act, brought a libel action against the Standard, the newspaper that made such allegations—and won the case. “Newspaper Libel Action: Brothers v., Cadbury ‘The Standard,’Financial Times, 2 Dec. 1909, 6 ; Gardiner, Alfred G., The Life of George Cadbury (London, 1923), 225–27.

50 “World Cocoa Production—1895–1937,” in Cocoa Statistics Report, box 5/1/4, Terry's Archive, Borthwick Institute, University of York, U.K.,  (hereafter TABI).

51 Higgs, Catherine, Chocolate Islands: Cocoa, Slavery, and Colonial Africa (Athens, Ohio, 2012), xi .

52 Satre, Lowell J., Chocolate on Trial: Slavery, Politics, and the Ethics of Business (Athens, Ohio, 2005), 209 .

53 Williams, The Firm of Cadbury, 147, 151.

54 Young, J., “Cocoa: Food of the Gods,” CWM, Spring 1960, 1213 .

55 Various documents relating to “Rowntree, Cadbury, Fry (Nigeria Ltd.) Agreement,” Accounts Ledgers 1922–1941, R/DH/SC/71; Cml/F/3/8, RABI; CWM, Autumn 1953, 10–11; Galletti, Robert, Baldwin, Kenneth David Sutherland, and Dino, I. O., Nigerian Cocoa Farmers: An Economic Survey of Yoruba Cocoa Farming Families (Oxford, 1956), 40 .

56 Fieldhouse, David K., Merchant Capital and Economic Decolonization: United Africa Company, 1929–1987 (Oxford, 1994), 148–49, 262–64.

57 Rowntree Fry Cadbury was nationalized in 1961 by the United Ghana Farmers Council and Ghana Farmers Marketing Association, which became the monopoly of cocoa in Ghana, controlling the prices of commodities and the returns of the trade to local economies. Fieldhouse, Merchant Capital, 168–70, 418.

58 “Gum Arabic,” CWM, no. 28, June 1904, 42–48.

59 “Mr. Spiers of Northern Nigeria,” CWM, Oct. 1933, 927; Rowntree film about the production of gum arabic in Sudan  (n.d., ca. 1930s), Nestlé Archives, York, U.K.

60 “Script on Dr. Pond's Broadcast on Trinidad Radio: The Plan of Subsidized Cacao Rehabilitation in Trinidad and Tobago,” box 51/9/1 and L. R. Voyle, “Report on Condition and Prospects of Estate at Caruao to Sir Francis Terry,” 18 June 1945, 7–8, box 51/9/1, TABI.

61 “They Came to See Us: Course of Mr. Kunle Oyedipe from Nigeria in York about Export Promotion,” CWM, Christmas 1967, 11.

62 “The Rowntree Trusts,” CWM, Summer 1967, 10–12; “The Joseph Rowntree Charitable Trust,” CWM, Spring 1968, 8–11.

63 Reputation Institute, The World's Most Reputable Companies (New York, 2014); Heer, Jean, World Events, 1866–1966: The First Hundred Years of Nestlé (Rivaz, Switzerland, 1966). This reputation has been tarnished in some parts of the world as a result of antiglobalization movements. Tucker, Laura and Melewar, T. C., “Corporate Reputation and Crisis Management: The Threat and Manageability of Anti-Corporatism,” Corporate Reputation Review 7, no. 4 (2005): 377–87.

64 Sklar, Kathryn Kish, “The Consumers’ White Label Campaign of the National Consumers’ League, 1898–1918,” in Getting and Spending: European and American Consumer Societies in the Twentieth Century, ed. Strasser, Susan, McGovern, Charles, and Judt, Matthias (Cambridge, U.K., 1998), 1736 .

65 The concept of indirect endorsement has been used in the context of professional services. Kim, Harris and Laumann, Edward, “Network Endorsement and Social Stratification in the Legal Profession,” Research in the Sociology of Organizations 20 (2003): 243–66.

66 Cadbury began exporting its products in the 1870s; even though exports represented 15 percent of Cadbury's sales by 1911, most went to Australia, South Africa, and India. By 1930, Rowntree's exports represented only 2 percent of the total sales activity of the firm. The high increase in tariffs to imports during the 1920s led the two firms to invest in foreign production, particularly in Australia, Canada, New Zealand, Ireland, South Africa, and Germany. Jones, “Chocolate Multinationals,” 96–118; Corporate Accounts, 1933–1950, 3/BSR/1 and “Sales Statistics Department,” folder R/DF/CS, RABI.

67 See, for example, The Newspaper as a Servant of the Public,” Printers’ Ink Monthly 6, no. 18 (1892): 572 ; Political and Economic Planning Press Group, Report on the British Press: A Survey of Its Current Operations and Problems with Special Reference to National Newspapers and Their Part in Public Affairs (London, 1938), 3, 4, 8, 30, 33, 51–56; Times, Printing in the Twentieth Century: A Survey Reprinted from the Special Number of the Times, October 29, 1929 (London, 1930).

68 See Earl, Jennifer, Martin, Andrew, McCarthy, John D., and Soule, Sarah A., “The Use of Newspaper Data in the Study of Collective Action,” Annual Review of Sociology 30 (2004): 6580 ; Reason, Matthew and Garcia, Beatriz, “Approaches to the Newspaper Archive: Content Analysis and Press Coverage of Glasgow's Year of Culture Media,” Culture and Society 29, no. 2 (2007): 304–31.

69 A Newspaper History, 1785–1935: Reprinted from the 150th Anniversary Number of the “Times,” 1 Jan. 1935 (London, 1935); Times, The “Times”: Past, Present and Future: To Celebrate Two Hundred Years of Publication (London, 1985).

70 Genuine news articles include pieces published in the following sections of the Times: Business, Editorial and Commentary, Features, News, and People.

71 Similar numbers are also obtained when searching for the terms “Quaker” and “Society of Friends” in the titles of articles and for the words “Cadbury” and “Rowntree” in the main text of articles. “Mr. Gladstone and the Society of Friends,” Times, 22 May 1888, 6; “Friends’ Foreign Mission Association,” Times, 30 May 1899, 12; “Friends’ Social Union,” Times, 27 June 1910, 12; “Rallying Britain's Friends,” Times, 1 Dec. 1938, 9; “Friends Ambulance Unit,” Times, 29 Nov. 1941, 6.

72 Contrary to popular belief, the man on the box is a generic Quaker, not William Penn. Marquette, Arthur, Brands, Trademarks, and Good Will: The Story of the Quaker Oats Company (New York, 1967), 31 .

73 The Society of Friends sued a brewer who had used the word “Quaker” on the label of bottles. “Minutes and Proceeding of London Yearly Meeting—Society of Friends,” 1904, 41; “Minutes and Proceeding of London Yearly Meeting—Society of Friends,” 1905, 62; “Minutes of the Meeting for Sufferings 1900–1905,” LSF.

74 “Men and Matters: The Cadbury's of Bournville,” Financial Times, 9 May 1962, 10; “Should a Brand's Heritage Be a Concern to Shareholders?” Financial Times, 16 Sept. 2009, 18; “Eat to Be Eaten,” Financial Times, 10 Mar. 2010; “A Multi-Million Sweetener for Cadbury's,” Daily Express, 30 Jan. 1969; Stephen Overell, “Plain Dealing Pays Dividends,” Financial Times, 22 Aug. 2000, 12.

75 Between 1857 and 1965, the following topics appeared most often in the minutes of the Society's annual meetings, LSF: peace, 271 times; war and disarmament, 261; temperance, 221; slavery and slave trade, 157; opium trade 50; gambling, 23; liquor, 12; famine, 2.

76 “Mr. George Cadbury and the Housing of the Working Classes,” Times, 18 Mar. 1901, 8; “Libel Action by Messrs. Cadbury,” Times, 2 Dec. 1909, 4; “Messrs. Cadbury Action,” Times, 7 Dec. 1909, 9; “Mr. Maurice Rowntree Defence,” Times, 14 Feb. 1917, 5; “Mr. George Cadbury—Business Man and Social Worker,” Times, 25 Oct. 1922, 14; “Mr. Rowntree—Industrial and Social Reform,” Times, 25 Feb. 1925, 19; “Mrs. Rowntree,” Times, 3 Apr. 1929, 17; “Mrs. M. L. Rowntree,” Times, 29 Oct. 1949, 7; “Mr. Arnold Rowntree—Adult Education,” Times, 23 May 1951, 8; “Mr. J. Stephenson Rowntree,” Times, 30 July 1951, 6; “Mr. Seebohm Rowntree,” Times, 8 Oct. 1954, 11; “Mr. Walter Rowntree,” Times, 4 Apr. 1957, 14.

77 George Cadbury, giving evidence to the committee appointed to consider the working of the 1872 Adulteration of Food, Drink, and Drugs Act, suggested that the word “cocoa” should be used only for unmixed preparations of the cacao bean and that mixtures of the cacao bean with sugar or other substances should be sold always under the name of chocolate. Williams, The Firm of Cadbury, 41–42.

78 “Cadbury's Cocoa—Guaranteed Absolutely Pure,” Times, 25 Jan. 1894, 12; “Cadbury's Cocoa Is Made under Ideal Conditions,” Times, 15 Oct. 1909, 3; “Either Cadbury's Cocoa—Pure Cocoa Essence or Bournville Cocoa—with Its Unique Flavour,” Times, 14 Feb. 1910, 3; “Reduced Prices and Increased Sales—A Statement by Cadbury Brothers Ltd.,” Times, 6 June 1931, 17; “90% of the Nourishment in Cadbury Bourn-Vita Can be Turned to Human Energy in a Few Hours,” Times, 29 Sept. 1932, 15.

79 See, for example, “What Bournville Does for the Health of Its Workers,” Times, 30 Sept. 1937, 8.

80 Fitzgerald, Rowntree and the Marketing Revolution, 67.

81 “Say a Happy Christmas with a Box of Rowntree's Chocolates—the Always Welcome Gift,” Times, 11 Dec. 1922, 18. In 1919, Rowntree created a very successful campaign around two little children, the “Cocoa Nibs.” Appearing in various colorful chocolate advertisements, the boy and girl portrayed health and happiness while involved in a series of exciting adventures. The almost instant success of this campaign led to the creation of an additional Cocoa Nib, this time a little boy with an African look—he lived at the cocoa plantations and his adventures took place in a very different environment in Africa, enhancing the exotic nature of the ingredients. CWM, May 1920, 17–19, 65, 93; Fitzgerald, Robert, Rowntree and the Making of the Marketing Revolution (Cambridge, U.K., 1995), 140 ; CWM, Mar. 1922, front cover. There are some critics of these companies’ use of African characters in advertisements; see, for example, Robertson, Emma, Chocolate, Women and Empire: A Social and Cultural History (Manchester, U.K., 2009), chap. 2 .

82 “Chocolate Shortbread Has a Real ‘Peacetime’ Flavour!” Times, 19 Sept. 1944, 2.

83 “Hospitals Day—Please Give Freely,” space generously given by Rowntree, Times, 2 May 1944, 2.

84 “The Boer War,” London Daily News, 3 July 1901, 5; “The Concentration Camps,” London Daily News, 8 Nov. 1901, 6; “Concentration Camp Horrors,” London Daily News, 7 Nov. 1901, 3; “Chinese Slavery,” Daily News, 26 Mar. 1904, 8; “Sweated Labour,” London Daily News, 16 Jan. 1907, 12; “Mr. Henry Cadbury—the Liberal Press in London,” Times, 26 Sept. 1952, 8; “Lieu Cadbury War Service,” Birmingham Daily Mail, 4 Dec. 1916.

85 “Tory Failures—Speech by Mr. M. J. Morley: Chinese Slavery,” Daily News, 26 Mar. 1904, 8; “Mr. Arnold Rowntree—Adult Education,” Times, 23 May 1951, 8.

Earlier versions of this paper were presented at the joint workshop organized by the Centre for Evolution of Global Business and Institutions, University of York, and the Centre for Globalisation Research, Queen Mary University of London, on “Fairtrade, History and Governance,” London, 8 July 2011; at the Annual Conference for the Association of Business Historians, Reading, 1–2 July 2011; and at the Business History Conference, Frankfurt, 13–15 March 2014, where very useful comments were received. Special thanks go to Ann-Marie Akehurst for our lively discussions, and to Mark Casson, Kenneth Lipartito, and three anonymous referees for their equally insightful comments. Jennifer Milligan from the Library of the Religious Society of Friends; Sarah Foden at Cadbury Archives, Kraft Foods; and Amanda Jones at the Borthwick Archive, University of York were very helpful in guiding me through the archives. I would also like to thank Laura Linard and Christine Riggle at the Historical Collections in the Baker Library, Harvard Business School for all their support with this research.

Building Brand Reputation through Third-Party Endorsement: Fair Trade in British Chocolate

  • Teresa da Silva Lopes

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