Let 𝒰(𝔯(1)) denote the enveloping algebra of the two-dimensional nonabelian Lie algebra 𝔯(1) over a base field 𝕂. We study the maximal abelian ad-nilpotent (mad) associative subalgebras and finite-dimensional Lie subalgebras of 𝒰(𝔯(1)). We first prove that the set of noncentral elements of 𝒰(𝔯(1)) admits the Dixmier partition, 𝒰(𝔯(1))−𝕂=⋃ 5i=1Δi, and establish characterization theorems for elements in Δi, i=1,3,4. Then we determine the elements in Δi, i=1,3 , and describe the eigenvalues for the inner derivation ad Bx,x∈Δi, i=3,4 . We also derive other useful results for elements in Δi, i=2,3,4,5 . As an application, we find all framed mad subalgebras of 𝒰(𝔯(1)) and determine all finite-dimensional nonabelian Lie algebras that can be realized as Lie subalgebras of 𝒰(𝔯(1)) . We also study the realizations of the Lie algebra 𝔯(1) in 𝒰(𝔯(1)) in detail.