To send this article to your account, please select one or more formats and confirm that you agree to abide by our usage policies. If this is the first time you use this feature, you will be asked to authorise Cambridge Core to connect with your account.
Find out more about sending content to .
To send this article to your Kindle, first ensure firstname.lastname@example.org is added to your Approved Personal Document E-mail List under your Personal Document Settings on the Manage Your Content and Devices page of your Amazon account. Then enter the ‘name’ part of your Kindle email address below. Find out more about sending to your Kindle.
Find out more about sending to your Kindle.
Note you can select to send to either the @free.kindle.com or @kindle.com variations. ‘@free.kindle.com’ emails are free but can only be sent to your device when it is connected to wi-fi. ‘@kindle.com’ emails can be delivered even when you are not connected to wi-fi, but note that service fees apply.
The effect of tea intake on blood pressure (BP) is controversial. We performed a meta-analysis of randomised controlled trials to determine the changes in systolic and diastolic BP due to the intake of black and green tea. A systematic search was conducted in MEDLINE, EMBASE and the Cochrane Controlled Trials Register up to May 2014. The weighted mean difference was calculated for net changes in systolic and diastolic BP using fixed-effects or random-effects models. Previously defined subgroup analyses were performed to explore the influence of study characteristics. A total of twenty-five eligible studies with 1476 subjects were selected. The acute intake of tea had no effects on systolic and diastolic BP. However, after long-term tea intake, the pooled mean systolic and diastolic BP were lower by − 1·8 (95 % CI − 2·4, − 1·1) and − 1·4 (95 % CI − 2·2, − 0·6) mmHg, respectively. When stratified by type of tea, green tea significantly reduced systolic BP by 2·1 (95 % CI − 2·9, − 1·2) mmHg and decreased diastolic BP by 1·7 (95 % CI − 2·9, − 0·5) mmHg, and black tea showed a reduction in systolic BP of 1·4 (95 % CI − 2·4, − 0·4) mmHg and a decrease in diastolic BP of 1·1 (95 % CI − 1·9, − 0·2) mmHg. The subgroup analyses showed that the BP-lowering effect was apparent in subjects who consumed tea more than 12 weeks (systolic BP − 2·6 (95 % CI − 3·5, − 1·7) mmHg and diastolic BP − 2·2 (95 % CI − 3·0, − 1·3) mmHg, both P< 0·001). The present findings suggest that long-term ( ≥ 12 weeks) ingestion of tea could result in a significant reduction in systolic and diastolic BP.
Various human trials and pre-clinical studies have suggested that dietary plant sterols possess hypotriacylglycerolaemic properties apart from their cholesterol-lowering properties. We hypothesised that phytosterols (PS) might attenuate triacylglycerolaemia by interfering with the deleterious effects of cholesterol overload in the liver. In the present study, twenty hamsters (Mesocricetus auratus) with diet-induced combined hyperlipidaemia were fed a high-fat diet (HFD, n 10) or a HFD supplemented with soyabean PS (n 10) for 40 d. In parallel, a healthy group was fed a standard diet (n 10). PS normalised fasting plasma cholesterol concentrations completely after 20 d and were also able to normalise serum TAG and NEFA concentrations after 40 d. HFD feeding caused microvesicular steatosis and impaired the expression of key genes related to fatty acid oxidation such as PPARA, carnitine palmitoyltransferase-Iα (CPT1A) and phosphoenolpyruvate carboxykinase 1 (PCK1) in the liver. PS treatment completely protected against HFD-induced steatosis and resulted in a normalised hepatic gene expression profile. The protection of the hepatic function by PS was paralleled by increased faecal cholesterol excretion along with a 2-fold increase in the biliary bile acid (BA):cholesterol ratio. The present study supports the conclusion that long-term consumption of PS can reduce serum TAG and NEFA concentrations and can protect against the development of fatty liver via different mechanisms, including the enhancement of BA synthesis. The results of the present study place these compounds as promising hepatoprotective agents against fatty liver and its derived pathologies.
Different dietary interventions have been identified as potential modifiers of adiponectin concentrations, and they may be influenced by lipid intake. We identified studies investigating the effect of dietary lipids (type/amount) on adiponectin concentrations in a systematic review with meta-analysis. A literature search was conducted until July 2013 using databases such as Medline, Embase and Scopus (MeSH terms: ‘adiponectin’, ‘dietary lipid’, ‘randomized controlled trials (RCT)’). Inclusion criteria were RCT in adults analysing adiponectin concentrations with modification of dietary lipids. Among the 4930 studies retrieved, fifty-three fulfilled the inclusion criteria and were grouped as follows: (1) total dietary lipid intake; (2) dietary/supplementary n-3 PUFA; (3) conjugated linoleic acid (CLA) supplementation; (4) other dietary lipid interventions. Diets with a low fat content in comparison to diets with a high-fat content were not associated with positive changes in adiponectin concentrations (twelve studies; pooled estimate of the difference in means: − 0·04 (95 % CI − 0·82, 0·74) μg/ml). A modest increase in adiponectin concentrations with n-3 PUFA supplementation was observed (thirteen studies; 0·27 (95 % CI 0·07, 0·47) μg/ml). Publication bias was found by using Egger's test (P= 0·01) and funnel plot asymmetry. In contrast, CLA supplementation reduced the circulating concentrations of adiponectin compared with unsaturated fat supplementation (seven studies; − 0·74 (95 % CI − 1·38, − 0·10) μg/ml). However, important sources of heterogeneity were found as revealed by the meta-regression analyses of both n-3 PUFA and CLA supplementation. Results of new RCT would be necessary to confirm these findings.
Diets supplemented with fish oil (FO), which is rich in n-3 PUFA, have been shown to modify several key risk factors for CVD. The purpose of the present study was to determine the effect of FO supplementation on mitochondrial dynamic protein expression in the endothelium and on endothelial cell function. Male apoE-deficient (apoE− / −) mice (8 weeks old, n 12 per group) were fed a high-fat diet containing 45 % fat (HFD group) or a HFD with partial replacement of lard with 10 % (w/w) FO (FO group) (total EPA and DHA content 64·1 g/kg) for 8 weeks. ApoE− / − mice in the FO group had a greater endothelium-dependent vasorelaxation response to acetylcholine (Ach) than those in the HFD group. The atherosclerotic lesion volume in the aortic sinus of mice in the FO group was 54 % lower than that in the HFD group (P< 0·01). In addition, the aortas isolated from mice in the FO group had higher expression levels of Mfn2 and Opa1 but lower expression levels of Fis1 than those from the HFD group. Compared with mice fed the HFD, those fed the FO diet showed significantly lower levels of mitochondrial oxidative stress, cytochrome c release and caspase-3 activity (each P< 0·05). Furthermore, FO-fed mice displayed increased NO release and availability and enhanced endothelial NO synthase activity compared with HFD-fed mice. Taken together, these results reveal a novel mechanism by which FO protects against endothelial cell dysfunction, which may result in improved mitochondrial dynamics.
The present report describes the presentations delivered at the 7th International Yakult Symposium, ‘The Intestinal Microbiota and Probiotics: Exploiting Their Influence on Health’, in London on 22–23 April 2013. The following two themes associated with health risks were covered: (1) the impact of age and diet on the gut microbiota and (2) the gut microbiota's interaction with the host. The strong influence of the maternal gut microbiota on neonatal colonisation was reported, as well as rapid changes in the gut microbiome of older people who move from community living to residential care. The effects of dietary changes on gut metabolism were described and the potential influence of inter-individual microbiota differences was noted, in particular the presence/absence of keystone species involved in butyrate metabolism. Several speakers highlighted the association between certain metabolic disorders and imbalanced or less diverse microbiota. Data from metagenomic analyses and novel techniques (including an ex vivo human mucosa model) provided new insights into the microbiota's influence on coeliac, obesity-related and inflammatory diseases, as well as the potential of probiotics. Akkermansia muciniphila and Faecalibacterium prausnitzii were suggested as targets for intervention. Host–microbiota interactions were explored in the context of gut barrier function, pathogenic bacteria recognition, and the ability of the immune system to induce either tolerogenic or inflammatory responses. There was speculation that the gut microbiota should be considered a separate organ, and whether analysis of an individual's microbiota could be useful in identifying their disease risk and/or therapy; however, more research is needed into specific diseases, different population groups and microbial interventions including probiotics.
Intestinal serotonin (5-hydroxytrypamine, 5-HT) metabolism is thought to play a role in gut functions by regulating motility, permeability and other functions of the intestine. In the present study, we investigated the effect of tryptophan (TRP), the precursor of 5-HT, supplementation on intestinal barrier functions and non-alcoholic fatty liver disease (NAFLD). An established mouse model of NAFLD induced by feeding a fructose-rich diet (N group) was used in the present study. TRP was administered orally for 8 weeks to C57BL/6J control or NAFLD mice. NAFLD-related liver parameters (hepatic TAG and Oil Red O staining), intestinal barrier parameters (tight-junction protein occludin and portal plasma lipopolysaccharides (LPS)) and 5-HT-related parameters (5-HT, 5-HT transporter (SERT) and motility) were measured. We observed reduced duodenal occludin protein concentrations (P= 0·0007), high portal plasma LPS concentrations (P= 0·005) and an elevated liver weight:body weight ratio (P= 0·01) in the N group compared with the parameters in the control group. TRP supplementation led to an increase in occludin concentrations (P= 0·0009) and consecutively reduced liver weight:body weight ratio (P= 0·009) as well as overall hepatic fat accumulation in the N group (P= 0·05). In addition, the N group exhibited reduced SERT protein expression (P= 0·002), which was normalised by TRP supplementation (P= 0·02). For the first time, our data indicate that oral TRP supplementation attenuates experimental NAFLD in mice. The underlying mechanisms are not clear, but probably involve stabilisation of the intestinal barrier in the upper small intestine and amelioration of the dysregulated intestinal serotonergic system.
The aim of the present study was to determine whether early weaning-induced growth retardation could be attenuated by increased consumption of methionine as dl-methionine (DLM) or dl-2-hydroxy-4-methylthiobutyrate (HMTBA) in both lactating sows and weaned piglets. Therefore, diets containing DLM and HMTBA at 25 % of the total sulphur-containing amino acids (AA) present in the control (CON) diet were fed to lactating sows and weaned piglets and their responses were evaluated. Compared with the CON diet-fed sows, the HMTBA diet-fed sows exhibited a tendency (P< 0·10) towards higher plasma taurine concentrations and the DLM diet-fed sows had higher (P< 0·05) plasma taurine concentrations, but lower (P< 0·05) isoleucine concentrations. Suckling piglets in the HMTBA treatment group had higher (P< 0·05) intestinal reduced glutathione (GSH) content, lower (P< 0·05) oxidised glutathione (GSSG):GSH ratio, and higher (P< 0·05) plasma cysteine and glutathione peroxidase (GPx) activity than those in the CON and DLM treatment groups. The feed intake (P< 0·05) and body weight of piglets averaged across post-weaning (PW) days were higher (P< 0·05) in the HMTBA treatment group than in the DLM treatment group and were higher (P< 0·05) and tended (P< 0·10) to be higher, respectively, in the HMTBA treatment group than in the CON treatment group. Increased (P< 0·05) GSSG content and GSSG:GSH ratio and down-regulated (P< 0·05) expression of nutrient transport genes were observed in the jejunum of piglets on PW day 7 than on PW day 0. On PW day 14, the HMTBA diet-fed piglets had higher (P< 0·05) intestinal GSH content than the CON diet-fed piglets and higher (P< 0·05) plasma GPx activity, villus height and goblet cell numbers than the CON diet- and DLM diet-fed piglets. In conclusion, early weaning-induced growth retardation appears to be attenuated through changes in plasma AA profiles and elevation of growth performance and intestinal antioxidant capacity in piglets following increased consumption of methionine as HMTBA.
Obesity is considered to be accompanied by a chronic low-grade inflammatory state that contributes to the occurrence of many chronic diseases. Our previous study has demonstrated that histidine supplementation significantly ameliorates inflammation and oxidative stress in obese women. However, the in vivo potential mechanisms are not known. The present study was conducted to investigate the mechanisms underlying the effects of histidine on inflammation in a high-fat diet (HFD)-induced female obese rat model. An obese model was established in female Sprague–Dawley rats by HFD feeding for 8 weeks and followed by histidine supplementation for another 4 weeks. The results revealed that HFD-increased body weight and HFD-lowered serum histidine concentrations were significantly reversed by histidine supplementation (P< 0·05). In addition, the serum concentrations of TNF-α, IL-6, C-reactive protein (CRP) and malondialdehyde were significantly reduced and those of superoxide dismutase (SOD) were significantly increased by histidine supplementation when compared with those in obese rats (P< 0·05). Correspondingly, the mRNA expressions of TNF-α, IL-6 and CRP in the adipose tissue were significantly down-regulated and that of CuZnSOD was significantly up-regulated by histidine supplementation (P< 0·05). Histidine supplementation significantly reduced the HFD-induced translocation of NF-κB p65 into the nucleus (P= 0·032) by reducing the phosphorylation of the inhibitor of κBα in the adipose tissue. The results also revealed that the expression of adiponectin was markedly increased both in the serum and in the adipose tissue after histidine supplementation, accompanied by the activation of PPARγ (P= 0·021). These findings indicate that histidine is an effective candidate for ameliorating inflammation and oxidative stress in obese individuals via the NF-κB- and PPARγ-involved pathways.
In May 2012, an oats workshop was held in New York to convene a group of international experts to discuss the implications and applications of oats relative to human health. These diverse experts represented disciplines including, but not limited to, epidemiology, food regulation, nutrition and food science, grain breeding and plant genetics, food processing, medicine and public-health policy. This ensuing series addresses three important aspects pertinent to oats: a brief overview of the dynamics of oats; the spectrum of established and emerging research in agriculture and health; and the options and opportunities for future applications of oats that extend beyond dietary fibre. Oats have many unique chemical properties, potential health benefits, agricultural challenges and nutrition-policy opportunities – but global production of oats appears to be falling. This is occurring despite contemporary research in the development of drought and infestation resistance and climate-adaptive cultivars and assessments of oats’ unique components (such as dietary fibre, lipids, β-glucan and avenanthramides) that may contribute to health benefits. This suggests that oats represent a promising grain in the whole-grains landscape. New insights have been created into benefits beyond cardiovascular health. Modern milling and processing technologies have been developed to retain the nutritive value and functional properties of oats and to assure a consistent foundation for global health policies.
The pulp of jussara açaí (Euterpe edulis Martius) fruit is rich in anthocyanins that exert antioxidant and anti-inflammatory effects similar to those exerted by aerobic exercise. In the present study, we investigated the effects of jussara açaí fruit pulp consumption, either alone or in combination with aerobic exercise, on the hepatic oxidative and inflammatory status of ApoE-deficient (ApoE− / −) mice. Male mice were divided into four groups (control (C), control plus açaí, exercise plus açaí (EXA) and exercise (EX)) and fed the AIN-93M diet or the AIN-93M diet formulated to contain 2 % freeze-dried açaí pulp. Mice in the EX and EXA groups were subjected to a progressive running programme (5 d/week, 60 min/d, 16 m/min) for 12 weeks. Mice that were made to exercise exhibited reduced (40·85 %; P< 0·05) hepatic superoxide dismutase activity when compared with the C mice, independent of the açaí diet. Mice in the EX group exhibited a lower (42 %; P< 0·05) mRNA expression of monocyte chemotactic protein-1 in the liver compared with the C mice. Mice in the EXA and EX groups had lower percentages of hepatic lipid droplets (70 % and 56 %, respectively; P< 0·05) when compared with the C mice. Mice in the EX group had smaller (58 %; P< 0·05) area of lesions in the aorta when compared with the C mice. Serum lipid profile was not affected (P>0·05). In conclusion, aerobic exercise training rather than açaí fruit pulp consumption or a combination of both enhances the hepatic oxidative and inflammatory status of ApoE− / − mice.
Inflammatory bowel diseases (IBD) are characterised by chronic uncontrolled inflammation of intestinal mucosa. Diet and nutritional factors have emerged as possible interventions for IBD. Microalgae are rich sources of n-3 PUFA and derived oxylipins. Oxylipins are lipid mediators involved in the resolution of many inflammatory disorders. The aim of the present study was to investigate the effects of the oxylipin-containing biomass of the microalga Chlamydomonas debaryana and its major oxylipin constituent, (9Z,11E,13S,15Z)-13-hydroxyoctadeca-9,11,15-trienoic acid ((13S)-HOTE), on acute 2,4,6-trinitrobenzenesulfonic acid (TNBS)-induced colitis in rats. Lyophilised microalgal biomass and (13S)-HOTE were administered by oral route 48, 24 and 1 h before the induction of colitis and 24 h later, and the rats were killed after 48 h. The treatment with the lyophilised microalga and (13S)-HOTE improved body-weight loss and colon shortening, as well as attenuated the extent of colonic damage and increased mucus production. Cellular neutrophil infiltration, with the subsequent increase in myeloperoxidase levels induced by TNBS, were also reduced after the administration of the lyophilised microalga or (13S)-HOTE. The anti-inflammatory effects of these treatments were confirmed by the inhibition of colonic TNF-α production. Moreover, lyophilised microalga or (13S)-HOTE down-regulated cyclo-oxygenase-2 and inducible nitric oxide synthase expression. The present study was the first to show the prophylactic effects of a lyophilised biomass sample of the microalga C. debaryana and the oxylipin (13S)-HOTE on TNBS-induced acute colitis in rats. Our findings suggest that the microalga C. debaryana or derived oxylipins could be used as nutraceuticals in the treatment of the active phase of IBD.
Exocrine pancreatic digestive enzymes are essential for the digestion of dietary components and are regulated by them. Chronic excess dietary high fat (HF) consumption is a contributing factor of diet-induced obesity (DIO) and associated chronic diseases and requires adaptation by the pancreas. The aim of the present study was to investigate the effects of chronic HF diet feeding on exocrine pancreatic digestive enzyme transcript levels in DIO C57BL/6J mice. C57BL/6J mice were fed diets containing either 10 or 45 % energy (E%) derived from fat for 12 weeks (n 10 mice per diet group). Pancreatic tissue and blood samples were collected at 0, 4 and 12 weeks. The expression of a panel of exocrine pancreatic digestive enzymes was analysed using quantitative RT-PCR and Western blot analysis. The HF (45 E%) diet-fed C57BL/6J mice developed obesity, hyperleptinaemia, hyperglycaemia and hyperinsulinaemia. The transcript levels of pancreatic lipase (PL), pancreatic lipase-related protein 2 (PLRP2) and pancreatic phospholipase A2 (PLA2) were initially elevated; however, they were down-regulated to basal control levels at week 12. The transcript levels of colipase were significantly affected by diet and time. The protein levels of PL and PLRP2 responded to HF diet feeding. The transcript levels of amylase and proteases were not significantly affected by diet and time. The transcript levels of specific lipases in hyperinsulinaemic, hyperleptinaemic and hyperglycaemic DIO C57BL/6J mice are down-regulated. However, these mice compensate for this by the post-transcriptional regulation of the levels of proteins that respond to dietary fat. This suggests a complex regulatory mechanism involved in the modulation of fat digestion.
We have previously shown that curcumin (CUR) may increase lipid accumulation in cultured human acute monocytic leukaemia cell line THP-1 monocytes/macrophages, but that tetrahydrocurcumin (THC), an in vivo metabolite of CUR, has no such effect. In the present study, we hypothesised that the different cellular uptake and/or metabolism of CUR and THC might be a possible explanation for the previously observed differences in their effects on lipid accumulation in THP-1 monocytes/macrophages. Chromatography with tandem MS revealed that CUR was readily taken up by THP-1 monocytes/macrophages and slowly metabolised to hexahydrocurcumin sulphate. By contrast, the uptake of THC was low. In parallel with CUR uptake, increased lipid uptake was observed in THP-1 macrophages but not with the uptake of THC or another CUR metabolite and structurally related compounds. From these results, it is possible to deduce that CUR and THC are taken up and metabolised differently in THP-1 cells, which determine their biological activity. The remarkable differential cellular uptake of CUR, relative to THC and other similar molecules, may imply that the CUR uptake into cells may occur via a transporter.
A high-fat diet (HFD) is one of the causes of hepatic steatosis. We previously demonstrated that Enterococcus faecalis FK-23 (FK-23), a type of lactic acid bacteria, exhibits an anti-obesity effect in mice fed a HFD. In the present study, we examined the effects of FK-23 on HFD-induced hepatic steatosis. Male C57BL/6 mice were divided into four groups and given one of four treatments: standard diet (SD); standard diet supplemented with FK-23 (SD+FK); HFD; or HFD supplemented with FK-23 (HFD+FK). For the administration of FK-23, the drinking water was supplemented with FK-23 at a concentration of 2 % (w/w). After 11 weeks, histological findings revealed hepatic steatosis in the liver of HFD-fed mice; however, this effect was attenuated by the administration of FK-23. The expression levels of genes involved in fatty acid oxidation in the liver tissue were significantly reduced in the HFD group compared with the SD group, but FK-23 supplementation tended to up-regulate the expression levels of these genes. Our findings show that the inhibitory effect of FK-23 against hepatic steatosis in HFD-fed mice can be explained by the prevention of fat accumulation in the liver through the modulation of the activities of genes involved in hepatic fatty acid oxidation.