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N-3 long-chain (≥C20) PUFA (LC-PUFA) are vital fatty acids for fish and humans. As a main source of n-3 LC-PUFA for human consumers, the n-3 LC-PUFA content of farmed fish is important. Previously, we identified fatty acid-binding protein (fabp)-4 as a candidate gene for regulating the n-3 LC-PUFA content. Herein, we further assessed the role of fabp4 in this process. First, a 2059 bp promoter sequence of fabp4 in Trachinotus ovatus was cloned and, using progressive deletion, determined −2006 bp to −1521 bp to be the core promoter sequence. The PPAR-γ binding sites were predicted to occur in this region. A luciferase reporter assay showed that the promoter activity of fabp4 decreased following mutation of the PPARγ binding site and that PPARγ increased the fabp4 promoter activity in a dose-dependent manner, implying that T. ovatus fabp4 is a target of PPARγ. The overexpression of fabp4 or PPARγ increased the DHA content in hepatocytes, whereas suppression of their expression diminished this effect, suggesting that both fabp4 and PPARγ play an active role in regulating DHA content. Moreover, the inhibition of fabp4 attenuated the increase in PPARγ-mediated DHA content, and the overexpression of fabp4 alleviated this effect. Collectively, our findings indicated that fabp4, which is controlled by PPARγ, plays an important role in DHA content regulation. The new regulation axis can be considered a promising novel target for increasing the n-3 LC-PUFA content in T. ovatus.
The present study evaluated the effects of increasing the dietary levels of EPA and DHA in Atlantic salmon (Salmo salar) reared in sea cages, in terms of growth performance, welfare, robustness and overall quality. Fish with an average starting weight of 275 g were fed one of four different diets containing 10, 13, 16 and 35 g/kg of EPA and DHA (designated as 1·0, 1·3, 1·6 and 3·5 % EPA and DHA) until they reached approximately 5 kg. The 3·5 % EPA and DHA diet showed a significantly beneficial effect on growth performance and fillet quality compared with all other diets, particularly the 1 % EPA and DHA diet. Fish fed the diet containing 3·5 % EPA and DHA showed 400–600 g higher final weights, improved internal organ health scores and external welfare indicators, better fillet quality in terms of higher visual colour score and lower occurrence of dark spots and higher EPA and DHA content in tissues at the end of the feeding trial. Moreover, fish fed the 3·5 % EPA and DHA diet showed lower mortality during a naturally occurring cardiomyopathy syndrome outbreak, although this did not reach statistical significance. Altogether, our findings emphasise the importance of dietary EPA and DHA to maintain good growth, robustness, welfare and fillet quality of Atlantic salmon reared in sea cages.
There is limited knowledge about the metabolism and function of n-3 very-long-chain PUFA (n-3 VLC-PUFA) with chain lengths ≥ 24. They are known to be produced endogenously in certain tissues from EPA and DHA and not considered to originate directly from dietary sources. The aim of this study was to investigate whether n-3 VLC-PUFA from dietary sources are bio-available and deposited in tissues of rat, fish and mouse. Rats were fed diets supplemented with a natural fish oil (FO) as a source of low dietary levels of n-3 VLC-PUFA, while Atlantic salmon and mice were fed higher dietary levels of n-3 VLC-PUFA from a FO concentrate. In all experiments, n-3 VLC-PUFA incorporation in organs was investigated. We found that natural FO, due to its high EPA content, to a limited extent increased endogenous production of n-3 VLC-PUFA in brain and eye of mice with neglectable amounts of n-3 VLC-PUFA originating from diet. When higher dietary levels were given in the form of concentrate, these fatty acids were bio-available and deposited in both phospholipids and TAG fractions of all tissues studied, including skin, eye, brain, testis, liver and heart, and their distribution appeared to be tissue-dependent, but not species-specific. When dietary EPA and DHA were balanced and n-3 VLC-PUFA increased, the major n-3 VLC-PUFA from the concentrate increased significantly in the organs studied, showing that these fatty acids can be provided through diet and thereby provide a tool for functional studies of these VLC-PUFA.
Excessive hepatic glycogen accumulation commonly impairs hepatocytes function and further produces negative effects on growth and health status of carnivorous fish. A 9-week feeding trial was conducted to explore the potential regulation of resveratrol (RSV) on high-carbohydrate-induced glycogen deposition and immune response of largemouth bass. Results showed that high dietary carbohydrate (10 % inclusion of starch) led to hepatic glycogen accumulation and post-prandial hyperglycemia compared with the diet with 5 % starch, which was both alleviated with the inclusion of RSV. The use of RSV promoted the expression of sirtuin 1, which was down-regulated by high dietary carbohydrate. Meanwhile, RSV inclusion promoted the expression of genes involved in insulin pathway and glycolysis and inhibited the expression of gluconeogenesis-related genes. Additionally, high dietary carbohydrate significantly reduced lysozyme content but increased complement C4 content, which were both reversed with RSV supplementation. Meanwhile, RSV inclusion inhibited the expression of pro-inflammatory cytokines but promoted anti-inflammatory cytokines expression, compared with the high carbohydrate treatment. In conclusion, RSV inclusion was beneficial in alleviating high-dietary-carbohydrate-induced glycogen accumulation and immune response in largemouth bass.
Commercial diets for tilapia juveniles contain high levels of plant protein sources. Soybean meal has been utilised due to its high protein content; however, soy-based diets are limited in methionine (Met) and require its supplementation to fulfil fish requirements. dl-Methinone (dl-Met) and Ca bis-methionine hydroxyl analogue (MHA-Ca) are synthetic Met sources supplemented in aquafeeds, which may differ in biological efficiency due to structural differences. The present study evaluated the effect of both methionine sources on metabolism and growth of Nile tilapia. A growth trial was performed using three isonitrogenous and isoenergetic diets, containing plant ingredients as protein sources: DLM and MHA diets were supplemented on equimolar levels of Met, while REF diet was not supplemented. Hepatic free Met and one-carbon metabolites were determined in fish fed for 57 d. Metabolism of dl-Met and MHA was analysed by an in vivo time-course trial using 14C-labelled tracers. Only dl-Met supplementation significantly increased final body weight and improved feed conversion and protein efficiency ratios compared with the REF diet. Our findings indicate that Met in DLM fed fish follows the transsulphuration pathway, while in fish fed MHA and REF diets it is remethylated. The in vivo trial revealed that 14C-dl-Met is absorbed faster and more retained than 14C-MHA, resulting in a greater availability of free Met in the tissues when fish is fed with DLM diet. Our study indicates that dietary dl-Met supplementation improves growth performance and N retention, and that Met absorption and utilisation are influenced by the dietary source in tilapia juveniles.
A short-term 2-week (2w) and long-term 8-week (8w) feeding trial was conducted to investigate the effects of low-starch (LS) and high-starch (HS) diets on the growth performance, metabolism and liver health of largemouth bass (Micropterus salmoides). Two isonitrogenous and isolipidic diets containing two levels of starch (LS, 9·06 %; HS, 13·56 %) were fed to largemouth bass. The results indicated that HS diet had no significant effects on specific growth rate during 2w, whereas significantly lowered specific growth rate at 8w. HS diet significantly increased hepatic glycolysis and gluconeogenesis at postprandial 24 h in 2w. The hepatosomatic index, plasma alkaline phosphatase, total bile acid (TBA) levels, and hepatic glycogen, TAG, total cholesterol, TBA, and NEFA contents were significantly increased in the HS group at 2w. Moreover, HS diet up-regulated fatty acid and TAG synthesis-related genes and down-regulated TAG hydrolysis and β-oxidation-related genes. Therefore, the glucolipid metabolism disorders resulted in metabolic liver disease induced by HS diet at 2w. However, the up-regulation of bile acid synthesis, inflammation and energy metabolism-related genes in 2w indicated that largemouth bass was still in a state of ‘self-repair’ response. Interestingly, all the metabolic parameters were returned to homoeostasis, with up-regulation of intestinal glucose uptake and transport-related genes, even hepatic histopathological analysis showed no obvious abnormality in the HS group in 8w. In conclusion, HS feed induced short-term acute metabolic disorder, but long-term metabolic adaptation to HS diet was related to repairing metabolism disorders via improving inflammatory responses, bile acid synthesis and energy metabolism. These results strongly indicated that the largemouth bass owned certain adaptability to HS diet.
A high circulating cholesterol concentration is considered an important risk factor for the development of CVD. Since lean fish intake and fish protein supplementation have been associated with lower cholesterol concentration in some but not all clinical studies, the main aim of this study was to investigate the effect of diets containing proteins from fish muscles and fish by-products on the serum/plasma total cholesterol (TC) concentration in rodents. A systematic literature search was performed using the databases PubMed, Web of Science and Embase, structured around the population (rodents), intervention (type of fish and fraction, protein dose and duration), comparator (casein) and the primary outcome (circulating TC). Articles were assessed for risk of bias using the SYRCLE’s tool. A meta-analysis was conducted in Review Manager v. 5·4·1 (the Cochrane Collaboration) to determine the effectiveness of proteins from fish on the circulating TC concentration. Thirty-nine articles were included in the systematic review and meta-analysis, with data from 935 rodents. The risk of bias is unclear since few of the entries in the SYRCLE’s tool were addressed. Consumption of proteins from fish resulted in a significantly lower circulating TC concentration when compared with control groups (mean difference −0·24 mmol/l, 95 % CI − 0·34, −0·15, P < 0·00001), with high statistical heterogeneity (I2 = 71 %). To conclude, proteins from fish muscles and by-products show promise as a functional dietary ingredient or supplement by preventing high cholesterol concentration in rodents, thus reducing one of the most important risk factors for developing CVD.
The study was conducted to determine the effects of three dietary Se sources, such as sodium-selenite (S-S), seleno-yeast (S-Y) and seleno-methionine (S-M), on Se concentration, glutathione peroxidase (GPX) and TXNRD activities, and mRNA expression of fifteen representative selenoproteins, and protein expression of four endoplasmic reticulum-resided selenoproteins in a wide range of tissues of yellow catfish. Compared with S-S and S-M groups, dietary S-Y significantly decreased growth performance and feed utilisation of yellow catfish. Dietary Se sources significantly influenced Se contents in the spleen, dorsal muscle and the kidney, GPX activities in spleen, kidney, intestine, muscle and mesenteric fat, and TXNRD activities in the heart, intestine and mesenteric fat. Among ten tested tissues, dietary Se sources influenced mRNA expression of GPX4 and SELENOK in three tissues; GPX3, SELENOS and TXNRD2 in four tissues; SELENOF, SELENON and DIO2 in five tissues; SELENOM, GPX1/2 and TXNRD3 in six tissues; SELENOW in seven tissue and SELENOP and SELENOT in eight tissues. Based on these observations above, S-S and S-M seem to be suitable Se sources for improving growth performance and feed utilisation of yellow catfish. Dietary Se sources differentially influence the expression of selenoproteins in various tissues of yellow catfish. For the first time, we determined the expression of selenoproteins in fish in responses to dietary Se sources, which contributes to a better understanding of the functions and regulatory mechanisms of selenoporteins.
As an internal time-keeping mechanism, circadian rhythm plays crucial role in maintaining homoeostasis when in response to nutrition change; meanwhile, branched-chain amino acids (BCAA) in skeletal muscle play an important role in preserving energy homoeostasis during fasting. Previous results from our laboratory suggested that fasting can influence peripheral circadian rhythm and BCAA metabolism in fish, but the relationship between circadian rhythm and BCAA metabolism, and whether circadian rhythm regulates BCAA metabolism to maintain physiological homoeostasis during fasting remains unclear. This study shows that the expression of fifteen core clock genes as well as KLF15 and Bcat2 is highly responsive to short-term fasting in fast muscle of Siniperca chuatsi, and the correlation coefficient between Clock and KLF15 expression is enhanced after fasting treatment. Furthermore, we demonstrate that the transcriptional expression of KLF15 is regulated by Clock, and the transcriptional expression of Bcat2 is regulated by KLF15 by using dual-luciferase reporter gene assay and Vivo-morpholinos-mediated gene knockdown technique. Therefore, fasting imposes a dynamic coordination of transcription between the circadian rhythm and BCAA metabolic pathways. The findings highlight the interaction between circadian rhythm and BCAA metabolism and suggest that fasting induces a switch in KLF15 expression through affecting the rhythmic expression of Clock, and then KLF15 promotes the transcription of Bcat2 to enhance the metabolism of BCAA, thus maintaining energy homoeostasis and providing energy for skeletal muscle as well as other tissues.
Poor utilisation efficiency of carbohydrate always leads to metabolic phenotypes in fish. The intestinal microbiota plays an important role in carbohydrate degradation. Whether the intestinal bacteria could alleviate high-carbohydrate diet (HCD)-induced metabolic phenotypes in fish remains unknown. Here, a strain affiliated to Bacillus amyloliquefaciens was isolated from the intestine of Nile tilapia. A basal diet (CON), HCD or HCD supplemented with B. amy SS1 (HCB) was used to feed fish for 10 weeks. The beneficial effects of B. amy SS1 on weight gain and protein accumulation were observed. Fasting glucose and lipid deposition were decreased in the HCB group compared with the HCD group. High-throughput sequencing showed that the abundance of acetate-producing bacteria was increased in the HCB group relative to the HCD group. Gas chromatographic analysis indicated that the concentration of intestinal acetate was increased dramatically in the HCB group compared with that in the HCD group. Glucagon-like peptide-1 was also increased in the intestine and serum of the HCB group. Thus, fish were fed with HCD, HCD supplemented with sodium acetate at 900 mg/kg (HLA), 1800 mg/kg (HMA) or 3600 mg/kg (HHA) diet for 8 weeks, and the HMA and HHA groups mirrored the effects of B. amy SS1. This study revealed that B. amy SS1 could alleviate the metabolic phenotypes caused by HCD by enriching acetate-producing bacteria in fish intestines. Regulating the intestinal microbiota and their metabolites might represent a powerful strategy for fish nutrition modulation and health maintenance in future.
Preterm birth is the leading cause of perinatal mortality and morbidity. Some prospective cohort studies suggested that fish and shellfish consumption may affect the incidence of preterm birth. However, conflicting evidence exists on the relationship between fish and shellfish consumption and preterm birth. A total of 10 179 women from Gansu province were interviewed after delivery to collect information on their past intake of fish and shellfish using FFQ. Logistic regression models were used to estimate OR and 95 % CI to examine the association between fish and shellfish consumption and preterm birth and its clinical subtypes. Fish and shellfish consumption was associated with reduced risk of preterm birth (OR = 0·65, 95 % CI 0·56, 0·77). Increasing frequency of fish and shellfish consumption, compared with no fish and shellfish consumption, was associated with decreasing odds of preterm birth. Besides, increasing weekly total amount of fish and shellfish consumption, compared with no fish and shellfish consumption, was also associated with decreasing odds of preterm birth. Significant trend effect was also seen between fish and shellfish consumption and very preterm birth (Pfor trend = 0·001) and spontaneous preterm birth (Pfor trend = 0·003). Interaction was observed between total fish and shellfish consumption with maternal age (Pfor interaction = 0·041) and pre-pregnancy BMI underweight (Pfor interaction = 0·012). Our findings showed that maternal fish and shellfish consumption was associated with lower incidence of preterm birth.We recommend for the national guideline of ≥350 g/week of fish and shellfish consumption among pregnant women.
Milk, dairy products, and fish are the main sources of iodine in the UK. Plant-based products are increasingly popular, especially with young women, which may affect iodine intake as they are naturally low in iodine; this is concerning as iodine is required for fetal brain development. We, aimed to (i) assess the iodine fortification of products sold as alternatives to milk, yoghurt, cheese and fish through a cross-sectional survey of UK retail outlets in 2020, and (ii) model the impact of substitution with such products on iodine intake, using portion-based scenarios. We identified 300 products, including plant-based alternatives to: (i) milk (n 146); (ii) yoghurt (n 76); (iii) cheese (n 67) and (iv) fish (n 11). After excluding organic products (n 48), which cannot be fortified, only 28 % (n 29) of milk alternatives and 6 % (n 4) of yoghurt alternatives were fortified with iodine, compared with 88 % (n 92) and 73 % (n 51), respectively, with Ca. No cheese alternative was fortified with iodine, but 55 % were fortified with Ca. None of the fish alternatives were iodine fortified. Substitution of three portions of dairy product (milk/yoghurt/cheese) per day with unfortified alternatives would reduce the iodine provided by 97·9 % (124 v. 2·6 µg) and substantially reduce the contribution to the adult intake recommendation (150 µg/d; 83 v. 1·8 %). Our study highlights that the majority of plant-based alternatives are not iodine fortified and that the use of unfortified alternatives put consumers at risk of iodine deficiency.
Fish consumption is associated with reduced risk of CVD, which may be partly mediated by alterations in plasma lipids, such as HDL-cholesterol. However, comprehensive analyses of associations between fatty fish consumption and lipoprotein subclass profile are limited and show inconsistent results. Therefore, the aim of the present exploratory study was to investigate the association between fatty fish consumption and lipoprotein subclass particle concentrations and composition, with an emphasis on HDL. We performed a comprehensive plasma metabolite profiling in 517 healthy adults, using a targeted high-throughput NMR spectroscopy platform. The participants were divided into tertiles based on consumption of fatty fish, reported through a validated FFQ. We compared the concentration of metabolites between the participants in the lowest and highest tertiles of fatty fish consumption. We show that high consumers of fatty fish (>223 g/week, median intake 294 g/week) had higher particle concentrations and content of total lipids, free cholesterol and phospholipids in large and extra-large HDL particles and higher content of total cholesterol, cholesteryl esters and TAG in large HDL particles than low consumers (<107 g/week, median intake 58 g/week). Using fatty fish consumption as a continuous variable, we found that fatty fish consumption was associated with lower levels of the inflammation marker glycoprotein acetyls. In conclusion, high consumers of fatty fish seem to have a more favourable HDL-cholesterol-related lipoprotein profile and anti-inflammatory phenotype than low consumers of fatty fish. Thus, these data support the current Norwegian dietary recommendations for fish consumption regarding CVD risk.
Long-chain n-3 PUFA (n-3 LCPUFA) are known to reduce blood pressure (BP), heart rate and vagal tone, but potential stress-mitigating effects of n-3 LCPUFA are not well investigated. We explored the effects of oily fish consumption on long-term stress and the stress response in schoolchildren. Healthy 8–9-year-old children were randomised to receive about 300 g/week of oily fish or poultry for 12 weeks (199 randomised, 197 completing). At baseline and endpoint, we measured erythrocyte n-3 LCPUFA, hair cortisol and the response to a 1-min cold pressor test (CPT) on saliva cortisol, BP and continuous electrocardiogram recordings. Post-intervention hair cortisol did not differ between the groups, but sex-specificity was indicated (Psex × group = 0·074, boys: −0·9 (95 % CI −2·9, 1·0) ng/g, girls: 0·7 (95 % CI −0·2, 1·6) ng/g). Children in the fish group tended to be less prone to terminate CPT prematurely (OR 0·20 (95 % CI 0·02, 1·04)). Mean heart beat interval during CPT was 18·2 (95 % CI 0·3, 36·6) ms longer and high frequency power increased (159 (95 % CI 29, 289) ms2) in the fish v. poultry group. The cardiac autonomic response in the 10 min following CPT was characterised by a sympathetic peak followed by a parasympathetic peak, which was most pronounced in the fish group. This exploratory study does not support a strong effect of oily fish consumption on stress but indicates that oily fish consumption may increase vagal cardiac tone during the physiological response to CPT. These results warrant further investigation.
Maternal fish consumption exposes the fetus to beneficial nutrients and potentially adverse neurotoxicants. The current study investigated associations between maternal fish consumption and child neurodevelopmental outcomes. Maternal fish consumption was assessed in the Seychelles Child Development Study Nutrition Cohort 1 (n 229) using 4-day food diaries. Neurodevelopment was evaluated at 9 and 30 months, and 5 and 9 years with test batteries assessing twenty-six endpoints and covering multiple neurodevelopmental domains. Analyses used multiple linear regression with adjustment for covariates known to influence child neurodevelopment. This cohort consumed an average of 8 fish meals/week and the total fish intake during pregnancy was 106·8 (sd 61·9) g/d. Among the twenty-six endpoints evaluated in the primary analysis there was one beneficial association. Children whose mothers consumed larger quantities of fish performed marginally better on the Kaufman Brief Intelligence Test (a test of nonverbal intelligence) at age 5 years (β 0·003, 95 % CI (0, 0·005)). A secondary analysis dividing fish consumption into tertiles found no significant associations when comparing the highest and lowest consumption groups. In this cohort, where fish consumption is substantially higher than current global recommendations, maternal fish consumption during pregnancy was not beneficially or adversely associated with children’s neurodevelopmental outcomes.
The present study investigated the effect of black soldier fly (Hermetia illucens) larvae meal (BSF) on haemolymph biochemical indicators, muscle metabolites as well as the lipid and glucose metabolism of Pacific white shrimp Litopenaeus vannamei. Four diets were formulated in which the control diet contained 25 % of fishmeal (FM) and 10 % (BSF10), 20 % (BSF20), and 30 % (BSF30) of FM protein were replaced with BSF. Four hundred and eighty shrimp (0·88 ± 0·00 g) were distributed to four groups of three replicates and fed for 7 weeks. Results showed that growth performance of shrimp fed BSF30 significantly decreased compared with those fed FM, but there was no significant difference in survival among groups. The whole shrimp crude lipid content, haemolymph TAG and total cholesterol were decreased with the increasing BSF inclusion. The results of metabolomics showed that the metabolite patterns of shrimp fed different diets were altered, with significant changes in metabolites related to lipid metabolism, glucose metabolism as well as TCA cycle. The mRNA expressions of hk, pfk, pk, pepck, ampk, mcd, cpt-1 and scd1 in hepatopancreas were downregulated in shrimp fed BSF30, but mRNA expression of acc1 was upregulated. Unlike BSF30, the mRNA expressions of fas, cpt-1, fbp and 6pgd in hepatopancreas were upregulated in shrimp fed BSF20. This study indicates that BSF20 diet promoted lipid synthesis and lipolysis, while BSF30 diet weakened β-oxidation and glycolysis as well as affected the unsaturated fatty acids synthesis, which may affect the growth performance and body composition of shrimp.
Portugal has high fish/seafood consumption, which may have both risks and benefits. This study aims to quantify the net health impact of hypothetical scenarios of fish/seafood consumption in the Portuguese population using a risk–benefit assessment methodology. Consumption data from the National Food, Nutrition and Physical Activity Survey 2015–2016 (n 5811) were used to estimate the mean exposure to methylmercury and EPA + DHA in the current and the alternative scenarios considered. Alternative scenarios (alt) were modelled using probabilistic approaches to reflect substitutions from the current consumption in the type of fish/seafood (alt1: excluding predatory fishes; alt2: including only methylmercury low-level fishes) or in the frequency of weekly fish/seafood consumption (alt3 to alt6: 1, 3, 5 or 7 times a week, replacing fish/seafood meals with meat or others). The overall health impact of these scenarios was quantified using disability-adjusted life years (DALY). In the Portuguese population, about 11 450 DALY could be prevented each year if the fish/seafood consumption increased to a daily basis. However, such a scenario would result in 1398 extra DALY considering the consumption by pregnant women and the respective risk on fetal neurodevelopment. Our findings support a recommendation to increase fish/seafood consumption up to 7 times/week. However, for pregnant women and children, special considerations must be proposed to avoid potential risks on fetal neurodevelopment due to methylmercury exposure.
Vitamin D (VD) plays a vital role in various physiological processes in addition to its classic functions on maintaining the balance of Ca and P metabolism. However, there still are gaps to understand in depth the issues on the precise requirement, metabolic processes and physiological functions of VD in fish. In this study, we investigated the effects of VD on the growth, intestinal health, host immunity and metabolism in turbot (Scophthalmus maximus L.), one important commercial carnivorous fish in aquaculture, through the supplementation of different doses of dietary VD3 (0, 200, 400, 800 and 1600 μg VD3/kg diet). According to our results, the optimal VD3 level in the feed for turbot growth was estimated to be around 400 μg/kg, whereas VD3 deficiency or overdose in diets induced the intestinal inflammation, lowered the diversity of gut microbiota and impaired the host resistance to bacterial infection in turbot. Moreover, the level of 1α,25(OH)2D3, the active metabolite of VD3, reached a peak value in the turbot serum in the 400 μg group, although the concentrations of Ca and phosphate in the turbot were stable in all groups. Finally, the deficiency of dietary VD3 disturbed the nutritional metabolism in turbot, especially the metabolism of lipids and glucose. In conclusion, this study evaluated the optimal dose of dietary VD3 for turbot and provided the evidence that VD has a significant impact on intestinal health, host immunity and nutritional metabolism in fish, which deepened our understanding on the physiological functions and metabolism of VD3 in fish.
High fish consumption may be associated with lower inflammation, suppressing atherosclerotic CVD (ASCVD). Long sleep duration, as well as short sleep, may contribute to inflammation, thus facilitating ASCVD. This study investigated the overall association between fish consumption, sleep duration and leucocytes count. We conducted a cross-sectional study between April 2019 and March 2020 with a cohort of 8947 apparently healthy participants with no history of ASCVD (average age, 46·9 ± 12·3 years and 59 % males). The average frequency of fish consumption and sleep duration were 2·13 ± 1·26 d/week and 6·0 ± 0·97 h/d. Multivariate linear regression analysis revealed that increased fish consumption was an independent determinant of sleep duration (β = 0·084, P < 0·0001). Additionally, habitual aerobic exercise (β = 0·059, P < 0·0001) or cigarette smoking (β = −0·051, P < 0·0001) and homoeostasis model assessment-insulin resistance (HOMA-IR) (β = −0·039, P = 0·01) were independent determinants of sleep duration. Furthermore, multivariate linear regression analysis identified fish consumption as an independent determinant of leucocytes count (β = −0·091, P < 0·0001). However, a significant U-shaped curve was found between leucocytes count and sleep duration, with 6–7 h of sleep as the low value (P = 0·015). Higher fish consumption may be associated with a lower leucocytes count in the presence of adequate sleep duration and healthy lifestyle behaviors. However, long sleep duration was also related to increased inflammation, even in populations with high fish consumption. Further studies are needed to clarify the causality between these factors.
Marine n-3 fatty acids (n-3LCPUFA) have shown neurocognitive benefits in children with attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder (ADHD), but few trials have examined effects in adults with autism spectrum disorder (ASD). We explored, if n-3LCPUFA affect cognitive functions in adults with ASD, and if effects are modified by comorbid ADHD. In a 2 × 4 week crossover study, twenty-six participants were randomised to sequence of supplementation with fish oil (FO, 5·2 g/d n-3PUFA) and safflower oil (SO). At baseline and after each period, we measured primary outcomes: attention (d2-test) and spatial working memory (Corsi test) and secondary outcomes: flexibility (Stroop word-colour test), ADHD symptoms (Conners scales), executive functions (Behavioural Inventory of Executive Function) and social behaviour (Social Responsiveness Scale). The dropout rate was 15 %. Compliance was 94 % and correlated with whole-blood n-3LCPUFA. Corsi scores improved by ∼0·3 × sd (P = 0·032) after FO v. SO, and the odds for d2 errors were 30 % lower (P = 0·016), which was supported by improved Conners scores of attention (P = 0·023). Improvement in Conners ADHD symptom score was limited to participants with ADHD (–3·5(–6·0; –1·0), n 10 v. −0·2(–2·5;2·2), n 11 without ADHD, Pinteraction = 0·096), who also improved their behavioural regulation index by 0·3 × sd after FO (Pinteraction = 0·016). Participants without ADHD gained most in d2 test performance (OR = 0·4(0·2;0·7) v. 0·9(0·6;1·3) in those with ADHD, Pinteraction = 0·002), but their executive function score was exacerbated after FO (5·9(0·0,11·8), Pinteraction = 0·039). Our results did not show any effects on ASD symptoms, but suggest that FO may improve attention and working memory in adults with ASD and ameliorate ADHD symptoms in those with comorbid ADHD.