Skip to main content Accessibility help
×
Home

Use of height3:waist circumference3 as an index for metabolic risk assessment?

  • Anja Bosy-Westphal (a1), Sandra Danielzik (a1), Corinna Geisler (a1), Simone Onur (a1), Oliver Korth (a1), Oliver Selberg (a2), Maria Pfeuffer (a3), Jürgen Schrezenmeir (a3) and Manfred J. Müller (a1)...

Abstract

Current anthropometric indices for health risk assessment are indirect measures of total or visceral body fat mass that do not consider the inverse relationship of lean body mass to metabolic risk as well as the non-linear relationship between central obesity and insulin resistance.We examined a new anthropometric index that reflects the relationship of waist circumference (WC) as a risk factor to fat-free mass (FFM) as a protective parameter of body composition. In apopulation of 335 adults (191 females and 144 males; mean age 53 (sd 13·9) years) with ahigh prevalence of obesity (27%) and metabolic syndrome (30%) we derived FFM:WC3 from the best fit of the relationship with metabolic risk factors (plasma triacylglycerol levels and insulin resistance by homeostasis model assessment index). Because FFM is known to be proportional to the cube of height, FFM was subsequently replaced by height3 yielding height3:WC3 as an easily applicable anthropometric index. Significant inverse relationships of height3:WC3 to metabolic risk factorswere observed for both sexes. They slightly exceeded those of conventional anthropometric indicessuch as BMI, WC or WC:hip ratio in women but not in men. The exponential character of the denominator WC3 implies that at a given FFM with gradually increasing WC the increasein metabolic risk is lower than proportional. Further studies are needed to evaluate height3:WC3 as an anthropometric index for health risk assessment.

    • Send article to Kindle

      To send this article to your Kindle, first ensure no-reply@cambridge.org is added to your Approved Personal Document E-mail List under your Personal Document Settings on the Manage Your Content and Devices page of your Amazon account. Then enter the ‘name’ part of your Kindle email address below. Find out more about sending to your Kindle. Find out more about sending to your Kindle.

      Note you can select to send to either the @free.kindle.com or @kindle.com variations. ‘@free.kindle.com’ emails are free but can only be sent to your device when it is connected to wi-fi. ‘@kindle.com’ emails can be delivered even when you are not connected to wi-fi, but note that service fees apply.

      Find out more about the Kindle Personal Document Service.

      Use of height3:waist circumference3 as an index for metabolic risk assessment?
      Available formats
      ×

      Send article to Dropbox

      To send this article to your Dropbox account, please select one or more formats and confirm that you agree to abide by our usage policies. If this is the first time you use this feature, you will be asked to authorise Cambridge Core to connect with your <service> account. Find out more about sending content to Dropbox.

      Use of height3:waist circumference3 as an index for metabolic risk assessment?
      Available formats
      ×

      Send article to Google Drive

      To send this article to your Google Drive account, please select one or more formats and confirm that you agree to abide by our usage policies. If this is the first time you use this feature, you will be asked to authorise Cambridge Core to connect with your <service> account. Find out more about sending content to Google Drive.

      Use of height3:waist circumference3 as an index for metabolic risk assessment?
      Available formats
      ×

Copyright

Corresponding author

*Corresponding author: Dr Matthias Brandsch, fax +49 04318805679, email abosyw@nutrfoodsc.uni-kiel.de

References

Hide All
Allison, DB, Paultre, F, Goran, MIPoehlman, ET&Heymsfield, SBStatistical considerations regarding the use of ratios to adjust data. Int J Obes 1995 19 644652
Allison, DB, Zhu, SK, Plankey, MFaith, MS&Heo, MDifferential associations of body mass index and adiposity with all-cause mortality among men in the first and second National Health and Nutrition Examination Surveys (NHANES I and NHANESII) follow-up studies. Int J Obes Relat Disord 2002 26 410416
Ashwell, M, Chinn, S, Stalley, S&Garrow, JSFemale fat distribution: a photographic and cellularity study. Int J Obes Relat Disord 1978 2 289302
Aubert, H, Frere, C, Aillaud, MF, Morange, PEJuhan-Vague, IAlessi, MCWeak and non-independent association between plasma TAFI antigen levels and the insulin resistance syndrome. J Thromb Haemost 2003 1 791797
Balkau, B&Charles, MAComment on the provisional report from the WHO consultation. European Group for the Study of Insulin Resistance (EGIR). Diabet Med 1999 16 442444
Bigaard, JFrederiksen, KTjonneland, AThomsen, BLOvervad, KHeitmann, BL&aSorensen, TIWaist and hip circumferences and all-cause mortality: usefulness of the waist-to-hip ratio?. Int J Obes Relat Metab Disord 2004a 28 741747
Bigaard, J, Frederiksen, KTjonneland, AThomsen, BLOvervad, KHeitmann, BL&Sorensen, TIBody fat and fat-free mass and all-cause mortality. Obes Res 2004b 12 10421049
Bigaard, J, Thomsen, BL, Tjonneland, ADoes waist circumference alone explain obesity-related health risk? Am J Clin Nutr 2004c 80 790792
Bigaard, J, Tjonneland, A, Thomsen, BL, Overvad, K, Heitman, BL&Sorensen, TIAWaist circumference, BMI, smoking, and mortality in middle-aged men and women. Obes Res 2003 11 895903
Bosy-Westphal, A, Eichhorn, C, Kutzner, D, Illner, K, Heller, M&Müller, MJThe age-related decline in resting energy expenditure in humans is due to the loss of fat-free mass and to alterations in its metabolically active components. J Nutr 2003a 133 23562362
Bosy-Westphal, A, Geisler, C, Onur, S, Korth, O, Selberg, O, Schrezenmeir, JMüller, MJValue of body fat mass vs. anthropometric obesity indices in the assessment of metabolic risk factors Int J Obes 2006 30 475483
Bosy-Westphal, A, Mast, M, Eichhorn, C, Becker, CKutzner, D, Heller, MMüller, MJValidation of air-displacement plethysmography for estimation of body fat mass in healthy elderly subjects. Eur J Nutr 2003b 42 207216
Brauer, GW&Prior, IAA prospective study of gout in New Zealand Maoris. Ann Rheum Dis 1978 37 466472
Chan, DC, Watts, GF, Barrett, PH&Burke, VWaist circumference, waist-to-hip ratio and body mass index as predictors of adipose tissue compartments in men. QJM 2003 96 441447
Cnop, M, Landchild, MJ, Vidal, J et al. , The concurrent accumulation of intra-abdominal and subcutaneous fat explains the association between insulin resistance and plasma leptin concentrations: distinct metabolic effects of two fat compartments Diabetes 2002 51 10051015
Danielzik, S, Czerwinski-Mast, M, Langnäse, K, Dilba, B & Müller, MJParental overweight, socioeconomic status and high birth weight are the major determinants of overweight and obesity in 5-7y-old children: baseline data of the Kiel Obesity Prevention Study Int J Obes Relat Disord 2004 28 14941502
Eng, J (2002). ROC analysis: web-based calculator for ROC curves. Johns Hopkins University, Baltimore. Accessed 19 February 2006. http://www.rad.jhmi.edu/roc.
Expert Panel on Detection, Evaluation, and Treatment of High Blood Cholesterol in Adults. Executive Summary of The Third Report of The National Cholesterol Education Program (NCEP) Expert Panel on Detection, Evaluation, and Treatment of High Blood Cholesterol in Adults (Adult Treatment Panel III).JAMA 2002 258 24862497
Forbes, GBStature and lean body mass. Am J Clin Nutr 1974 27 595602
Gan, SK, Kriketos, AD, Poynten, AM, Furler, SM, Thompson, CH, Kraegen, EW, Campbell, LV&Chrisholm, DJInsulin action, regional fat, and myocyte lipid: altered relationships with increased adiposity. Obes Res 2003 11 12951305
Guo, Z, Hensrud, DD, Johnson, CM, Jensen, MDRegional postprandial fatty acid metabolism in different obesity phenotypes. Diabetes 1999 48 15861592
Han, TS, McNeill, G, Seidell, JC&Lean, ME(1997) Predicting intra-abdominal fatness from anthropometric measures: the influence of stature. Int J Obes Relat Disord 1997 21 587593
Hansen, RDAllen, BJHabitual physical activity, anabolic hormones, and potassium content of fat-free mass in postmenopausal women. Am J Clin Nutr 2002 75 314320
Hara, MSaitou, EIwata, FOkada, THarada, KWaist-to-height ratio is the best predictor of cardiovascular disease risk factors in Japanese schoolchildren. J Atheroscler Thromb 2002 9 127132
He, QHeo, MHeshka, SWang, JPierson, RNAlbu, J Jr Wang, ZHeymsfield, SBGallagher, DTotal body potassium differs by sex and race across the adult age span. Am J Clin Nutr 2003 78 7277
Heitmann, BLErikson, HEllsinger, BMMikkelsen, KLLarsson, BMortality associated with body fat, fat-free mass and body mass index among 60-year-old Swedish men – a 22-year follow-up. The study of men born in 1913.Int J Obes Relat Metab Disord 2000 24 3337
Henriksson, KMLindblad, UAgren, BNilsson-Ehle, PRastam, LAssociations between body height, body composition and cholesterol levels in middle-aged men. The Coronary Risk Factor study in southern Sweden (CRISS). Eur J Epidemiol 2001 17 521526
Hsieh, SDMuto, TThe superiority of waist-to-height ratio as an anthropometric index to evaluate clustering of coronary risk factors among non-obese men and women. Prev Med 2005 40 216220
Hsieh, SDYoshinaga, HMuto, TWaist-to-height ratio, a simple and practical index for assessing central fat distribution and metabolic risk in Japanese men and women. Int J Obes Relat Disord 2003 27 610616
International Diabetes Federation (2005). The IDF consensus worldwide definition of the metabolic syndrome. International Diabetes Federation, Brussels, Belgium. Accessed 18 February 2006. http://www.idf.org.
Janssen, IKatzmarzyk, PTRoss, RWaist circumference and not body mass index explains obesity-related health risk. Am J Clin Nutr 2004 79 379384
Kotler, DPWang, JPierson, RNBody composition studies in patients with the acquired immunodeficiency syndrome. Am J Clin Nutr 1985 42 12551265
Kronmal, RASpurious correlation and the fallacy of the ratio standard revisited. J Roy Stat Soc 1992 156 379392
Kuk, JLLee, SHeymsfield, SBRoss, RWaist circumference and abdominal adipose tissue distribution: influence of age and sex. Am J Clin Nutr 2005 81 13301334
Lapidus, LBengtsson, CLarsson, BPennert, KRybo, ESjostrom, LDistribution of adipose tissue and risk of cardiovascular disease and death; a 12 year follow up of participants in the population study of women in Gothenburg, Sweden. BMJ 1984 289 12571260
Larsson, BSvardsudd, KWelin, LWilhelmsen, LBjorntorp, PTibblin, GAbdominal adipose tissue distribution, obesity and risk of cardiovascular disease and death: 13 year follow up of participants in the study of men born in 1913. BMJ 1984 288 14011404
Lewis, GFUffelmang, KDSzeto, LWWeller, BSteiner, GInteraction between free fatty acids and insulin in the acute control of very low density lipoprotein production in humans. J Clin Invest 1995 95 158166
Lissner, LBjorkelund, CHeitmann, BLSeidell, JCBergtsson, CLarger hip circumference independently predicts health and longevity in a Swedish female cohort. Obes Res 2001 9 644646
Lofren, IHerron, KZern, TWest, KPatalay, MShachter, NSKoo, SIFernandez, MLWaist circumference is a better predictor than body mass index for coronary heart disease risk in overweight premenopausal women. J Nutr 2004 134 10711076
Matthews, DRHosker, JPRudenski, ASNaylor, BATreacher, DFTurner, RCHomeostasis model assessment: insulin resistance and beta-cell function from fasting plasma glucose and insulin concentrations in man. Diabetologia 1985 28 412419
Müller, MJBosy-Westphal, AKutzner, DHeller, MMetabolically active components of fat-free mass and resting energy expenditure in humans: recent lessons from imaging technologies. Obes Rev 2002 3 113122
Nakanishi, NNakamura, KSuzuki, KMatsuo, YTatara, KAssociations of body mass index and percentage body fat by bioelectrical impedance analysis with cardiovascular risk factors in Japanese male office workers. Ind Health 2000 38 273279
Nielsen, SGuo, ZKJohnson, MHensrud, DDJensen, MDSplanchnic lipolysis in human obesity. J Clin Invest 2004 113 15821588
Onat, AAvci, GSBarlan, MMUyarel, HUzunlar, BSansoy, VMeasures of abdominal obesity assessed for visceral adiposity and relation to coronary risk. Int J Obes Relat Metab Disord 2004 28 10181025
Piers, LSSoares, MJ, Frandsen, SLO'Dea, KIndirect estimates of body composition are useful for groups but unreliable in individuals. Int J Obes Relat Metab Disord 2000 24 11451152
Richelsen, BPedersen, SB(1995) Associations between different anthropometric measurements of fatness and metabolic risk parameters in non-obese, healthy, middle-aged men. Int J Obes Relat Metab Disord 1995 19 169174
Sayeed, MAMahtab, HLatif, ZAKhanam, PAAhsan, KABanu, AAzad, Khan AKWaist-to-height ratio is a better obesity index than body mass index and waist-to-hip ratio for predicting diabetes, hypertension and lipidemia. Bangladesh Med Res Counc Bull 2003 29 110
Seidell, JCHan, TSFeskens, EJLean, MENarrow hips and broad waist circumferences independently contribute to increased risk of non-insulin-dependent diabetes mellitus. J Intern Med 1997 242 401406
Seidell, JCPersse, LDespres, J-PBouchard, C(2001) Waist and hip circumference have independent and opposite effects on cardiovascular disease risk factors: the Quebec Family Study. Am J Clin Nutr 2001 74 315321
Siri, WE (1961) Body composition from fluid spaces and density: analysis of methods. In Techniques for Measuring Body Composition, pp. 223244 [Siri, Brozek JHenschel, A editors]. Washington, DC National Academy of Sciences
Snijder, MBDekker, JMVisser, MYudkin, JSStehouwer, CDBouter, LMHeine, RJNijpels, GSeidell, JCLarger thigh and hip circumferences are associated with better glucose tolerance: the Hoorn Study. Obes Res 2003 11 104111
Snijder, MBZimmet, PZVisser, MDekker, JMSeidell, JCShaw, JEIndependent and opposite associations of waist and hip circumferences with diabetes, hypertension and dyslipidemia: the AusDiab Study. Int J Obes Relat Metab Disord 2004 28 402409
Tai, ESHo, SCFok, ACTan, CEMeasurement of obesity by anthropometry and bioelectric impedance analysis: correlation with fasting lipids and insulin resistance in an Asian population. Ann Acad Med Singapore 1999 28 445450
Terry, RBWood, PDHaskell, WLStefanick, MLKrauss, RM(1989) Regional adiposity patterns in relation to lipids, lipoprotein cholesterol, and lipoprotein subfraction mass in men. J Clin Endocrinol Metab 1989 68 191199
Tulloch-Reid, MKWilliams, DELooker, HCHanson, RLKnowler, WCDo measures of body fat distribution provide information on the risk of type 2 diabetes in addition to measures of general obesity? – Comparison of anthropometric predictors of type 2 diabetes in Pima Indians. Diabetes Care 2003 26 25562561
Warne, DKCharles, MAHanson, RLJacobsen, LTHMcCane, DRKnowler, WCPettitt, DJComparison of body size measurements as predictors of NIDDM in Pima Indians. Diabetes Care 1995 18 435439
Wellen, KEHotamisligil, GSObesity-induced inflammatory changes in adipose tissue. J Clin Invest 2003 112 17851788

Keywords

Related content

Powered by UNSILO

Use of height3:waist circumference3 as an index for metabolic risk assessment?

  • Anja Bosy-Westphal (a1), Sandra Danielzik (a1), Corinna Geisler (a1), Simone Onur (a1), Oliver Korth (a1), Oliver Selberg (a2), Maria Pfeuffer (a3), Jürgen Schrezenmeir (a3) and Manfred J. Müller (a1)...

Metrics

Full text views

Total number of HTML views: 0
Total number of PDF views: 0 *
Loading metrics...

Abstract views

Total abstract views: 0 *
Loading metrics...

* Views captured on Cambridge Core between <date>. This data will be updated every 24 hours.

Usage data cannot currently be displayed.