Abu-Elheiga, L, Almarza-Ortega, DB, Baldini, A & Wakil, SJ (1997) Human acetyl-CoA carboxylase 2. Journal of Biological Chemistry 272, 10669–10677.
Abu-Elheiga, L, Jayakumar, A, Baldini, A, Chirala, SS & Wakil, SJ (1995) Human acetyl-CoA carboxylase: characterization, molecular cloning, and evidence for two isoforms. Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences USA 92, 4011–4015.
Abu-Elheiga, L, Matzuk, MM, Abo-Hashema, KAH & Wakil, SJ (2001) Continuous fatty acid oxidation and reduced fat storage in mice lacking acetyl-CoA carboxylase 2. Science 291, 2613–2616.
Alvarez, MJ, Díez, A, López-Bote, C, Gallego, M & Bautista, JM (2000) Short-term modulation of lipogenesis by macronutrients in rainbow trout (Oncorhynchus mykiss) hepatocytes. British Journal of Nutrition 84, 619–628.
Arnesen, P, Krogdahl, Å & Kristiansen, IØ (1993) Lipogenic enzyme activities in liver of Atlantic salmon (Salmo salar L.). Comparative Biochemistry and Physiology 105B, 541–546.
Association of Official Analytical Chemists (1990) Official Methods of Analysis. Arlington, VA, USA.
Bianchi, A, Evans, JL, Iverson, AJ, Nordlund, AC, Watts, TD & Witters, LA (1990) Identification of an isozymic form of acetyl-CoA carboxylase. Journal of Biological Chemistry 265, 1502–1509.
Bradford, M (1976) A rapid and sensitive method for the quantitation of microgram quantities of protein utilizing the principle of protein-dye binding. Analytical Biochemistry 72, 248–254.
Brown, NF & McGarry, JD (1997) The carnitine palmitoyl-transferase system – From concept to molecular analysis. European Journal of Biochemistry 244, 1–14.
Chilliard, Y (1993) Dietary fat and adipose tissue metabolism in ruminants, pigs and rodents: a review. Journal of Dairy Science 76, 3897–3931.
Dias, J, Alvarez, MJ, Díez, A, Arzel, J, Corraze, G, Bautista, JM & Kaushik, SJ (1998) Regulation of hepatic lipogenesis by dietary protein/energy in juvenile European sea bass (Dicentrarchus labrax). Aquaculture 161, 169–186.
Dobbins, RL, Szczepaniak, LS, Bentley, B, Esser, V & Myhill, J (2001) Prolonged inhibition of muscle carnitine palmitoyltransferase-1 promotes intramyocellular lipid accumulation and insulin resistance in rats. Diabetes 50, 123–130.
Evans, J & Witters, LA (1988) Quantitation by immunoblotting of the in vivo induction and subcellular distribution of hepatic acetyl-CoA carboxylase. Archives of Biochemistry and Biophysics 264, 103–113.
Foufelle, F, Perdereau, D, Gouhot, B, Ferre, P & Girard, J (1992) Effect of diets rich in medium-chain and long-chain triglycerides on lipogenic-enzyme gene expression in liver and adipose tissue of the weaned rat. European Journal of Biochemistry 208, 381–387.
Fynn-Aikins, KHS, Liu, W & Li, H (1992) Growth, lipogenesis and liver composition of juvenile white sturgeon fed different levels of D-glucose. Aquaculture 105, 61–72.
Gnoni, GV & Muci, MR (1990) De novo fatty acid synthesis in eel liver cytosol. Comparative Biochemistry and Physiology 95B, 153–158.
Ha, J, Lee, JK, Kim, KS, Witters, LA & Kim, KH (1996) Cloning of human acetyl-CoA carboxylase-β and its unique features. Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences USA 93, 11466–11470.
Hardie, DG & Guy, PS (1980) Reversible phosphorylation and inactivation of acetyl–CoA carboxylase from lactating rat mammary gland by cyclic AMP-dependent protein kinase. European Journal of Biochemistry 110, 167–177.
Henderson, RJ & Sargent, JR (1981) Lipid biosynthesis in rainbow trout, Salmo gairdneri, fed diets differing in lipid content. Comparative Biochemistry and Physiology 69C, 31–37.
Hillgartner, FB, Charron, T & Chesnut, KA (1996) Alterations in nutritional status regulate acetyl-CoA carboxylase expression in avian liver by a transcriptional mechanism. Biochemical Journal 319, 263–268.
Hillgartner, FB, Salati, LM & Goodridge, AG (1995) Physiological and molecular mechanisms involved in nutritional regulation of fatty acid synthesis. Physiological Reviews 75, 47–76.
Hilton, JW & Atkinson, JL (1982) Response of rainbow trout (Salmo gairdneri) to increasing levels of available carbohydrate in practical trout diets. British Journal of Nutrition 47, 597–607.
Holland, R, Witters, LA & Hardie, DG (1984) Glucagon inhibits fatty acid synthesis in isolated hepatocytes via phosphorylation of acetyl-CoA carboxylase by cyclic-AMP-dependent protein kinase. European Journal of Biochemistry 140, 325–333.
Iritani, N (1993) A review: Nutritional and hormonal regulation of lipogenic enzyme gene expression in rat liver. European Journal of Biochemistry 205, 433–442.
Iritani, N, Ikeda, Y, Fukuda, H & Katsurada, A (1984) Comparative study of lipogenic enzymes in several vertebrates. Lipids 19, 828–835.
Iritani, N, Komiya, M, Fukuda, H & Sugimoto, T (1998) Lipogenic enzyme gene expression is quickly suppressed in rats by a small amount of exogenous polyunsaturated fatty acids. Journal of Nutrition 128, 967–972.
Iverson, AJ, Bianchi, A, Nordlund, AC & Witters, LA (1990) Immunological analysis of acetyl-CoA carboxylase mass, tissue distribution and subunit composition. Biochemical Journal 269, 365–371.
Jürss, K, Bittorf, T & Völker, T (1985) Influence of salinity and ratio of lipid to protein in diets on certain enzyme activities in rainbow trout (Salmo gairdneri Richardson). Comparative Biochemistry and Physiology 81B, 73–79.
Kheyyali, D, Shimeno, S & Takeda, M (1989) Effect of dietary carbohydrate and lipid levels on hepatopancreatic enzymes and body composition in carp. In The Current Status of Fish Nutrition in Aquaculture, pp. 253–261. [Takeda, M and Watanabe, T, editors]. Proceedings of the Third International Symposium on Feeding and Nutrition in Fish. Tokyo, Japan: Tokyo University Press.
Kim, KH (1997) Regulation of mammalian acetyl-coenzyme A carboxylase. Annual Review in Nutrition 17, 77–99.
Kim, KH, López-Casillas, F, Bai, DH & Pape, ME (1989) Role of reversible phosphorylation of acetyl-CoA carboxylase in long-chain fatty acid synthesis. FASEB Journal 3, 2250–2256.
Kim, KH & Tae, HJ (1994) Pattern and regulation of acetyl-CoA carboxylase gene expression. Journal of Nutrition 124, 1273S–1283S.
Likimani, TA & Wilson, RP (1982) Effects of diet on lipogenic enzyme activities in channel catfish hepatic and adipose tissue. Journal of Nutrition 112, 112–117.
Lin, H, Romsos, DR, Tack, PI & Leveille, GA (1977 a) Influence of dietary lipid on lipogenic enzyme activities in coho salmon (Oncorhynchus kisutch (Walbaum)). Journal of Nutrition 107, 846–854.
Lin, H, Romsos, DR, Tack, PI & Leveille, GA (1977 b) Effects of fasting and feeding various diets on hepatic lipogenic enzyme activities in coho salmon (Oncorhynchus kisutch (Walbaum)). Journal of Nutrition 107, 1477–1483.
Lin, H, Romsos, DR, Tack, PI & Leveille, GA (1977 c) Influence of diet on in vitro and in vivo rates of fatty acid synthesis in coho salmon, Oncorhynchus kisutch (Walbaum). Journal of Nutrition 107, 1677–1682.
Love, RM (1970) The Chemical Biology of Fishes. London, New York: Academic Press.
Mabrouk, GM, Helmy, IM, Thampy, KG & Wakil, SJ (1990) Acute hormonal control of acetyl-CoA carboxylase: the roles of insulin, glucagon and epinephrine. Journal of Biological Chemistry 265, 6330–6338.
Nagayama, F, Ohshima, H, Umezawa, K & Kaiho, M (1972) Effect of starvation on activities of glucose-6-phosphate metabolising enzymes in fish. Bulletin of the Japanese Society of Scientific Fisheries 38, 595–598.
National Research Council (1993) Nutrient Requirements of Fish. Washington, DC: National Academic Press.
Newsholme, EA & Start, C (1973) Regulation of carbohydrate metabolism in liver and regulation of fat metabolism in liver. In Regulation in Metabolism. pp 247–316. [Newsholme, EA and Start, C, editors]. New York: John Wiley & Sons. (chapters 6 and 7)
Pape, ME, López-Casillas, F & Kim, KH (1988) Physiological regulation of acetyl-CoA carboxylase gene expression: effects of diet, diabetes, and lactation on acetyl-CoA carboxylase mRNA. Archives of Biochemistry and Biophysics 267, 104–109.
Poston, HA & McCartney, TH (1974) Effect of dietary biotin and lipid on growth, stamina, lipid metabolism and biotin-containing enzymes in brook trout (Salvelinus fontinalis). Journal of Nutrition 104, 315–322.
Sargent, JR, Henderson, RJ & Tocher, DR (1989) The lipids. In Fish Nutrition. 2nd ed., pp 153–218. [Halver, JE, editor]. New York: Academic Press.
Segner, H & Böhm, R (1994) Enzymes of lipogenesis. In Biochemistry and Molecular Biology of Fishes, vol. 3, Analytical Techniques. pp 313–325. [Hochachka, PW and Mommsen, TP, editors]. Amsterdam: Elsevier Science BV.
Shimeno, S, Hosokawa, H & Shikata, M (1996) Metabolic response of juvenile yellow tail to dietary carbohydrate to lipid ratios. Fisheries Science 62, 945–949.
Shimeno, S, Kheyali, D & Shikata, T (1995 a) Metabolic response to dietary carbohydrate to protein ratios in carp. Fisheries Science 61, 277–281.
Shimeno, S, Kheyali, D & Shikata, T (1995 b) Metabolic response to dietary lipid to protein ratios in common carp. Fisheries Science 61, 977–980.
Shimeno, S, Takeda, M, Takayama, S, Fukui, A, Sasaki, H & Kajiyama, H (1981) Adaptation of hepatopancreatic enzymes to dietary carbohydrates in carp. Bulletin of the Japanese Society of Scientific Fisheries 47, 71–77.
Sokal, RR & Rohlf, FJ (1995) Biometry: The Principles and Practice of Statistics in Biological Research, 3rd ed, New York: Freeman and Company.
Takai, T, Saito, Y, Yamamoto, K & Tanabe, T (1988) Developmental changes of the content of acetyl-CoA carboxylase mRNA in chicken liver. Archives of Biochemistry and Biophysics 266, 313–318.
Thampy, KG (1989) Formation of malonyl coenzyme A in rat heart. Identification and purification of an isozyme of A carboxylase from rat heart. Journal of Biological Chemistry 264, 17631–17634.
Thampy, KG & Koshy, AG (1991) Purification, characterization, and ontogeny of acetyl-CoA carboxylase isozyme of chick embryo brain. Journal of Lipid Research 32, 1667–1673.
Towle, HC, Kaytor, EN & Shih, HM (1997) Regulation of the expression of lipogenic enzyme genes by carbohydrate. Annual Review in Nutrition 17, 405–433.
van den Thillart, G & van Raaij, M (1995) Endogenous fuels; non-invasive versus invasive approaches. In Biochemistry and Molecular Biology of Fishes, vol. 4, Metabolic Biochemistry, pp. 33–63. [Hochachka, PW and Mommsen, TP, editors]. Amsterdam: Elsevier Science BV.
Vernon, RG, Barber, MC & Travers, MT (1999) Present and future studies on lipogenesis in animals and human subjects. Proceedings of the Nutrition Society 58, 541–549.
Wakil, SJ, Stoops, JK & Joshi, VC (1983) Fatty acid synthesis and its regulation. Annual Review of Biochemistry 52, 537–579.