Skip to main content Accessibility help
×
Home

Sex differences in adolescents’ glycaemic and insulinaemic responses to high and low glycaemic index breakfasts: a randomised control trial

  • Simon B. Cooper (a1), Karah J. Dring (a1), John G. Morris (a1), Ben E. W. Cousins (a1), Maria L. Nute (a1) and Mary E. Nevill (a1)...

Abstract

During puberty young people undergo significant hormonal changes which affect metabolism and, subsequently, health. Evidence suggests there is a period of transient pubertal insulin resistance, with this effect greater in girls than boys. However, the response to everyday high and low glycaemic index (GI) meals remains unknown. Following ethical approval, forty adolescents consumed a high GI or low GI breakfast, in a randomised cross-over design. Capillary blood samples were taken during a 2-h postprandial period, examining the glycaemic and insulinaemic responses. Maturity offset and homoeostatic model assessment (HOMA) were also calculated. The glycaemic response to the breakfasts was similar between boys and girls, as shown by similar peak blood glucose concentrations and incremental AUC (IAUC) following both high and low GI breakfasts (all P>0·05). Girls exhibited a higher peak plasma insulin concentration 30 min post-breakfast following both high GI (P=0·043, g=0·69) and low GI (P=0·010, g=0·84) breakfasts, as well as a greater IAUC following high GI (P=0·041, g=0·66) and low GI (P=0·041, g=0·66) breakfasts. HOMA was positively correlated with the insulinaemic responses (all P<0·0005) and maturity offset (P=0·037). The findings of the present study suggest that pubertal insulin resistance affects the postprandial insulinaemic responses to both high and low GI meals. Specifically, girls exhibit a greater insulinaemic response than boys to both meals, despite similar glycaemic responses. This study is the first to report the glycaemic and insulinaemic responses to everyday meals in boys and girls, supporting the recommendation for young people to base their diet on low GI carbohydrates.

  • View HTML
    • Send article to Kindle

      To send this article to your Kindle, first ensure no-reply@cambridge.org is added to your Approved Personal Document E-mail List under your Personal Document Settings on the Manage Your Content and Devices page of your Amazon account. Then enter the ‘name’ part of your Kindle email address below. Find out more about sending to your Kindle. Find out more about sending to your Kindle.

      Note you can select to send to either the @free.kindle.com or @kindle.com variations. ‘@free.kindle.com’ emails are free but can only be sent to your device when it is connected to wi-fi. ‘@kindle.com’ emails can be delivered even when you are not connected to wi-fi, but note that service fees apply.

      Find out more about the Kindle Personal Document Service.

      Sex differences in adolescents’ glycaemic and insulinaemic responses to high and low glycaemic index breakfasts: a randomised control trial
      Available formats
      ×

      Send article to Dropbox

      To send this article to your Dropbox account, please select one or more formats and confirm that you agree to abide by our usage policies. If this is the first time you use this feature, you will be asked to authorise Cambridge Core to connect with your <service> account. Find out more about sending content to Dropbox.

      Sex differences in adolescents’ glycaemic and insulinaemic responses to high and low glycaemic index breakfasts: a randomised control trial
      Available formats
      ×

      Send article to Google Drive

      To send this article to your Google Drive account, please select one or more formats and confirm that you agree to abide by our usage policies. If this is the first time you use this feature, you will be asked to authorise Cambridge Core to connect with your <service> account. Find out more about sending content to Google Drive.

      Sex differences in adolescents’ glycaemic and insulinaemic responses to high and low glycaemic index breakfasts: a randomised control trial
      Available formats
      ×

Copyright

Corresponding author

* Corresponding author: Dr S. B. Cooper, fax +44 115 848 6636, email Simon.Cooper@ntu.ac.uk

References

Hide All
1. Roemmich, JN & Ragol, AD (1999) Hormonal changes during puberty and their relationship to fat distribution. Am J Hum Biol 11, 209224.
2. Moran, A, Jacobs, DR, Steinberger, J, et al. (1999) Insulin resistance during puberty: results from clamp studies in 357 children. Diabetes 48, 20392044.
3. Caprio, S, Plewe, G, Diamond, MP, et al. (1989) Increased insulin secretion in puberty: a compensatory response to reductions in insulin sensitivity. J Pedaitr 114, 963967.
4. Hoffman, RP, Vicini, P, Sivitz, WI, et al. (2000) Pubertal adolescent male-females differences in insulin sensitivity and glucose effectiveness determined by the one compartment minimal model. Pediatr Res 48, 384388.
5. Goran, MI & Gower, BA (2001) Longitudinal study on pubertal insulin resistance. Diabetes 50, 24442450.
6. Hannon, TS, Janosky, J & Arslanian, SA (2006) Longitudinal study of physiologic insulin resistance and metabolic changes of puberty. Pediatr Res 60, 759763.
7. Jeffery, AN, Metcalf, BS, Hosking, J, et al. (2012) Age before stage: insulin resistance rises before the onset of puberty. Diabetes Care 35, 536541.
8. Ehtisham, S, Barrett, TG & Shaw, NJ (2000) Type 2 diabetes mellitus in UK children – an emerging problem. Diabet Med 17, 867871.
9. Kavey, REW, Daniels, SR, Lauer, RM, et al. (2003) American Heart Association guidelines for primary prevention of atherosclerotic cardiovascular disease beginning in childhood. Circulation 107, 15621566.
10. Metcalf, BS, Hosking, J, Henley, WE, et al. (2015) Physical activity attenuates the mid-adolescent peak in insulin resistance but by late adolescence the effect is lost: a longitudinal study with annual measures from 9–16 years (EarlyBird 66). Diabetologia 58, 26992708.
11. Penno, G, Solini, A, Bonora, E, et al. (2013) Gender differences in cardiovascular disease risk factors, treatments and complications in patients with type 2 diabetes: the RIACE Italian multicentre study. J Intern Med 274, 176191.
12. Jones, M, Barclay, AW, Brand-Miller, JC, et al. (2016) Dietary glycaemic index and glycaemic load among Australian children and adolescents: results from the 2011–2012 Australian Health Survey. Br J Nutr 116, 178187.
13. Livesey, G, Taylor, R, Hulshof, T, et al. (2008) Glycemic response and health – a systematic review and meta-analysis: relations between dietary glycemic properties and health outcomes. Am J Clin Nutr 87, 258S268S.
14. Amiel, SA, Sherwin, RS, Simonson, DC, et al. (1986) Impaired insulin action in puberty: a contributing factor to poor glycemic control in adolescents with diabetes. N Engl J Med 315, 215219.
15. Arslanian, SA & Kalhan, SC (1994) Correlations between fatty acid and glucose metabolism: potential explanation of insulin resistance of puberty. Diabetes 43, 908914.
16. Araujo, J, Barros, H, Severo, M, et al. (2013) Longitudinal changes in adiposity during adolescence: a population-based cohort. BMJ Open 4, e004380.
17. Moran, A, Jacobs, DR, Steinberger, J, et al. (2002) Association between the insulin resistance of puberty and the insulin-like growth factor-I/growth hormone axis. J Clin Endocrinol Metab 87, 48174820.
18. Cooper, SB, Bandelow, S, Nute, ML, et al. (2012) Breakfast glycaemic index and cognitive function in adolescent school children. Br J Nutr 107, 18231832.
19. Moore, SA, McKay, HA, MacDonald, H, et al. (2015) Enhancing a somatic maturity prediction model. Med Sci Sports Exerc 47, 17551764.
20. Wolever, TMS & Jenkins, DJA (1986) The use of the glycaemic index in predicting blood glucose response to mixed meals. Am J Clin Nutr 43, 167172.
21. International Organisation for Standardisation (ISO) (2010) ISO 26642:2010. Food products – determination of the glycaemic index (GI) and recommendation for food classification. https://www.iso.org/standard/43633.html
22. Foster-Powell, K, Holt, SHA & Brand-Miller, JC (2002) International table of glycaemic index and glycaemic load values: 2002. Am J Clin Nutr 76, 556.
23. Brouns, F, Bjorck, I, Frayn, KN, et al. (2005) Glycaemic index methodology. Nutr Res Rev 18, 145171.
24. Wolever, TMS, Jenkins, DJA, Jenkins, AL, et al. (1991) The glycemic index: methodology and clinical implications. Am J Clin Nutr 54, 846854.
25. Kuwa, K, Nakayama, T, Hoshino, T, et al. (2001) Relationships of glucose concentrations in capillary whole blood, venous whole blood and venous plasma. Clin Chim Acta 307, 187192.
26. Wolever, TMS (2003) Carbohydrate and the regulation of blood glucose and metabolism. Nutr Rev 61, S40S48.
27. Matthews, DR, Hosker, JP, Rudenski, AS, et al. (1985) Homeostasis model assessment: insulin resistance and beta-cell function from fasting plasma glucose and insulin concentrations in man. Diabetologia 28, 412419.
28. Stevenson, EJ, Williams, C, Nute, M, et al. (2005) The effect of the glycaemic index of an evening meal on the metabolic responses to a standard high glycaemic index breakfast and subsequent exercise in men. Int J Sport Nutr Exerc Metab 15, 308322.
29. Stevenson, EJ, Williams, C, Mash, LE, et al. (2006) Influence of high-carbohydrate mixed meals with different glycemic indexes on substrate utilization during subsequent exercise in women. Am J Clin Nutr 84, 354360.
30. Sherar, LB, Baxter-Jones, ADG & Mirwald, RL (2004) Limitations to the use of secondary sex characteristics for gender comparisons. Ann Hum Biol 31, 586593.
31. Ruby, BC & Robergs, RA (1994) Gender differences in substrate utilisation during exercise. Sports Med 17, 393410.

Keywords

Sex differences in adolescents’ glycaemic and insulinaemic responses to high and low glycaemic index breakfasts: a randomised control trial

  • Simon B. Cooper (a1), Karah J. Dring (a1), John G. Morris (a1), Ben E. W. Cousins (a1), Maria L. Nute (a1) and Mary E. Nevill (a1)...

Metrics

Altmetric attention score

Full text views

Total number of HTML views: 0
Total number of PDF views: 0 *
Loading metrics...

Abstract views

Total abstract views: 0 *
Loading metrics...

* Views captured on Cambridge Core between <date>. This data will be updated every 24 hours.

Usage data cannot currently be displayed