Skip to main content Accessibility help
×
Home

Reproducibility of essential elements chromium, manganese, iron, zinc and selenium in spot samples, first-morning voids and 24-h collections from healthy adult men

  • Heng-Gui Chen (a1), Ying-Jun Chen (a1), Chen Chen (a1), Zhou-Zheng Tu (a1), Qi Lu (a1), Ping Wu (a1), Jun-Xiang Chen (a1), Yi-Xin Wang (a1) and An Pan (a1)...

Abstract

Evaluation of Cr, Mn, Fe, Zn and Se in humans is challenged by the potentially high within-individual variability of these elements in biological specimens, which are poorly characterised. This study aimed to evaluate their within-day, between-day and between-month variability in spot samples, first-morning voids and 24-h collections. A total of 529 spot urine samples (including eighty-eight first-morning voids and 24-h collections) were collected from eleven Chinese adult men on days 0, 1, 2, 3, 4, 30, 60 and 90 and analysed for these five elements using inductively coupled plasma-MS. Intraclass correlation coefficients (ICC) were utilised to characterise the reproducibility, and their sensitivity and specificity were analysed to assess how well a single measurement classified individuals’ 3-month average exposures. Serial measurements of Zn in spot samples exhibited fair to good reproducibility (creatinine-adjusted ICC = 0·47) over five consecutive days, which became poor when the samples were gathered months apart (creatinine-adjusted ICC = 0·33). The reproducibility of Cr, Mn, Fe and Se in spot samples was poor over periods ranging from days to months (creatinine-adjusted ICC = 0·01–0·12). Two spot samples were sufficient for classifying 60 % of the men who truly had the highest (top 33 %) 3-month average Zn concentrations; for Cr, Mn, Fe and Se, however, at least three specimens were required to achieve similar sensitivities. In conclusion, urinary Cr, Mn, Fe, Zn and Se concentrations showed a strong within-individual variability, and a single measurement is not enough to efficiently characterise individuals’ long-term exposures.

Copyright

Corresponding author

*Corresponding authors: A. Pan, email panan@hust.edu.cn; Y.-X. Wang, email wangyx0203@163.com

Footnotes

Hide All

Authors contributed equally.

Footnotes

References

Hide All
1.National Institutes of Health Office of Dietary Supplements (2018) Dietary supplement fact sheets. https://ods.od.nih.gov/factsheets/list-all/ (accessed November 2018).
2.Mohammadifard, N, Humphries, KH, Gotay, C, et al. (2017) Trace minerals intake: risks and benefits for cardiovascular health. Crit Rev Food Sci Nutr 59, 113.
3.Chu, A, Foster, M & Samman, S (2016) Zinc status and risk of cardiovascular diseases and type 2 diabetes mellitus-a systematic review of prospective cohort studies. Nutrients 8, 707.
4.Shan, Z, Chen, S, Sun, T, et al. (2016) U-shaped association between plasma manganese levels and type 2 diabetes. Environ Health Perspect 124, 18761881.
5.Himoto, T & Masaki, T (2018) Associations between zinc deficiency and metabolic abnormalities in patients with chronic liver disease. Nutrients 10, 88.
6.Yuan, Z, Xu, X, Ye, H, et al. (2015) High levels of plasma selenium are associated with metabolic syndrome and elevated fasting plasma glucose in a Chinese population: a case-control study. J Trace Elem Med Biol 32, 189194.
7.Shil, K & Pal, S (2018) Metabolic adaptability in hexavalent chromium-treated renal tissue: an in vivo study. Clin Kidney J 11, 222229.
8.Fang, S, Zhuo, Z, Yu, X, et al. (2018) Oral administration of liquid iron preparation containing excess iron induces intestine and liver injury, impairs intestinal barrier function and alters the gut microbiota in rats. J Trace Elem Med Biol 47, 1220.
9.Kok, FJ, Van Duijn, CM, Hofman, A, et al. (1988) Serum copper and zinc and the risk of death from cancer and cardiovascular disease.Am J Epidemiol 128, 352359.
10.Vincent, JB (2001) The bioinorganic chemistry of chromium(III). Polyhedron 20, 126.
11.European Food Safety Authority (2014) Scientific opinion on dietary reference values for chromium1. EFSA J 12, 41854185.
12.Esteban, M & Castano, A (2009) Non-invasive matrices in human biomonitoring: a review. Environ Int 35, 438449.
13.Sun, Q, Bertrand, KA, Franke, AA, et al. (2017) Reproducibility of urinary biomarkers in multiple 24-h urine samples. Am J Clin Nutr 105, 159168.
14.Health Canada (2013) Second report on human biomonitoring of environmental chemicals in Canada. http://www.healthyenvironmentforkids.ca/sites/healthyenvironmentforkids.ca/files/HumanBiomonitoringReport__EN.pdf (accessed November 2018).
15.Wiesmuller, GA, Eckard, R, Dobler, L, et al. (2007) The environmental specimen bank for human tissues as part of the German Environmental Specimen Bank. Int J Hyg Environ Health 210, 299305.
16.Fréry, N, Saoudi, A, Garnier, R, et al. (2011) Exposition de la population française aux substances chimiques de l’environnement. Tome 1 (Exposure of the French population to chemical substances in the environment. Vol. 1). Toxicol Anal Clin 29, 441482.
17.Smolders, R, Koch, HM, Moos, RK, et al. (2014) Inter- and intra-individual variation in urinary biomarker concentrations over a 6-day sampling period. Part 1: metals. Toxicol Lett 231, 249260.
18.Wang, YX, Feng, W, Zeng, Q, et al. (2016) Variability of metal levels in spot, first morning, and 24-hour urine samples over a 3-month period in healthy adult Chinese men. Environ Health Perspect 124, 468476.
19.Aylward, LL, Hays, SM, Smolders, R, et al. (2014) Sources of variability in biomarker concentrations. J Toxicol Environ Health B Crit Rev 17, 4561.
20.Barr, DB, Wilder, LC, Caudill, SP, et al. (2005) Urinary creatinine concentrations in the U.S. population: implications for urinary biologic monitoring measurements. Environ Health Perspect 113, 192200.
21.Gargas, ML, Norton, RL, Paustenbach, DJ, et al. (1994) Urinary excretion of chromium by humans following ingestion of chromium picolinate. Implications for biomonitoring. Drug Metab Dispos 22, 522529.
22.Paglia, G, Miedico, O, Tarallo, M, et al. (2016) Evaluation of seasonal variability of toxic and essential elements in urine analyzed by inductively coupled plasma mass spectrometry. Expo Health 9, 7988.
23.Wang, YX, Zeng, Q, Wang, L, et al. (2014) Temporal variability in urinary levels of drinking water disinfection byproducts dichloroacetic acid and trichloroacetic acid among men. Environ Res 135, 126132.
24.Gibson, RS, Gibson, IL & Kitching, J (1985) A study of inter- and intrasubject variability in seven-day weighed dietary intakes with particular emphasis on trace elements. Biol Trace Elem Res 8, 7991.
25.Feng, W, He, X, Chen, M, et al. (2015) Urinary metals and heart rate variability: a cross-sectional study of urban adults in Wuhan, China. Environ Health Perspect 123, 217222.
26.Wan, ZZ, Chen, HG, Lu, WQ, et al. (2019) Metal/metalloid levels in urine and seminal plasma in relation to computer-aided sperm analysis motion parameters. Chemosphere 214, 791800.
27.Wang, YX, Sun, Y, Huang, Z, et al. (2016) Associations of urinary metal levels with serum hormones, spermatozoa apoptosis and sperm DNA damage in a Chinese population. Environ Int 94, 177188.
28.Kim, K, Steuerwald, AJ, Parsons, PJ, et al. (2011) Biomonitoring for exposure to multiple trace elements via analysis of urine from participants in the Study of Metals and Assisted Reproductive Technologies (SMART). J Environ Monit 13, 24132419.
29.Akerstrom, M, Sallsten, G, Lundh, T, et al. (2013) Associations between urinary excretion of cadmium and proteins in a nonsmoking population: renal toxicity or normal physiology? Environ Health Perspect 121, 187191.
30.Preau, JL Jr., Wong, LY, Silva, MJ, et al. (2010) Variability over 1 week in the urinary concentrations of metabolites of diethyl phthalate and di(2-ethylhexyl) phthalate among eight adults: an observational study. Environ Health Perspect 118, 17481754.
31.Rosner, B (2000) Multisample inference. In Fundamentals of Biostatistics, 5th ed., pp. 511576. Pacific Grove, CA: Duxbury Press.
32.Nakagawa, S & Schielzeth, H (2013) A general and simple method for obtaining R 2 from generalized linear mixed-effects models. Methods Ecolo Evol 4, 133142.
33.Bradman, A, Kogut, K, Eisen, EA, et al. (2013) Variability of organophosphorous pesticide metabolite levels in spot and 24-hr urine samples collected from young children during 1 week. Environ Health Perspect 121, 118124.
34.Zou, GY (2012) Sample size formulas for estimating intraclass correlation coefficients with precision and assurance. Stat Med 31, 39723981.
35.Sengupta, P (2013) Environmental and occupational exposure of metals and their role in male reproductive functions. Drug Chem Toxicol 36, 353368.
36.Solomons, NW (1982) Biological availability of zinc in humans. Am J Clin Nutr 35, 10481075.
37.De Roost, E, Funck, E, Spernol, A, et al. (1972) The decay of 65Zn. Z Physik 250, 395412.
38.Chasapis, CT, Loutsidou, AC, Spiliopoulou, CA, et al. (2012) Zinc and human health: an update. Arch Toxicol 86, 521534.
39.Paustenbach, D, Panko, J, Fredrick, M, et al. (1997) Urinary chromium as a biological marker of environmental exposure: what are the limitations? Regul Toxicol Pharmacol 26, S23–S34.
40.Roels, H, Lauwerys, R, Genet, P, et al. (1987) Relationship between external and internal parameters of exposure to manganese in workers from a manganese oxide and salt producing plant. Am J Ind Med 11, 297305.
41.Friberg, L & Elinder, CG (1993) Biological monitoring of toxic metals. Scand J Work Environ Health 19, Suppl. 1, 713.
42.US Environmental Protection Agency (2014) Code of federal regulations: priority pollutants list. 2014. https://www.gpo.gov/fdsys/pkg/CFR-2014-title40-vol29/xml/CFR-2014-title40-vol29-part423-appA.xml (accessed November 2018).
43.Kissel, JC, Curl, CL, Kedan, G, et al. (2005) Comparison of organophosphorus pesticide metabolite levels in single and multiple daily urine samples collected from preschool children in Washington state. J Expo Anal Environ Epidemiol 15, 164171.
44.Heitland, P & Koster, HD (2006) Biomonitoring of 30 trace elements in urine of children and adults by ICP-MS. Clin Chim Acta 365, 310318.

Keywords

Type Description Title
WORD
Supplementary materials

Chen et al. supplementary material
Chen et al. supplementary material 1

 Word (730 KB)
730 KB
WORD
Supplementary materials

Chen et al. supplementary material
Chen et al. supplementary material 2

 Word (732 KB)
732 KB

Metrics

Full text views

Total number of HTML views: 0
Total number of PDF views: 0 *
Loading metrics...

Abstract views

Total abstract views: 0 *
Loading metrics...

* Views captured on Cambridge Core between <date>. This data will be updated every 24 hours.

Usage data cannot currently be displayed