Skip to main content Accessibility help
×
Home

Postprandial plasma betaine and other methyl donor-related responses after consumption of minimally processed wheat bran or wheat aleurone, or wheat aleurone incorporated into bread

  • Edel M. Keaveney (a1), Ruth K. Price (a1), Lesley L. Hamill (a1), Julie M. W. Wallace (a1), Helene McNulty (a1), Mary Ward (a1), J. J. Strain (a1), Per M. Ueland (a2) (a3), Anne M. Molloy (a4), Vieno Piironen (a5), Walter von Reding (a6), Peter R. Shewry (a7), Jane L. Ward (a7) and Robert W. Welch (a1)...

Abstract

The bran and particularly the aleurone fraction of wheat are high in betaine and other physiological methyl donors, which may exert beneficial physiological effects. We conducted two randomised, controlled, cross-over postprandial studies to assess and compare plasma betaine and other methyl donor-related responses following the consumption of minimally processed bran and aleurone fractions (study A) and aleurone bread (study B). For both studies, standard pharmacokinetic parameters were derived for betaine, choline, folate, dimethylglycine (DMG), total homocysteine and methionine from plasma samples taken at 0, 0·5, 1, 2 and 3 h. In study A (n 14), plasma betaine concentrations were significantly and substantially elevated from 0·5 to 3 h following the consumption of both bran and aleurone compared with the control; however, aleurone gave significantly higher responses than bran. Small, but significant, increases were also observed in DMG measures; however, no significant responses were observed in other analytes. In study B (n 13), plasma betaine concentrations were significantly and substantially higher following consumption of the aleurone bread compared with the control bread; small, but significant, increases were also observed in DMG and folate measures in response to consumption of the aleurone bread; however, no significant responses were observed in other analytes. Peak plasma betaine concentrations, which were 1·7–1·8 times the baseline levels, were attained earlier following the consumption of minimally processed aleurone compared with the aleurone bread (time taken to reach peak concentration 1·2 v. 2·1 h). These results showed that the consumption of minimally processed wheat bran, and particularly the aleurone fraction, yielded substantial postprandial increases in plasma betaine concentrations. Furthermore, these effects appear to be maintained when aleurone was incorporated into bread.

  • View HTML
    • Send article to Kindle

      To send this article to your Kindle, first ensure no-reply@cambridge.org is added to your Approved Personal Document E-mail List under your Personal Document Settings on the Manage Your Content and Devices page of your Amazon account. Then enter the ‘name’ part of your Kindle email address below. Find out more about sending to your Kindle. Find out more about sending to your Kindle.

      Note you can select to send to either the @free.kindle.com or @kindle.com variations. ‘@free.kindle.com’ emails are free but can only be sent to your device when it is connected to wi-fi. ‘@kindle.com’ emails can be delivered even when you are not connected to wi-fi, but note that service fees apply.

      Find out more about the Kindle Personal Document Service.

      Postprandial plasma betaine and other methyl donor-related responses after consumption of minimally processed wheat bran or wheat aleurone, or wheat aleurone incorporated into bread
      Available formats
      ×

      Send article to Dropbox

      To send this article to your Dropbox account, please select one or more formats and confirm that you agree to abide by our usage policies. If this is the first time you use this feature, you will be asked to authorise Cambridge Core to connect with your <service> account. Find out more about sending content to Dropbox.

      Postprandial plasma betaine and other methyl donor-related responses after consumption of minimally processed wheat bran or wheat aleurone, or wheat aleurone incorporated into bread
      Available formats
      ×

      Send article to Google Drive

      To send this article to your Google Drive account, please select one or more formats and confirm that you agree to abide by our usage policies. If this is the first time you use this feature, you will be asked to authorise Cambridge Core to connect with your <service> account. Find out more about sending content to Google Drive.

      Postprandial plasma betaine and other methyl donor-related responses after consumption of minimally processed wheat bran or wheat aleurone, or wheat aleurone incorporated into bread
      Available formats
      ×

Copyright

Corresponding author

* Corresponding author: , fax +44 28 7012 3023, email rw.welch@ulster.ac.uk

References

Hide All
1 Buri, RC, von Reding, W & Gavin, MH (2004) Description and characterization of wheat aleurone. Cereal Foods World 49, 274282.
2 Fenech, M, Noakes, M, Clifton, P, et al. (1999) Aleurone flour is a rich source of bioavailable folate in humans. J Nutr 129, 11141119.
3 Likes, R, Madl, RL, Zeisel, SH, et al. (2007) The betaine and choline content of a whole wheat flour compared to other mill streams. J Cereal Sci 46, 9395.
4 Graham, SF, Hollis, JH, Migaud, M, et al. (2009) Analysis of betaine and choline contents of aleurone, bran, and flour fractions of wheat (Triticum aestivum L.) using H-1 Nuclear Magnetic Resonance (NMR) spectroscopy. J Agric Food Chem 57, 19481951.
5 Kamal-Eldin, A, Laerke, HN, Knudsen, K-EB, et al. (2009) Physical, microscopic and chemical characterisation of industrial rye and wheat brans from the Nordic countries. Food Nutr Res (epublication 22 April 2009).
6 Brouns, F, Hemery, Y, Price, R, et al. (2012) Wheat aleurone: separation, composition, health aspects, and potential food use. Crit Rev Food Sci Nutr 52, 553568.
7 Niculescu, MD & Zeisel, SH (2002) Diet, methyl donors and DNA methylation: interactions between dietary folate, methionine and choline. J Nutr 132, 2333S2335S.
8 Zeisel, SH & Blusztajn, JK (1994) Choline and human nutrition. Annu Rev Nutr 14, 269296.
9 Ueland, PM, Holm, PI & Hustad, S (2005) Betaine: a key modulator of one-carbon metabolism and homocysteine status. Clin Chem Lab Med 43, 10691075.
10 Craig, SAS (2004) Betaine in human nutrition. Am J Clin Nutr 80, 539549.
11 Scott, J & Weir, D (1994) Folate/vitamin B-12 inter-relationships. Essays Biochem 28, 6372.
12 Kelly, SAM, Summerbell, CD, Brynes, A, et al. (2007) Wholegrain cereals for coronary heart disease. Cochrane Database Syst Rev, Issue 2, CD005051.
13 Schatzkin, A, Mouw, T, Park, Y, et al. (2007) Dietary fiber and whole-grain consumption in relation to colorectal cancer in the NIH-AARP Diet and Health Study. Am J Clin Nutr 85, 13531360.
14 Sahyoun, NR, Jacques, PF, Zhang, XL, et al. (2006) Whole-grain intake is inversely associated with the metabolic syndrome and mortality in older adults. Am J Clin Nutr 83, 124131.
15 Jensen, MK, Koh-Banerjee, P, Hu, FB, et al. (2004) Intakes of whole grains, bran, and germ and the risk of coronary heart disease in men. Am J Clin Nutr 80, 14921499.
16 Liu, SM, Stampfer, MJ, Hu, FB, et al. (1999) Whole-grain consumption and risk of coronary heart disease: results from the Nurses’ Health Study. Am J Clin Nutr 70, 412419.
17 Fardet, A (2010) New hypotheses for the health-protective mechanisms of whole-grain cereals: what is beyond fibre? Nutr Res Rev 23, 65134.
18 Seal, CJ & Brownlee, IA (2010) Whole grains and health, evidence from observational and intervention studies. Cereal Chem 87, 167174.
19 Price, RK, Keaveney, EM, Hamill, LL, et al. (2010) Consumption of wheat aleurone-rich foods increases fasting plasma betaine and modestly decreases fasting homocysteine and LDL-cholesterol in adults. J Nutr 140, 21532157.
20 Ross, AB & Bruce, SJ (2011) A whole-grain cereal-rich diet increases plasma betaine, and tends to decrease total and LDL-cholesterol compared with a refined-grain diet in healthy subjects. Br J Nutr 105, 14921502.
21 Atkinson, W, Elmslie, J, Lever, M, et al. (2008) Dietary and supplementary betaine: acute effects on plasma betaine and homocysteine concentrations under standard and postmethionine load conditions in healthy male subjects. Am J Clin Nutr 87, 577585.
22 Corol, DI, Ravel, C, Raksegi, M, et al. (2012) Effects of genotype and environment on the contents of betaine, choline, and trigonelline in cereal grains. J Agric Food Chem 60, 54715481.
23 Piironen, V, Edelmann, M, Kariluoto, S, et al. (2008) Folate in wheat genotypes in the HEALTHGRAIN diversity screen. J Agr Food Chem 56, 97269731.
24 Midttun, Ø, Kvalheim, G & Ueland, PM (2013) High-throughput, low-volume, multianalyte quantification of plasma metabolites related to one-carbon metabolism using HPLC-MS/MS. Anal Bioanal Chem 405, 20092017.
25 Molloy, AM & Scott, JM (1997) Microbiological assay for serum, plasma, and red cell folate using cryopreserved, microtiter plate method. Method Enzymol 281, 4353.
26 Schwab, U, Torronen, A, Meririnne, E, et al. (2006) Orally administered betaine has an acute and dose-dependent effect on serum betaine and plasma homocysteine concentrations in healthy humans. J Nutr 136, 3438.
27 Schwahn, BC, Hafner, D, Hohlfeld, T, et al. (2003) Pharmacokinetics of oral betaine in healthy subjects and patients with homocystinuria. Br J Clin Pharmacol 55, 613.
28 Slow, S, Lever, M, Chambers, ST, et al. (2009) Plasma dependent and independent accumulation of betaine in male and female rat tissues. Physiol Res 58, 403410.
29 Patterson, KY, Bhagwat, SA & Williams, JR, et al., (2008) USDA Database for the Choline Content of Common Foods Release 2. http://www.ars.usda.gov/SP2UserFiles/Place/12354500/Data/Choline/Choln02.pdf (accessed accessed April 2014).
30 Kariluoto, S, Edelmann, M & Piironen, V (2010) Effects of environment and genotype on folate contents in wheat in the HEALTHGRAIN diversity screen. J Agr Food Chem 58, 93249331.
31 Fenech, M, Noakes, M, Clifton, P, et al. (2005) Aleurone flour increases red-cell folate and lowers plasma homocyst(e)ine substantially in man. Br J Nutr 93, 353360.
32 Bidulescu, A, Chambless, LE, Siega-Riz, AM, et al. (2009) Repeatability and measurement error in the assessment of choline and betaine dietary intake: the Atherosclerosis Risk in Communities (ARIC) Study. Nutr J 8, 14.
33 Detopoulou, P, Panagiotakos, DB, Antonopoulou, S, et al. (2008) Dietary choline and betaine intakes in relation to concentrations of inflammatory markers in healthy adults: the ATTICA study. Am J Clin Nutr 87, 424430.
34 Konstantinova, SV, Tell, GS, Vollset, SE, et al. (2008) Divergent associations of plasma choline and betaine with components of metabolic syndrome in middle age and elderly men and women. J Nutr 138, 914920.
35 Lever, M, George, PM, Dellow, WJ, et al. (2005) Homocysteine, glycine betaine, and N,N-dimethylglycine in patients attending a lipid clinic. Metabolism 54, 114.
36 Alfthan, G, Tapani, K, Nissinen, K, et al. (2004) The effect of low doses of betaine on plasma homocysteine in healthy volunteers. Br J Nutr 92, 665669.
37 Seddon, JM, Reynolds, R, Shah, HR, et al. (2011) Smoking, dietary betaine, methionine, and vitamin D in monozygotic twins with discordant macular degeneration: epigenetic implications. Ophthalmology 118, 13861394.
38 Eussen, SJPM, Ueland, PM, Clarke, R, et al. (2007) The association of betaine, homocysteine and related metabolites with cognitive function in Dutch elderly people. Br J Nutr 98, 960968.
39 Nitter, M, Norgård, B, de Vogel, S, et al. (2014) Plasma methionine, choline, betaine, and dimethylglycine in relation to colorectal cancer risk in the European Prospective Investigation into Cancer and Nutrition (EPIC). Ann Oncol 25, 16091615.
40 Price, RK, Keaveney, EM, Hamill, LL, et al. (2007) Plasma uptake of methyl donors from wheat fractions by human subjects. Proc Nutr Soc 66, 114A.
41 Keaveney, EM, Hamill, LL, Price, RK, et al. (2009) Evaluation of the uptake of bioactive components from wheat-bran and wheat-aleurone fractions in healthy adults. Proc Nutr Soc 67, OCE7, E244.

Keywords

Metrics

Altmetric attention score

Full text views

Total number of HTML views: 0
Total number of PDF views: 0 *
Loading metrics...

Abstract views

Total abstract views: 0 *
Loading metrics...

* Views captured on Cambridge Core between <date>. This data will be updated every 24 hours.

Usage data cannot currently be displayed