1Ronksley, PE, Brien, SE, Turner, BJ, et al. (2011) Association of alcohol consumption with selected cardiovascular disease outcomes: a systematic review and meta-analysis. BMJ 342, d671.
2Baliunas, DO, Taylor, BJ, Irving, H, et al. (2009) Alcohol as a risk factor for type 2 diabetes: a systematic review and meta-analysis. Diabetes Care 32, 2123–2132.
3Libby, P, Ridker, PM & Hansson, GK (2011) Progress and challenges in translating the biology of atherosclerosis. Nature 473, 317–325.
4Pai, JK, Pischon, T, Ma, J, et al. (2004) Inflammatory markers and the risk of coronary heart disease in men and women. N Engl J Med 351, 2599–2610.
5Pickup, JC (2004) Inflammation and activated innate immunity in the pathogenesis of type 2 diabetes. Diabetes Care 27, 813–823.
6Romeo, J, Warnberg, J, Nova, E, et al. (2007) Moderate alcohol consumption and the immune system: a review. Br J Nutr 98, S111–S115.
7Szabo, G & Mandrekar, P (2009) A recent perspective on alcohol, immunity, and host defense. Alcohol Clin Exp Res 33, 220–232.
8Pai, JK, Hankinson, SE, Thadhani, R, et al. (2006) Moderate alcohol consumption and lower levels of inflammatory markers in US men and women. Atherosclerosis 186, 113–120.
9Imhof, A, Froehlich, M, Brenner, H, et al. (2001) Effect of alcohol consumption on systemic markers of inflammation. Lancet 357, 763–767.
10Albert, MA, Glynn, RJ & Ridker, PM (2003) Alcohol consumption and plasma concentration of C-reactive protein. Circulation 107, 443–447.
11Romeo, J, Warnberg, J, Nova, E, et al. (2007) Changes in the immune system after moderate beer consumption. Ann Nutr Metab 51, 359–366.
12Sierksma, A, van der Gaag, MS, Kluft, C, et al. (2001) Effect of moderate alcohol consumption on fibrinogen levels in healthy volunteers is discordant with effects on C-reactive protein. Ann N Y Acad Sci 936, 630–633.
13Vazquez-Agell, M, Sacanella, E, Tobias, E, et al. (2007) Inflammatory markers of atherosclerosis are decreased after moderate consumption of cava (sparkling wine) in men with low cardiovascular risk. J Nutr 137, 2279–2284.
14Beulens, JW, van den Berg, R, Kok, FJ, et al. (2008) Moderate alcohol consumption and lipoprotein-associated phospholipase A2 activity. Nutr Metab Cardiovasc Dis 18, 539–544.
15Mandrekar, P, Dolganiuc, A, Bellerose, G, et al. (2002) Acute alcohol inhibits the induction of nuclear regulatory factor kappa B activation through CD14/toll-like receptor 4, interleukin-1, and tumor necrosis factor receptors: a common mechanism independent of inhibitory kappa B alpha degradation? Alcohol Clin Exp Res 26, 1609–1614.
16Mandrekar, P, Catalano, D, White, B, et al. (2006) Moderate alcohol intake in humans attenuates monocyte inflammatory responses: inhibition of nuclear regulatory factor kappa B and induction of interleukin 10. Alcohol Clin Exp Res 30, 135–139.
17van Erk, MJ, Blom, WA, van Ommen, B, et al. (2006) High-protein and high-carbohydrate breakfasts differentially change the transcriptome of human blood cells. Am J Clin Nutr 84, 1233–1241.
18Bouwens, M, van de Rest, O, Dellschaft, N, et al. (2009) Fish-oil supplementation induces anti-inflammatory gene expression profiles in human blood mononuclear cells. Am J Clin Nutr 90, 415–424.
19Bakker, GC, van Erk, MJ, Pellis, L, et al. (2010) An anti-inflammatory dietary mix modulates inflammation and oxidative and metabolic stress in overweight men: a nutrigenomics approach. Am J Clin Nutr 91, 1044–1059.
20Bottcher, M, Beck, O & Helander, A (2008) Evaluation of a new immunoassay for urinary ethyl glucuronide testing. Alcohol Alcohol 43, 46–48.
21Brien, SE, Ronksley, PE, Turner, BJ, et al. (2011) Effect of alcohol consumption on biological markers associated with risk of coronary heart disease: systematic review and meta-analysis of interventional studies. BMJ 342, d636.
22Bijlsma, S, Bobeldijk, I, Verheij, ER, et al. (2006) Large-scale human metabolomics studies: a strategy for data (pre-) processing and validation. Anal Chem 78, 567–574.
23Joosten, MM, Beulens, JW, Kersten, S, et al. (2008) Moderate alcohol consumption increases insulin sensitivity and ADIPOQ expression in postmenopausal women: a randomised, crossover trial. Diabetologia 51, 1375–1381.
24Marfella, R, Cacciapuoti, F, Siniscalchi, M, et al. (2006) Effect of moderate red wine intake on cardiac prognosis after recent acute myocardial infarction of subjects with type 2 diabetes mellitus. Diabet Med 23, 974–981.
25Thamer, C, Haap, M, Fritsche, A, et al. (2004) Relationship between moderate alcohol consumption and adiponectin and insulin sensitivity in a large heterogeneous population. Diabetes Care 27, 1240.
26Joosten, MM, Chiuve, SE, Mukamal, KJ, et al. (2011) Changes in alcohol consumption and subsequent risk of type 2 diabetes in men. Diabetes 60, 74–79.
27Beulens, JW, van Loon, LJ, Kok, FJ, et al. (2007) The effect of moderate alcohol consumption on adiponectin oligomers and muscle oxidative capacity: a human intervention study. Diabetologia 50, 1388–1392.
28Joosten, MM, Witkamp, RF & Hendriks, HF (2011) Alterations in total and high-molecular-weight adiponectin after 3 weeks of moderate alcohol consumption in premenopausal women. Metabolism 60, 1058–1063.
29Hung, J, McQuillan, BM, Thompson, PL, et al. (2008) Circulating adiponectin levels associate with inflammatory markers, insulin resistance and metabolic syndrome independent of obesity. Int J Obes (Lond) 32, 772–779.
30Kantartzis, K, Rittig, K, Balletshofer, B, et al. (2006) The relationships of plasma adiponectin with a favorable lipid profile, decreased inflammation, and less ectopic fat accumulation depend on adiposity. Clin Chem 52, 1934–1942.
31Pelaia, G, Vatrella, A, Cuda, G, et al. (2003) Molecular mechanisms of corticosteroid actions in chronic inflammatory airway diseases. Life Sci 72, 1549–1561.
32Wrede, CE, Buettner, R, Bollheimer, LC, et al. (2006) Association between serum ferritin and the insulin resistance syndrome in a representative population. Eur J Endocrinol 154, 333–340.
33Whitfield, JB, Zhu, G, Heath, AC, et al. (2001) Effects of alcohol consumption on indices of iron stores and of iron stores on alcohol intake markers. Alcohol Clin Exp Res 25, 1037–1045.
34Jiang, R, Manson, JE, Meigs, JB, et al. (2004) Body iron stores in relation to risk of type 2 diabetes in apparently healthy women. JAMA 291, 711–717.
35Mukamal, KJ, Chiuve, SE & Rimm, EB (2006) Alcohol consumption and risk for coronary heart disease in men with healthy lifestyles. Arch Intern Med 166, 2145–2150.
36Joosten, MM, Grobbee, DE, van der A, DL, et al. (2010) Combined effect of alcohol consumption and lifestyle behaviors on risk of type 2 diabetes. Am J Clin Nutr 91, 1777–1783.