1.NCD Risk Factor Collaboration (NCD-RisC) (2017) Worldwide trends in body-mass index, underweight, overweight, and obesity from 1975 to 2016: a pooled analysis of 2416 population-based measurement studies in 128.9 million children, adolescents, and adults. Lancet 390, 2627–2642.
2.Emerging Risk Factors Collaboration, Wormser, D, Kaptoge, S, et al. (2011) Separate and combined associations of body mass index and abdominal adiposity with cardiovascular disease: collaborative analysis of 58 prospective studies. Lancet 377, 1085–1095.
3.Renehan, AG, Tyson, M, Egger, M, et al. (2008) Body mass index and incidence of cancer: a systematic review and meta-analysis of prospective observational studies. Lancet 371, 569–578.
4.Flegal, KM, Kit, BK, Orpana, H, et al. (2013) Association of all-cause mortality with overweight and obesity using standard body mass index categories: a systematic review and meta-analysis. JAMA 309, 71–82.
5.Stefan, N, Haring, HU, Hu, FB, et al. (2013) Metabolically healthy obesity: epidemiology, mechanisms, and clinical implications. Lancet Diabetes Endocrinol 1, 152–162.
6.Hamer, M & Stamatakis, E (2012) Metabolically healthy obesity and risk of all-cause and cardiovascular disease mortality. J Clin Endocrinol Metab 97, 2482–2488.
7.Tzoulaki, I, Elliott, P, Kontis, V, et al. (2016) Worldwide exposures to cardiovascular risk factors and associated health effects: current knowledge and data gaps. Circulation 133, 2314–2333.
8.Yamagishi, K, Sawachi, S, Tamakoshi, A, et al. (2019) Blood pressure levels and risk of cardiovascular disease mortality among Japanese men and women: the Japan Collaborative Cohort Study for Evaluation of Cancer Risk (JACC Study). J Hypertens 37, 1366–1371.
9.Mirzababaei, A, Mozaffari, H, Shab-Bidar, S, et al. (2019) Risk of hypertension among different metabolic phenotypes: a systematic review and meta-analysis of prospective cohort studies. J Hum Hypertens 33, 365–377.
10.Kang, YM, Jung, CH, Jang, JE, et al. (2016) The association of incident hypertension with metabolic health and obesity status: definition of metabolic health does not matter. Clin Endocrinol 85, 207–215.
11.Kuwabara, M, Kuwabara, R, Hisatome, I, et al. (2017) “Metabolically healthy” obesity and hyperuricemia increase risk for hypertension and diabetes: 5-year Japanese cohort study. Obesity 25, 1997–2008.
12.Latifi, SM, Karandish, M, Shahbazian, H, et al. (2017) Prevalence of metabolically healthy obesity (MHO) and its relation with incidence of metabolic syndrome, hypertension and type 2 diabetes amongst individuals aged over 20 years in Ahvaz: a 5 year cohort study (2009-2014). Diabetes Metab Syndr 11, Suppl. 2, S1037–S1040.
13.Fingeret, M, Marques-Vidal, P & Vollenweider, P (2018) Incidence of type 2 diabetes, hypertension, and dyslipidemia in metabolically healthy obese and non-obese. Nutr Metab Cardiovasc Dis 28, 1036–1044.
14.Scherer, PE & Hill, JA (2016) Obesity, diabetes, and cardiovascular diseases: a compendium. Circ Res 118, 1703–1705.
15.Lu, J, Lu, Y, Wang, X, et al. (2017) Prevalence, awareness, treatment, and control of hypertension in China: data from 1.7 million adults in a population-based screening study (China PEACE Million Persons Project). Lancet 390, 2549–2558.
16.Cao, ZK, Huang, Y, Yu, HJ, et al. (2017) Association between obesity phenotypes and incident hypertension among Chinese adults: a prospective cohort study. Public Health 149, 65–70.
17.Hwang, LC, Bai, CH, Sun, CA, et al. (2012) Prevalence of metabolically healthy obesity and its impacts on incidences of hypertension, diabetes and the metabolic syndrome in Taiwan. Asia Pac J Clin Nutr 21, 227–233.
18.Zhao, Y, Zhang, M, Luo, X, et al. (2016) Association of obesity categories and high blood pressure in a rural adult Chinese population. J Hum Hypertens 30, 613–618.
19.Zhao, Y, Zhang, M, Luo, X, et al. (2017) Association of 6-year waist circumference gain and incident hypertension. Heart 103, 1347–1352.
20.Craig, CL, Marshall, AL, Sjostrom, M, et al. (2003) International physical activity questionnaire: 12-country reliability and validity. Med Sci Sports Exerc 35, 1381–1395.
21.Zhao, Y, Sun, H, Wang, B, et al. (2017) Impaired fasting glucose predicts the development of hypertension over 6 years in female adults: results from the rural Chinese cohort study. J Diabetes Complications 31, 1090–1095.
22.Weng, J, Ji, L, Jia, W, et al. (2016) Standards of care for type 2 diabetes in China. Diabetes Metab Res Rev 32, 442–458.
23.Perloff, D, Grim, C, Flack, J, et al. (1993) Human blood pressure determination by sphygmomanometry. Circulation 88, 2460–2470.
24.Chobanian, AV, Bakris, GL, Black, HR, et al. (2003) Seventh report of the joint national committee on prevention, detection, evaluation, and treatment of high blood pressure. Hypertension 42, 1206–1252.
25.Alberti, KG, Zimmet, P, Shaw, J, et al. (2005) The metabolic syndrome – a new worldwide definition. Lancet 366, 1059–1062.
26.Zhou, BF & Cooperative Meta-Analysis Group of the Working Group on Obesity in China (2002) Predictive values of body mass index and waist circumference for risk factors of certain related diseases in Chinese adults – study on optimal cut-off points of body mass index and waist circumference in Chinese adults. Biomed Environ Sci 15, 83–96.
27.Spiegelman, D & Hertzmark, E (2005) Easy SAS calculations for risk or prevalence ratios and differences. Am J Epidemiol 162, 199–200.
28.Lee, SK, Kim, SH, Cho, GY, et al. (2013) Obesity phenotype and incident hypertension: a prospective community-based cohort study. J Hypertens 31, 145–151.
29.Jae, SY, Babu, AS, Yoon, ES, et al. (2017) Impact of cardiorespiratory fitness and risk of systemic hypertension in nonobese versus obese men who are metabolically healthy or unhealthy. Am J Cardiol 120, 765–768.
30.Phillips, CM (2013) Metabolically healthy obesity: definitions, determinants and clinical implications. Rev Endocr Metab Disord 14, 219–227.
31.Liu, C, Wang, C, Guan, S, et al. (2019) The prevalence of metabolically healthy and unhealthy obesity according to different criteria. Obes Facts 12, 78–90.
32.Levin, G, Kestenbaum, B, Ida Chen, YD, et al. (2010) Glucose, insulin, and incident hypertension in the multi-ethnic study of atherosclerosis. Am J Epidemiol 172, 1144–1154.
33.Song, J, Nie, SM, Chen, X, et al. (2017) Association and interaction between triglyceride-glucose index and obesity on risk of hypertension in middle-aged and elderly adults. Clin Exp Hypertens 39, 732–739.
34.Hajer, GR, van Haeften, TW & Visseren, FL (2008) Adipose tissue dysfunction in obesity, diabetes, and vascular diseases. Eur Heart J 29, 2959–2971.
35.Park, J, Kim, SH, Cho, GY, et al. (2011) Obesity phenotype and cardiovascular changes. J Hypertens 29, 1765–1772.
36.Hall, JE, do Carmo, JM, da Silva, AA, et al. (2015) Obesity-induced hypertension: interaction of neurohumoral and renal mechanisms. Circ Res 116, 991–1006.
37.Mathieu, P, Poirier, P, Pibarot, P, et al. (2009) Visceral obesity: the link among inflammation, hypertension, and cardiovascular disease. Hypertension 53, 577–584.
38.Lopes, HF, Martin, KL, Nashar, K, et al. (2003) DASH diet lowers blood pressure and lipid-induced oxidative stress in obesity. Hypertension 41, 422–430.