Skip to main content Accessibility help
×
Home
Hostname: page-component-559fc8cf4f-67gxp Total loading time: 0.284 Render date: 2021-02-25T05:29:33.558Z Has data issue: true Feature Flags: { "shouldUseShareProductTool": true, "shouldUseHypothesis": true, "isUnsiloEnabled": true, "metricsAbstractViews": false, "figures": false, "newCiteModal": false, "newCitedByModal": true }

Maternal protein reserves and their influence on lactational performance in rats

Published online by Cambridge University Press:  09 March 2007

A. P. Pine
Affiliation:
Institute of Ecology and Resource Management, University of Edinburgh, West Mains Road, EdinburghEH9 3JG
N. S. Jessop
Affiliation:
Institute of Ecology and Resource Management, University of Edinburgh, West Mains Road, EdinburghEH9 3JG
J. D. Oldham
Affiliation:
Genetics and Behavioural Science Department, Scottish Agricultural College, West Mains Road, EdinburghEH9 3JG
Rights & Permissions[Opens in a new window]

Abstract

To determine the contribution of tissue protein reserves to lactational performance, multiparous female Sprague-Dawley rats were mated, caged individually and offered a diet high in protein (215 g crude protein (N × 6·25; CP)/kg dry matter (DM);H) ad lib. until day 12 of gestation. Subsequently half the rats continued to receive diet H while the remainder were offered a diet low in protein (65 g CP/kg DM;L) until parturition. This treatment aimed to produce a difference in carcass protein at parturition. On day 1 of lactation females were allocated to either diet H or a low-protein diet (90 g CP/kg DM; L2) offered until day 13 of lactation, giving four lactation treatment groups HH, HL2, LH and LL2. Groups of females were slaughtered on days 2 and 12 of gestation and days 1 and 13 of lactation and carcass and major organs were analysed. Weight gain of standardized litters was used as an indicator of lactational performance. Maternal carcass protein contents at parturition were 43·5 (SE 1·2) and 38·7 (SE 0·8) g (P < 0·01) for diets H and L respectively. During lactation there was little change in carcass protein content of HH rats while LH rats appeared to replenish their depleted reserves. Food intake or lactational performance did not differ between these two groups. HL2 and LL2 rats lost carcass protein with HL2 rats losing more than LL2 rats (P < 0·05). Intake and lactational performance were reduced compared with that on diet H (P < 0.05) but for the first 6 d of lactation were both greater (P < 0·05) for diet HL2 than for diet LL2. All four groups showed a considerable loss of body fat during lactation which was not affected by diet. The ability of HL2 rats to catabolize more protein and consume more food allowed them to sustain a greater lactationai performance. Previous maternal protein depletion had no influence on lactationai performance as long as an adequate supply of dietary protein was provided.

Type
Protein reserves and lactation in sheep
Copyright
Copyright © The Nutrition Society 1994

References

Allison, J. B. & Wannemacher, R. W. (1965). The concept and significance of labile and over-all protein reserves of the body. American Journal of Clinical Nutrition 16, 445452.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
Anderson, G. D., Ahokas, R. A., Lipshitz, J. & Dilts, P. V. Jr. (1980). Effect of maternal dietary restriction during pregnancy on maternal weight gain and fetal birth weight in the rat. Journal of Nutrition 110, 883890.CrossRefGoogle ScholarPubMed
Bauman, D. E. & Currie, W. B. (1980). Partitioning of nutrients during pregnancy and lactation: a review of mechanisms involving homeostasis and homeorhesis. Journal of Dairy Science 63, 15141529.CrossRefGoogle ScholarPubMed
Belyea, R. L., Frost, G. R., Martz, F. A., Clark, J. L. & Forkner, L. G. (1978). Body composition of dairy cattle by potassium-40 liquid scintillation detection. Journal of Dairy Science 61, 206211.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
Biddle, G. N., Evans, J. L. & Trout, J. R. (1975). Labile nitrogen reserves and plasma nitrogen fractions in growing cattle. Journal of Nutrition 105, 15841591.CrossRefGoogle ScholarPubMed
Botts, R. L., Hemken, R. W. & Bull, L. S. (1979). Protein reserves in the lactating dairy cow. Journal of Dairy Science 62, 433440.CrossRefGoogle ScholarPubMed
Bryant, D. T. W. & Smith, R. W. (1982). The effect of lactation on protein synthesis in ovine skeletal muscle. Journal of Agriculturcrl Science, Cambridge 99, 319323.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
Burnol, A. F., Ferre, P., Leturque, A. & Girard, J. R. (1987). Effect of insulin on in vivo glucose utilization in individual tissues of anaesthetised lactating rats. American Journcrl of Physiology 252, E183–E188.Google Scholar
Butte, N. F.. Garza, C., Stuff, J. E., O'Brian Smith, E. & Nichols, B. L. (1984). Effect of maternal diet and body composition on lactational performance in women. American Journal of Clinical Nutrition 39, 296306.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
Chatwin, A. L., Linzell, J. L. & Setchell, B. P. (1969). Cardiovascular changes during lactation in the rat. Journal of Endocrinology 44, 247254.CrossRefGoogle ScholarPubMed
Fisher, H., Grun, J. & Shapiro, A. J. (1964). Protein reserves in chicks: evidence for their utilization under nutritional and disease stress. Journal of Nutrition 83, 165170.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
Flint, D. J., Clegg, R. A. & Vernon, R. G. (1981). Prolactin and the regulation of adipose tissue metabolism during lactation in rats. Moleculur Cellular Endocrinology 22, 265275.CrossRefGoogle ScholarPubMed
Friggens, N. C. (1990). The effects of feed composition and level on loctational performance in rats and dairy cows: a basic approach to feed description. PhD Thesis, University of Edinburgh.Google Scholar
Garnsworthy, P. C. (1988). The effect of energy reserves at calving on performance of dairy cows. In Nutrition and Lactation in the Dairy Cow, pp. 157170 [Garnsworthy, P. C., editor]. London: Butterworths.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
Glore, S. R. & Layman, D. K. (1985). Loss of tissues in female rats subjected to food restriction during lactation or during both gestation and lactation. Journal of Nutrition 115, 233242.CrossRefGoogle ScholarPubMed
Hamosh, M., Clary, T. R., Chernick, S. S. & Scow, R. O. (1970). Lipoprotein lipase activity of adipose and mammary tissue and plasma triglycerides in pregnant and lactating rats. Biochimica et Biophysica Acta 270, 473482.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
Jansen, G. R. & Hunsaker, H. (1986). Effect of dietary protein and energy on protein synthesis during lactation in rats. Journal of Nutrition 116, 957968.CrossRefGoogle ScholarPubMed
Kyriazakis, I., Emmans, G. C. & Whittemore, C. T. (1990). Diet selection in pigs: choices made by growing pigs given foods of different protein concentrations. Animal Production 51, 189199.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
McDonald, P., Edwards, R. A. & Greenhalgh, J. F. D. (1988). Animal Nutrition, 4th ed. London: Longmans.Google Scholar
Mahan, D. C. & Mangan, L. T. (1975). Evaluation of various protein sequences on the nutritional carry over from gestation to lactation with first litter sows. Journal of Nutrition 105, 12911298.CrossRefGoogle ScholarPubMed
Mendelson, C. R., Zinder, O., Blanchette-Mackie, E. J., Chernick, S. S. & Scow, R. O. (1977). Lipoprotein lipase and lipid metabolism in the mammary gland. Journal of Dairy Science 60, 666676.CrossRefGoogle ScholarPubMed
Motil, K. J., Montandon, C. M., Hachey, D. L., Boutbon, T. W., Klein, P. D. & Garza, C. (1989). Relationships among lactational performance, maternal diet and body protein metabolism in humans. European Journal of Clinical Nutrition 43, 681691.Google Scholar
Naismith, D. J. & Emery, P. W. (1988). Excretion of 3-methylhistidine by pregnant women: evidence for a biphasic system of protein metabolism in human pregnancy. European Journal of Clinical Nutrition 42, 483489Google ScholarPubMed
Naismith, D. J. & Morgan, B. L. G. (1976). The biphasic nature of protein metabolism during pregnancy in the rat. British Journal of Nutrition 36, 563566.CrossRefGoogle ScholarPubMed
Naismith, D. J., Richardson, D. P. & Pritchard, A. E. (1982). The utilization of protein and energy during lactation in the rat, with particular regard to the use of rat accumulated in pregnancy. British Journal of Nutrition 48, 433441.CrossRefGoogle ScholarPubMed
Naismith, D. J. & Robinson, S. M. (1987). Adaptations in protein metabolism during lactation in the rat. British Journul of Nutrition 58, 533538.CrossRefGoogle ScholarPubMed
NRC (1978). Nutrient Requirements of Laboratory Animals, 3rd ed. Washington, DC: National Academy of Sciences.Google Scholar
Paquay, R., De Baere, R. & Lousse, A. (1972). The capacity of the mature cow to lose and recover nitrogen and the significance of protein reserves. British Journal of Nutrition 27, 2737.CrossRefGoogle ScholarPubMed
Pine, A. P., Jessop, N. S., Allan, G. F. & Oldham, J. D. (1992). Effect of dietary protein content during lactation on tissue protein turnover in rats. Proceedings of the Nutrition Society 51, 157A.Google Scholar
Rosso, P., Keyou, G., Bassi, J. A. & Slusser, W. M. (1981). Effect of malnutrition during pregnancy on the development of the mammary glands of rats. Journrd of Nutrition 111, 1937 1941.CrossRefGoogle ScholarPubMed
Sainz, R. D., Calvert, C. C. & Baldwin, R. L. (1984). 3 Methyl histidine excretion by lactating and non-lactating rats. Journal of Animal Science 59, Suppl. 1, 505.Google Scholar
Sainz, R. D., Calvert, C. C. & Baldwin, R. L. (1986). Relationships among dietary protein, feed intake and tissue protein turnover in lactating rats. Journal of Nutrition 116, 15291539.CrossRefGoogle ScholarPubMed
Sakanashi, T. M., Brigham, H. E. & Rasmussen, K. M. (1987). Effect of dietary restriction during lactation on cardiac output, organ blood flow and organ weights of rats. Journal of Nutrition 117, 14691474.CrossRefGoogle ScholarPubMed
Sampson, D. A., Hunsaker, H. A. & Jansen, G. R. (1986). Dietary protein quality, protein quantity and food intake: effects on lactation and on protein synthesis and tissue composition in mammary tissue and liver in rats. Journal of Nutrition 116, 365375.CrossRefGoogle ScholarPubMed
Shields, R. G., Mahan, D. C. & Maxson, P. F. (1985). Effect of dietary gestation and lactation protein levels on reproductive performance and body composition of first litter female swine. Journal of Animal Science 60, 179189.CrossRefGoogle ScholarPubMed
Smith, R. W. & Walsh, A. (1976). Effect of lactation on lipolysis in the rat adipose tissue. Lipids 11, 418420.CrossRefGoogle ScholarPubMed
Swick, R. W. & Benevenga, N. J. (1977). Labile protein reserves and protein turnover. Journal of Dairy Science 60, 505515.CrossRefGoogle ScholarPubMed
Trigg, T. E. & Topps, J. H. (1981). Composition of body weight change during lactation in Hereford and F esian cows. Journal of Agricultural Science, Cambridge 97, 147151.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
Van Duijuenvoorde, P. M. & Rolls, B. J. (1985). Body fat regulation during pregnancy and lactation: The roles of insulin and diet. Biochemical Society Transactions 13, 825835.Google Scholar
Vernon, R. G. (1989). Endocrine control of metabolic adaptation during lactation. Proceedings of the Nutrition Society 48, 2332.CrossRefGoogle ScholarPubMed
Vincent, R. & Lindsay, D. B. (1985). Effect of pregnancy and lactation on muscle protein metabolism in sheep. Proceedings of the Nutrition Society 44, 77A.Google Scholar
Williamson, D. H. (1980). Integration of metabolism in tissues of the lactating rat. FEBS Letters 117, K93–K105.CrossRefGoogle ScholarPubMed
Wilson, G. F., Mackensie, D. D. S., Brookes, I. M. & Lyon, G. L. (1988). Importance of body tissues as sources of nutrients for milk synthesis in the cow, using 13C as a marker. British Journal of Nutrition 60, 605617.CrossRefGoogle ScholarPubMed
Zartarian, G. N., Galler, J. R. & Munro, H. N. (1980). Marginal protein deficiency in pregnant rats. Changes in maternal body composition. Journal of Nutrition 110, 12911297.CrossRefGoogle ScholarPubMed
Zinder, O., Hamosh, M., Fleck, T. R. C. & Scow, R. O. (1974). Effect of prolactin on lipoprotein lipase in mammary gland and adipose tissue of rats. American Journal of Physiology 226, 744748.Google Scholar

Full text views

Full text views reflects PDF downloads, PDFs sent to Google Drive, Dropbox and Kindle and HTML full text views.

Total number of HTML views: 0
Total number of PDF views: 129 *
View data table for this chart

* Views captured on Cambridge Core between September 2016 - 25th February 2021. This data will be updated every 24 hours.

Access

Send article to Kindle

To send this article to your Kindle, first ensure no-reply@cambridge.org is added to your Approved Personal Document E-mail List under your Personal Document Settings on the Manage Your Content and Devices page of your Amazon account. Then enter the ‘name’ part of your Kindle email address below. Find out more about sending to your Kindle. Find out more about sending to your Kindle.

Note you can select to send to either the @free.kindle.com or @kindle.com variations. ‘@free.kindle.com’ emails are free but can only be sent to your device when it is connected to wi-fi. ‘@kindle.com’ emails can be delivered even when you are not connected to wi-fi, but note that service fees apply.

Find out more about the Kindle Personal Document Service.

Maternal protein reserves and their influence on lactational performance in rats
Available formats
×

Send article to Dropbox

To send this article to your Dropbox account, please select one or more formats and confirm that you agree to abide by our usage policies. If this is the first time you use this feature, you will be asked to authorise Cambridge Core to connect with your <service> account. Find out more about sending content to Dropbox.

Maternal protein reserves and their influence on lactational performance in rats
Available formats
×

Send article to Google Drive

To send this article to your Google Drive account, please select one or more formats and confirm that you agree to abide by our usage policies. If this is the first time you use this feature, you will be asked to authorise Cambridge Core to connect with your <service> account. Find out more about sending content to Google Drive.

Maternal protein reserves and their influence on lactational performance in rats
Available formats
×
×

Reply to: Submit a response


Your details


Conflicting interests

Do you have any conflicting interests? *