1 Dallman, PR (1986) Biochemical basis for the manifestations of iron deficiency. Annu Rev Nutr 6, 13–40.
2 Gardner, G, Edgerton, V, Senewiratne, B, et al. (1977) Physical work capacity and metabolic stress in subjects with iron-deficiency anaemia. Am J Clin Nutr 30, 910–917.
3 Tufts, D, Haas, JD, Beard, JL, et al. (1985) Distribution of hemoglobin and functional consequences of anemia in adult males at high altitude. Am J Clin Nutr 42, 1–11.
4 Celsing, F & Ekblom, B (1986) Anemia causes a relative decrease in blood lactate concentration during exercise. Eur J Appl Physiol Occup Physiol 55, 74–78.
5 Hinton, PS, Giordano, C, Brownlie, T, et al. (2000) Iron supplementation improves endurance after training in iron-depleted, nonanemic women. J Appl Physiol 88, 1103–1111.
6 Hinton, PS & Sinclair, LM (2007) Iron supplementation maintains ventilatory threshold and improves energetic efficiency in iron-deficient nonanemic athletes. Eur J Clin Nutr 61, 30–39.
7 Brownlie, T IV, Utermohlen, V, Hinton, PS, et al. (2002) Marginal iron deficiency without anemia impairs aerobic adaptation among previously untrained women. Am J Clin Nutr 75, 734–742.
8 Brownlie, T IV, Utermohlen, V, Hinton, PS, et al. (2004) Tissue iron deficiency without anemia impairs adaptation in endurance capacity after aerobic training in previously untrained women. Am J Clin Nutr 79, 437–443.
9 DeMaeyer, E & Adiels-Tegman, M (1985) The prevalence of anemia in the world. World Health Stat Q 38, 302–316.
10 Stoltzfus, R (2001) Defining iron-deficiency anemia in public health terms: time for reflection. J Nutr 131, 565S–567S.
11 Harvey, LJ, Armah, CN, Dainty, JR, et al. (2005) Impact of menstrual blood loss and diet on iron deficiency among women in the UK. Br J Nutr 94, 557–564.
12 Looker, AC, Cogswell, ME & Gunter, MT (2002) Iron deficiency – United States, 1999–2000. MMWR Morb Mortal Wkly Rep 51, 897–899.
13 Heath, AL & Fairweather-Tait, SJ (2002) Clinical implications of changes in the modern diet: iron intake, absorption, and status. Best Pract Res Clin Haematol 15, 225–241.
14 King, N, Fridlund, KE & Askew, EW (1993) Nutrition issues of military women. J Am Coll Nutr 12, 344–348.
15 Dubnov, G, Foldes, AJ, Mann, G, et al. (2006) High prevalence of iron deficiency and anemia in female military recruits. Mil Med 171, 866–869.
16 Blum, SM & Sherman, AR (1986) The effects of fitness-type exercise on iron status in adult women. Am J Clin Nutr 43, 456–463.
17 Ashenden, MJ, Martin, DT, Dobson, GP, et al. (1998) Serum ferritin and anemia in trained female athletes. Int J Sport Nutr 8, 223–229.
18 McClung, JP, Marchitelli, LJ, Friedl, KE, et al. (2006) Prevalence of iron deficiency and iron deficiency anemia among three populations of female military personnel in the US Army. J Am Coll Nutr 25, 64–69.
19 Knapik, JJ, Canham-Chervak, M, Hauret, K, et al. (2002) Seasonal variations in injury rates during US Army basic combat training. Ann Occup Hyg 46, 15–23.
20 Knapik, JJ, Darakjy, S, Hauret, KG, et al. (2007) Ambulatory physical activity during United States Army basic combat training. Int J Sports Med 28, 106–115.
21 Tudor-Locke, C, Ainsworth, BE, Whitt, MC, et al. (2001) The relationship between pedometer-determined ambulatory activity and body composition variables. Int J Obes 25, 1571–1578.
22 Cureton, KJ, Sloniger, MA, O'Bannon, JP, et al. (1995) A generalized equation for prediction of VO2 peak from 1-mile run/walk performance. Med Sci Sports Exerc 27, 445–451.
23 American College of Sports Medicine (2006) . In ACSM's Guidelines for Exercise Testing and Prescription, 7th ed. pp. 79 [Whatley, WH, editor]. Philadelphia, PA: Lippincott, Williams & Wilkins.
24 Looker, AC, Gunter, EW & Johnson, CL (1995) Methods to assess iron status in various NHANES surveys. Nutr Rev 53, 246–254.
25 Yoshimura, H (1970) Anemia during physical training (sports anemia). Nutr Rev 28, 251–253.
26 Radomski, MW, Sabiston, BH & Isoard, P (1980) Development of “sports anemia” in physically fit men after daily sustained submaximal exercise. Aviat Space Environ Med 51, 41–45.
27 Di Santolo, M, Stel, G, Banfi, G, et al. (2008) Anemia and iron status in young fertile non-professional female athletes. Eur J Appl Physiol 102, 703–709.
28 Magazanik, A, Weinstein, Y, Dlin, RA, et al. (1988) Iron deficiency caused by 7 weeks of intensive physical exercise. Eur J Appl Physiol Occup Physiol 57, 198–202.
29 Blum, SM, Sherman, AR & Boileau, RA (1986) The effects of fitness-type exercise on iron status in adult women. Am J Clin Nutr 43, 456–463.
30 Stewart, JG, Ahlquist, DA, McGill, DB, et al. (1984) Gastrointestinal blood loss and anemia in runners. Ann Intern Med 100, 843–845.
31 Brune, M, Magnusson, B, Persson, H, et al. (1986) Iron losses in sweat. Am J Clin Nutr 43, 438–443.
32 Ehn, L, Carlmark, B & Hoglund, S (1980) Iron status in athletes involved in intense physical activity. Med Sci Sports Exerc 12, 61–64.
33 Siegel, AJ, Hennekens, CH, Solomon, HS, et al. (1979) Exercise-related hematuria: findings in a group of marathon runners. JAMA 241, 391–392.
34 Israeli, E, Merkel, D, Constantini, N, et al. (2008) Iron deficiency and the role of nutrition among female military recruits. Med Sci Sports Exerc 40, S685–S690.
35 Ganz, T & Nemeth, E (2006) Hepcidin and regulation of body iron metabolism. Am J Physiol Gastrointest Liver Physiol 290, G199–G203.
36 Peeling, P, Dawson, B, Goodman, C, et al. (2008) Athletic induced iron deficiency: new insights into the role of inflammation, cytokines, and hormones. Eur J Appl Physiol 103, 381–391.
37 Roecker, L, Meier-Buttermilch, R, Brechtel, L, et al. (2005) Iron-regulatory protein hepcidin is increased in female athletes after a marathon. Eur J Appl Physiol 95, 569–571.
38 Beard, J & Tobin, B (2000) Iron status and exercise. Am J Clin Nutr 72, 594S–597S.