Skip to main content Accessibility help
×
Home

Irregularity of energy intake at meals: prospective associations with the metabolic syndrome in adults of the 1946 British birth cohort

  • Gerda K. Pot (a1), Rebecca Hardy (a2) and Alison M. Stephen (a3)

Abstract

Irregularity in eating patterns could be a potential cardiometabolic risk factor. We aimed to study the associations of irregular intake of energy at meals in relation to cardiometabolic risk factors 10 and 17 years later. Variability of energy intake data – derived from 5-d estimated diet diaries of cohort members of the National Survey for Health and Development collected at ages 36 (n 1416), 43 (n 1505) and 53 years (n 1381) – was used as a measure for irregularity. Associations between meal irregularity scores with cardiometabolic risk factors measured 10 and 17 years later were investigated using linear mixed models and logistic regression models. The results showed that irregularity scores changed significantly over the years (P<0·05). At age 36 years, subjects with a more irregular intake of energy at lunch (OR 1·42; 95 % CI 1·05, 1·91) and between meals (OR 1·35; 95 % CI 1·01, 1·82) had an increased risk for the metabolic syndrome 17 years later; at lunch was also associated with an increased waist circumference (OR 1·58; 95 % 1·27, 1·96) and TAG levels (OR 1·33; 95 % CI 1·02, 1·72). At age 43 years, subjects with a more irregular intake at breakfast had an increased risk of the metabolic syndrome 10 years later (OR 1·53; 95 % CI 1·15, 2·04), as well as an increased BMI (OR 1·66; 95 % CI 1·31, 2·10), waist circumference (OR 1·53; 95 % CI 1·23, 1·90) and diastolic blood pressure (OR 1·42; 95 % CI 1·13, 1·78). In conclusion, subjects with a more irregular intake of energy, mostly at breakfast and lunch, appeared to have an increased cardiometabolic risk 10 and 17 years later.

  • View HTML
    • Send article to Kindle

      To send this article to your Kindle, first ensure no-reply@cambridge.org is added to your Approved Personal Document E-mail List under your Personal Document Settings on the Manage Your Content and Devices page of your Amazon account. Then enter the ‘name’ part of your Kindle email address below. Find out more about sending to your Kindle. Find out more about sending to your Kindle.

      Note you can select to send to either the @free.kindle.com or @kindle.com variations. ‘@free.kindle.com’ emails are free but can only be sent to your device when it is connected to wi-fi. ‘@kindle.com’ emails can be delivered even when you are not connected to wi-fi, but note that service fees apply.

      Find out more about the Kindle Personal Document Service.

      Irregularity of energy intake at meals: prospective associations with the metabolic syndrome in adults of the 1946 British birth cohort
      Available formats
      ×

      Send article to Dropbox

      To send this article to your Dropbox account, please select one or more formats and confirm that you agree to abide by our usage policies. If this is the first time you use this feature, you will be asked to authorise Cambridge Core to connect with your <service> account. Find out more about sending content to Dropbox.

      Irregularity of energy intake at meals: prospective associations with the metabolic syndrome in adults of the 1946 British birth cohort
      Available formats
      ×

      Send article to Google Drive

      To send this article to your Google Drive account, please select one or more formats and confirm that you agree to abide by our usage policies. If this is the first time you use this feature, you will be asked to authorise Cambridge Core to connect with your <service> account. Find out more about sending content to Google Drive.

      Irregularity of energy intake at meals: prospective associations with the metabolic syndrome in adults of the 1946 British birth cohort
      Available formats
      ×

Copyright

Corresponding author

* Corresponding author: G. K. Pot, email Pot@kcl.ac.uk

References

Hide All
1. Nightingale, F (1860) Notes on Nursing. New York: D. Appleton and Company.
2. Haus, E & Smolensky, M (2006) Biological clocks and shift work: circadian dysregulation and potential long-term effects. Cancer Causes Control 17, 489500.
3. Drapeau, V & Gallant, AR (2012) Homeostatic and circadian control of food intake: clinical strategies to prevent overconsumption. Curr Obes Rep 2, 93103.
4. Stephan, FK (2002) The ‘other’ circadian system: food as a zeitgeber. J Biol Rhythms 17, 284292.
5. Scheer, FA, Morris, CJ & Shea, SA (2013) The internal circadian clock increases hunger and appetite in the evening independent of food intake and other behaviors. Obesity (Silver Spring) 21, 421423.
6. Halberg, F (1989) Some aspects of the chronobiology of nutrition: more work is needed on ‘when to eat’. J Nutr 119, 333343.
7. Kant, AK, Schatzkin, A & Ballard-Barbash, R (1997) Evening eating and subsequent long-term weight change in a national cohort. Int J Obes Relat Metab Disord 21, 407412.
8. De Assis, MAA, Kupek, E, Nahas, MV., et al. (2003) Food intake and circadian rhythms in shift workers with a high workload. Appetite 40, 175183.
9. Lennernäs, M, Hambraeus, L & Akerstedt, T (1995) Shift related dietary intake in day and shift workers. Appetite 25, 253265.
10. Pasqua, IC & Moreno, CRC (2004) The nutritional status and eating habits of shift workers: a chronobiological approach. Chronobiol Int 21, 949960.
11. De Castro, JM (2004) The time of day of food intake influences overall intake in humans. J Nutr 134, 104111.
12. De Castro, JM (2009) When, how much and what foods are eaten are related to total daily food intake. Br J Nutr 102, 12281237.
13. Aoyagi, T, Shimba, S & Tezuka, M (2005) Characteristics of circadian gene expressions in mice white adipose tissue and 3T3-L1 adipocytes. J Health Sci 51, 2132.
14. Ptitsyn, AA, Zvonic, S, Conrad, SA, et al. (2006) Circadian clocks are resounding in peripheral tissues. PLoS Comput Biol 2, e16.
15. Garaulet, M & Madrid, JA (2010) Chronobiological aspects of nutrition, metabolic syndrome and obesity. Adv Drug Deliv Rev 62, 967978.
16. Farshchi, HR, Taylor, MA & Macdonald, IA (2004) Regular meal frequency creates more appropriate insulin sensitivity and lipid profiles compared with irregular meal frequency in healthy lean women. Eur J Clin Nutr 58, 10711077.
17. Farshchi, HR, Taylor, MA & Macdonald, IA (2005) Beneficial metabolic effects of regular meal frequency on dietary thermogenesis, insulin sensitivity, and fasting lipid profiles in healthy obese women. Am J Clin Nutr 81, 1624.
18. Pot, GK, Hardy, R & Stephen, AM (2014) Irregular consumption of energy intake in meals is associated with a higher cardio-metabolic risk in adults of a British birth cohort. Int J Obes 38, 15181524.
19. Kuh, D, Pierce, M, Adams, J, et al. (2011) Cohort profile: updating the cohort profile for the MRC National Survey of Health and Development: a new clinic-based data collection for ageing research. Int J Epidemiol 40, e1e9.
20. Wadsworth, M, Kuh, D, Richards, M, et al. (2006) Cohort profile: the 1946 National Birth Cohort (MRC National Survey of Health and Development). Int J Epidemiol 35, 4954.
21. Prynne, CJ, Wagemakers, JJ, Stephen, AM, et al. (2009) Meat consumption after disaggregation of meat dishes in a cohort of British adults in 1989 and 1999 in relation to diet quality. Eur J Clin Nutr 63, 660666.
22. Prynne, CJ, Paul, AA, Mishra, GD, et al. (2005) Changes in intake of key nutrients over 17 years during adult life of a British birth cohort. Br J Nutr 94, 368376.
23. Scientific Advisory Committee on Nutrition (2011) Dietary Recommendations for Energy. London: Scientific Advisory Committee on Nutrition.
24. Richards, M, Black, S, Mishra, G, et al. (2009) IQ in childhood and the metabolic syndrome in middle age: extended follow-up of the 1946 British Birth Cohort study. Intelligence 37, 567572.
25. Stalenhoef, AF & de Graaf, J (2008) Association of fasting and nonfasting serum triglycerides with cardiovascular disease and the role of remnant-like lipoproteins and small dense LDL. Curr Opin Lipidol 19, 355361.
26. Nordestgaard, BG, Langsted, A & Freiberg, JJ (2009) Nonfasting hyperlipidemia and cardiovascular disease. Curr Drug Targets 10, 328335.
27. Grundy, SM, Cleeman, JI, Daniels, SR, et al. (2005) Diagnosis and management of the metabolic syndrome. An American Heart Association/National Heart, Lung, and Blood Institute Scientific Statement. Executive summary. Cardiol Rev 13, 322327.
28. Twisk, J (2013) Applied Longitudinal Data Analysis for Epidemiology. A Practical Guide, 2nd ed. New York: Cambridge University Press.
29. McCrory, MA, Hajduk, CL & Roberts, SB (2002) Procedures for screening out inaccurate reports of dietary energy intake. Public Heal Nutr 5, 873882.
30. Pot, GK, Prynne, CJ, Almoosawi, S, et al. (2015) Trends in food consumption over 30 years: evidence from a British birth cohort. Eur J Clin Nutr 69, 817823.
31. McCrory, MA & Campbell, WW (2010) Effects of eating frequency, snacking, and breakfast skipping on energy regulation: symposium overview. J Nutr 141, 144147.
32. Nicklas, TA, Baranowski, T, Cullen, KW, et al. (2001) Eating patterns, dietary quality and obesity. J Am Coll Nutr 20, 599608.
33. McCrory, MA, Fuss, PJ, Saltzman, E, et al. (2000) Dietary determinants of energy intake and weight regulation in healthy adults. J Nutr 130, 276S279S.
34. Paffenbarger, RS, Kampert, JB, Lee, IM, et al. (1994) Changes in physical activity and other lifeway patterns influencing longevity. Med Sci Sports Exerc 26, 857865.
35. Hubert, HB, Bloch, DA, Oehlert, JW, et al. (2002) Lifestyle habits and compression of morbidity. J Gerontol A Biol Sci Med Sci 57, M347M351.
36. Bates, B, Lennox, A, Prentice, A, et al. (2014) National Diet and Nutrition Survey: results from years 1 to 4 (combined) of the rolling programme for 2008 and 2009 to 2011 and 2012. London: Public Health England Food Standards Agency. https://www.gov.uk/government/statistics/national-diet-and-nutrition-survey-results-from-years-1-to-4-combined-of-the-rolling-programme-for-2008-and-2009-to-2011-and-2012 (accessed September 2014).
37. Allison, KC, Goel, N & Ahima, RS (2013) Delayed timing of eating: impact on weight and metabolism. Curr Obes Rep 3, 91100.

Keywords

Metrics

Altmetric attention score

Full text views

Total number of HTML views: 0
Total number of PDF views: 0 *
Loading metrics...

Abstract views

Total abstract views: 0 *
Loading metrics...

* Views captured on Cambridge Core between <date>. This data will be updated every 24 hours.

Usage data cannot currently be displayed