Phillips, DI (1997) Iodine, milk, and the elimination of endemic goitre in Britain: the story of an accidental public health triumph. J Epidemiol Community Health
Bath, S, Walter, A, Taylor, A, et al. (2008) Iodine status of UK women of childbearing age. J Hum Nutr Diet
Rayman, MP, Sleeth, M, Walter, A, et al. (2008) Iodine deficiency in UK women of child-bearing age. Proc Nut Soc
Vanderpump, MP, Lazarus, JH, Smyth, PP, et al. (2011) Iodine status of UK schoolgirls: a cross-sectional survey. Lancet
Lampropoulou, M, Lean, M & Combet Aspray, E (2012) Iodine status of women of childbearing age in Scotland. Proc Nutr Soc
71, E143 Abstr.
Kibirige, MS, Hutchison, S, Owen, CJ, et al. (2004) Prevalence of maternal dietary iodine insufficiency in the north east of England: implications for the fetus. Arch Dis Child Fetal Neonatal Ed
Barnett, C, Visser, T, Williams, F, et al. (2002) Inadequate iodine intake of 40 % of pregnant women from a region in Scotland. J Endocrinol Invest
25, Suppl. 7, 90.
Pearce, EN, Lazarus, JH, Smyth, PP, et al. (2010) Perchlorate and thiocyanate exposure and thyroid function in first-trimester pregnant women. J Clin Endocrinol Metab
Andersson, M, Karumbunathan, V & Zimmermann, MB (2012) Global iodine status in 2011 and trends over the past decade. J Nutr
Zimmermann, MB (2009) Iodine deficiency. Endocr Rev
Bath, SC, Steer, CD, Golding, J, et al. (2013) Effect of inadequate iodine status in UK pregnant women on cognitive outcomes in their children: results from the Avon Longitudinal Study of Parents and Children (ALSPAC). Lancet
Caldwell, K, Pan, Y, Mortensen, ME, et al. (2013) Iodine status in pregnant women in the National Children's Study and in U.S. women (15–44 years), National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey 2005–2010. Thyroid
Brough, L, Jin, Y, Shukri, NH, et al. (2013) Iodine intake and status during pregnancy and lactation before and after government initiatives to improve iodine status, in Palmerston North, New Zealand: a pilot study. Matern Child Nutr (Epublication ahead of print version 18 June 2013)
Zimmermann, MB & Andersson, M (2012) Assessment of iodine nutrition in populations: past, present, and future. Nutr Rev
Secretariat, WHO, Andersson, M, de Benoist, B, et al. (2007) Prevention and control of iodine deficiency in pregnant and lactating women and in children less than 2-years-old: conclusions and recommendations of the Technical Consultation. Public Health Nutr
Henderson, L, Irving, K, Gregory, J, et al. (2003) The National Diet & Nutrition Survey: Adults Aged 19 to 64 Years. Volume 3: Vitamin and Mineral Intake and Urinary Analytes. London: HMSO.
Stagnaro-Green, A, Abalovich, M, Alexander, E, et al. (2011) Guidelines of the American Thyroid Association for the diagnosis and management of thyroid disease during pregnancy and postpartum. Thyroid
Nelson, M, Phillips, DI, Morris, JA, et al. (1988) Urinary iodine excretion correlates with milk iodine content in seven British towns. J Epidemiol Community Health
Wang, CY, Cogswell, ME, Loria, CM, et al. (2013) Urinary excretion of sodium, potassium, and chloride, but not iodine, varies by timing of collection in a 24-hour calibration study. J Nutr
Bingham, SA, Welch, AA, McTaggart, A, et al. (2001) Nutritional methods in the European Prospective Investigation of Cancer in Norfolk. Public Health Nutr
Food Standards Agency (2002) Food Portion Sizes, 3rd ed.
London: The Stationary Office.
Rogers, I & Emmett, P (1998) Diet during pregnancy in a population of pregnant women in South West England. ALSPAC Study Team. Avon Longitudinal Study of Pregnancy and Childhood. Eur J Clin Nutr
Delange, F (2007) Iodine requirements during pregnancy, lactation and the neonatal period and indicators of optimal iodine nutrition. Public Health Nutr
10, 1571–1580, .
Knudsen, N, Christiansen, E, Brandt-Christensen, M, et al. (2000) Age- and sex-adjusted iodine/creatinine ratio. A new standard in epidemiological surveys? Evaluation of three different estimates of iodine excretion based on casual urine samples and comparison to 24 h values. Eur J Clin Nutr
Konig, F, Andersson, M, Hotz, K, et al. (2011) Ten repeat collections for urinary iodine from spot samples or 24-hour samples are needed to reliably estimate individual iodine status in women. J Nutr
Rasmussen, LB, Ovesen, L & Christiansen, E (1999) Day-to-day and within-day variation in urinary iodine excretion. Eur J Clin Nutr
Mojtahedi, M, de Groot, LC, Boekholt, HA, et al. (2002) Nitrogen balance of healthy Dutch women before and during pregnancy. Am J Clin Nutr
Pahl, MV, Culver, BD, Strong, PL, et al. (2001) The effect of pregnancy on renal clearance of boron in humans: a study based on normal dietary intake of boron. Toxicol Sci
Zimmermann, MB (2007) The adverse effects of mild-to-moderate iodine deficiency during pregnancy and childhood: a review. Thyroid
WHO (2006) Part IV: implementing effective and sustainable food fortification programmes. Annex C. In Guidelines on Food Fortification with Micronutrients, [Allen, L, de Benoist, B, Dary, O and Hurrell, RF, editors]. Geneva: World Health Organization.
Haddow, JE, McClain, MR, Palomaki, GE, et al. (2007) Urine iodine measurements, creatinine adjustment, and thyroid deficiency in an adult United States population. J Clin Endocrinol Metab
Hynes, KL, Otahal, P, Hay, I, et al. (2013) Mild iodine deficiency during pregnancy is associated with reduced educational outcomes in the offspring: 9-year follow-up of the gestational iodine cohort. J Clin Endocrinol Metab
Alvarez-Pedrerol, M, Ribas-Fito, N, Garcia-Esteban, R, et al. (2010) Iodine sources and iodine levels in pregnant women from an area without known iodine deficiency. Clin Endocrinol
Marco, A, Vicente, A, Castro, E, et al. (2010) Patterns of iodine intake and urinary iodine concentrations during pregnancy and blood thyroid-stimulating hormone concentrations in the newborn progeny. Thyroid
Andersen, SL, Sorensen, LK, Krejbjerg, A, et al. (2013) Iodine deficiency in Danish pregnant women. Dan Med J
Pettigrew-Porter, A, Skeaff, S, Gray, A, et al. (2011) Are pregnant women in New Zealand iodine deficient? A cross-sectional survey. Aust N Z J Obstet Gynaecol
Berbel, P, Mestre, JL, Santamaria, A, et al. (2009) Delayed neurobehavioral development in children born to pregnant women with mild hypothyroxinemia during the first month of gestation: the importance of early iodine supplementation. Thyroid
Velasco, I, Carreira, M, Santiago, P, et al. (2009) Effect of iodine prophylaxis during pregnancy on neurocognitive development of children during the first two years of life. J Clin Endocrinol Metab
Rebagliato, M, Murcia, M & Alvarez-Pedrerol, M (2013) Iodine supplementation during pregnancy and infant neuropsychological development: INMA mother and child cohort study. Am J Epidemiol (Epublication ahead of print version 1 April 2013)
Moleti, M, Di Bella, B, Giorgianni, G, et al. (2011) Maternal thyroid function in different conditions of iodine nutrition in pregnant women exposed to mild-moderate iodine deficiency: an observational study. Clin Endocrinol
Perrine, CG, Herrick, K, Serdula, MK, et al. (2010) Some subgroups of reproductive age women in the United States may be at risk for iodine deficiency. J Nutr
Gregory, CO, Serdula, MK & Sullivan, KM (2009) Use of supplements with and without iodine in women of childbearing age in the United States. Thyroid
Andersson, M, Aeberli, I, Wust, N, et al. (2010) The Swiss iodized salt program provides adequate iodine for school children and pregnant women, but weaning infants not receiving iodine-containing complementary foods as well as their mothers are iodine deficient. J Clin Endocrinol Metab
Charlton, KE, Gemming, L, Yeatman, H, et al. (2010) Suboptimal iodine status of Australian pregnant women reflects poor knowledge and practices related to iodine nutrition. Nutrition
Williamson, C, Lean, MEJ & Combet, E (2012) Dietary recommendations and iodine awareness among mothers in the UK. Proc Nutr Soc
71, E141 Abstr.
Henderson, L, Gregory, J & Swan, G (2002) The National Diet & Nutrition Survey: Adults Aged 19 to 64 Years. Volume 1: Types and Quantities of Foods Consumed. London: The Stationary Office.
Mian, C, Vitaliano, P, Pozza, D, et al. (2009) Iodine status in pregnancy: role of dietary habits and geographical origin. Clin Endocrinol
Brantsaeter, AL, Haugen, M, Julshamn, K, et al. (2007) Evaluation of urinary iodine excretion as a biomarker for intake of milk and dairy products in pregnant women in the Norwegian Mother and Child Cohort Study (MoBa). Eur J Clin Nutr
Bath, S & Rayman, MP (2011) Iodine deficiency in UK schoolgirls. Lancet
378, 1623; .
Costeira, MJ, Oliveira, P, Ares, S, et al. (2009) Iodine status of pregnant women and their progeny in the Minho Region of Portugal. Thyroid
Bath, S, Button, S & Rayman, MP (2013) Availability of iodised table salt in the UK – is it likely to influence population iodine intake?
Public Health Nutr (Epublication ahead of print version 16 January 2013)
Andersen, S, Karmisholt, J, Pedersen, KM, et al. (2008) Reliability of studies of iodine intake and recommendations for number of samples in groups and in individuals. Br J Nutr
Moleti, M, Lo Presti, VP, Campolo, MC, et al. (2008) Iodine prophylaxis using iodized salt and risk of maternal thyroid failure in conditions of mild iodine deficiency. J Clin Endocrinol Metab