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Intake estimation of total and individual flavan-3-ols, proanthocyanidins and theaflavins, their food sources and determinants in the European Prospective Investigation into Cancer and Nutrition (EPIC) study

  • Viktoria Knaze (a1), Raul Zamora-Ros (a1), Leila Luján-Barroso (a1), Isabelle Romieu (a2), Augustin Scalbert (a2), Nadia Slimani (a2), Elio Riboli (a3), Caroline T. M. van Rossum (a4), H. Bas Bueno-de-Mesquita (a4) (a5), Antonia Trichopoulou (a6) (a7), Vardis Dilis (a6) (a7), Konstantinos Tsiotas (a6), Guri Skeie (a8), Dagrun Engeset (a8), J. Ramón Quirós (a9), Esther Molina (a10) (a11), José María Huerta (a11) (a12), Francesca Crowe (a13), Elisabet Wirfäl (a14), Ulrika Ericson (a14), Petra H. M. Peeters (a3) (a15), Rudolf Kaaks (a16), Birgit Teucher (a16), Gerd Johansson (a17), Ingegerd Johansson (a18), Rosario Tumino (a19), Heiner Boeing (a20), Dagmar Drogan (a20), Pilar Amiano (a11) (a21), Amalia Mattiello (a22), Kay-Tee Khaw (a23), Robert Luben (a23), Vittorio Krogh (a24), Eva Ardanáz (a11) (a25), Carlotta Sacerdote (a26), Simonetta Salvini (a27), Kim Overvad (a28), Anne Tjønneland (a29), Anja Olsen (a29), Marie-Christine Boutron-Ruault (a30) (a31), Guy Fagherazzi (a30) (a31), Florence Perquier (a30) (a31) and Carlos A. González (a1)...


Epidemiological studies suggest health-protective effects of flavan-3-ols and their derived compounds on chronic diseases. The present study aimed to estimate dietary flavan-3-ol, proanthocyanidin (PA) and theaflavin intakes, their food sources and potential determinants in the European Prospective Investigation into Cancer and Nutrition (EPIC) calibration cohort. Dietary data were collected using a standardised 24 h dietary recall software administered to 36 037 subjects aged 35–74 years. Dietary data were linked with a flavanoid food composition database compiled from the latest US Department of Agriculture and Phenol-Explorer databases and expanded to include recipes, estimations and retention factors. Total flavan-3-ol intake was the highest in UK Health-conscious men (453·6 mg/d) and women of UK General population (377·6 mg/d), while the intake was the lowest in Greece (men: 160·5 mg/d; women: 124·8 mg/d). Monomer intake was the highest in UK General population (men: 213·5 mg/d; women: 178·6 mg/d) and the lowest in Greece (men: 26·6 mg/d in men; women: 20·7 mg/d). Theaflavin intake was the highest in UK General population (men: 29·3 mg/d; women: 25·3 mg/d) and close to zero in Greece and Spain. PA intake was the highest in Asturias (men: 455·2 mg/d) and San Sebastian (women: 253 mg/d), while being the lowest in Greece (men: 134·6 mg/d; women: 101·0 mg/d). Except for the UK, non-citrus fruits (apples/pears) were the highest contributors to the total flavan-3-ol intake. Tea was the main contributor of total flavan-3-ols in the UK. Flavan-3-ol, PA and theaflavin intakes were significantly different among all assessed groups. This study showed heterogeneity in flavan-3-ol, PA and theaflavin intake throughout the EPIC countries.


Corresponding author

*Corresponding author: R. Zamora-Ros, fax +34 932607787, email


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