1 van Poppel, G, Verhoeven, DTH, Verhagen, H & Goldbohm, RA (1999) Brassica vegetables and cancer prevention. Epidemiology and mechanisms. Adv Exp Med Biol 472, 159–168.
2 Fenwick, GR & Heaney, RK (1983) Glucosinolates and their breakdown products in cruciferous crops, foods and feedingstuffs. Food Chem 11, 249–271.
3 Keum, YS, Jeong, WS & Kong, AN (2004) Chemoprevention by isothiocyanates and their underlying molecular signaling mechanisms. Mutat Res 555, 191–202.
4 Zhang, YS, Yao, S & Li, J (2006) Vegetable-derived isothiocyanates: anti-proliferative activity and mechanism of action. Proc Nutr Soc 65, 68–75.
5 Steinkellner, H, Rabot, S, Freywald, C, Nobis, E, Chabicovsky, M, Knasmüller, S & Kassie, F (2001) Effects of cruciferous vegetables and their constituents on drug metabolizing enzymes involved in the bioactivation of DNA-reactive dietary carcinogens. Mutat Res 480–481, 285–297.
6 Verkerk, R & Dekker, M (2004) Glucosinolates and myrosinase activity in red cabbage (Brassica oleracea L. var. Capitata f. rubra DC.) after various microwave treatments. J Agric Food Chem 52, 7318–7323.
7 Rungapamestry, V, Duncan, AJ, Fuller, Z & Ratcliffe, B (2007) Effect of cooking brassica vegetables on the subsequent hydrolysis and metabolic fate of glucosinolates. Proc Nutr Soc 66, 69–81.
8 Elfoul, L, Rabot, S, Khelifa, N, Quinsac, A, Duguay, A & Rimbault, A (2001) Formation of allyl isothiocyanate from sinigrin in the digestive tract of rats monoassociated with a human colonic strain of Bacteroides thetaiotaomicron. FEMS Microbiol Lett 197, 99–103.
9 Krul, C, Humblot, C, Philippe, C, Vermeulen, M, van Nuenen, M, Havenaar, R & Rabot, S (2002) Metabolism of sinigrin (2-propenyl glucosinolate) by the human colonic microflora in a dynamic in vitro large-intestinal model. Carcinogenesis 23, 1009–1016.
10 Brüsewitz, G, Cameron, BD, Chasseaud, LF, Görler, K, Hawkins, DR, Koch, H & Mennicke, WH (1977) The metabolism of benzyl isothiocyanate and its cysteine conjugate. Biochem J 162, 99–107.
11 Duncan, AJ, Rabot, S & Nugon-Baudon, L (1997) Urinary mercapturic acids as markers for the determination of isothiocyanate release from glucosinolates in rats fed a cauliflower diet. J Sci Food Agric 73, 214–220.
12 Shapiro, TA, Fahey, JW, Wade, KL, Stephenson, KK & Talalay, P (1998) Human metabolism and excretion of cancer chemoprotective glucosinolates and isothiocyanates of cruciferous vegetables. Cancer Epidemiol Biomarkers Prev 7, 1091–1100.
13 Conaway, CC, Getahun, SM, Liebes, LL, Pusateri, DJ, Topham, DKW, Botero-Omary, M & Chung, FL (2000) Disposition of glucosinolates and sulforaphane in humans after ingestion of steamed and fresh broccoli. Nutr Cancer 38, 168–178.
14 Rouzaud, G, Rabot, S, Ratcliffe, B & Duncan, AJ (2003) Influence of plant and bacterial myrosinase activity on the metabolic fate of glucosinolates in gnotobiotic rats. Br J Nutr 90, 395–404.
15 Rungapamestry, V, Duncan, AJ, Fuller, Z & Ratcliffe, B (2006) Changes in glucosinolate concentrations, myrosinase activity and production of metabolites of glucosinolates in cabbage (Brassica oleracea var. capitata) cooked for different durations. J Agric Food Chem 54, 7628–7634.
16 Coates, ME (1968) The Germ-free Animal in Research. London: Academic Press.
17 Lhoste, EF, Ouriet, V, Bruel, S, Flinois, JP, Brezillon, C, Magdalou, J, Cheze, C & Nugon-Baudon, L (2003) The human colonic microflora influences the alterations of xenobiotic-metabolizing enzymes by catechins in male F344 rats. Food Chem Toxicol 41, 695–702.
18 Minchinton, I, Sang, J, Burke, D & Truscott, RJW (1982) Separation of desulphoglucosinolates by reversed-phase high-performance liquid chromatography. J Chromatogr 247, 141–148.
19 European Union (1997) Oil seeds – determination of glucosinolates. Off J Eur Communities L170, 28–34.
20 Mennicke, WH, Kral, T, Krumbiegel, G & Rittmann, N (1987) Determination of N-acetyl-S-(N-alkylthiocarbamoyl)-l-cysteine, a principal metabolite of alkyl isothiocyanates, in rat urine. J Chromatogr B Biomed Appl 414, 19–24.
21 Mennicke, WH, Gorler, K & Krumbiegel, G (1983) Metabolism of some naturally-occurring isothiocyanates in the rat. Xenobiotica 13, 203–207.
22 Ryan, D (1978) Purification of cytochrome P450 and P448 from rat liver microsome. In Methods in Enzymology, pp. 172–173 [Fleisher, S and Packer, L, editors]. New York: Academic Press.
23 Lowry, OH, Rosebrough, NJ, Farr, AL & Randall, RJ (1951) Protein measurement with the Folin phenol reagent. J Biol Chem 193, 265–275.
24 Habig, WH, Pabst, MJ & Jakoby, WB (1974) Glutathione-S-transferase: the first enzymatic step in mercapturic acid formation. J Biol Chem 249, 7130–7139.
25 Young, WS & Lietman, PS (1978) Chloramphenicol glucuronyl transferase - assay, ontogeny and inducibility. J Pharmacol Exp Ther 204, 203–211.
26 Rabot, S, Nugon-Baudon, L & Szylit, O (1993) Alterations of the hepatic xenobiotic-metabolizing enzymes by a glucosinolate-rich diet in germ-free rats - influence of a preinduction with phenobarbital. Br J Nutr 70, 347–354.
27 GenStat 5 Committee (2005) GenStat Release 8.1. Rothamsted: Lawes Agricultural Trust.
28 Rouzaud, G, Young, SA & Duncan, AJ (2004) Hydrolysis of glucosinolates to isothiocyanates after ingestion of raw or microwaved cabbage by human volunteers. Cancer Epidemiol Biomarkers Prev 13, 125–131.
29 Rungapamestry, V, Duncan, AJ, Fuller, Z & Ratcliffe, B (2007) Effect of meal composition and cooking duration on the fate of sulforaphane following consumption of broccoli by healthy human subjects. Br J Nutr 97, 644–652.
30 Whitty, JP & Bjeldanes, LF (1987) The effects of dietary cabbage on xenobiotic-metabolizing enzymes and the binding of aflatoxin-B1 to hepatic DNA in rats. Food Chem Toxicol 25, 581–587.
31 Guo, ZY, Smith, TJ, Wang, E, Sadrieh, N, Ma, Q, Thomas, PE & Yang, CS (1992) Effects of phenethyl isothiocyanate, a carcinogenesis inhibitor, on xenobiotic-metabolizing enzymes and nitrosamine metabolism in rats. Carcinogenesis 13, 2205–2210.
32 Kassie, F, Uhl, M, Rabot, S, Grasl-Kraupp, B, Verkerk, R, Kundi, M, Chabicovsky, M, Schulte-Hermann, R & Knasmuller, S (2003) Chemoprevention of 2-amino-3-methylimidazo[4,5-f]quinoline (IQ)-induced colonic and hepatic preneoplastic lesions in the F344 rat by cruciferous vegetables administered simultaneously with the carcinogen. Carcinogenesis 24, 255–261.
33 Munday, R & Munday, CM (2004) Induction of phase II detoxification enzymes in rats by plant-derived isothlocyanates: comparison of allyl isothiocyanate with sulforaphane and related compounds. J Agric Food Chem 52, 1867–1871.
34 Debure, A, Colombel, JF, Flourie, B, Rautureau, M & Rambaud, JC (1989) Implantation and metabolic activity of rat and human fecal bacterial flora administered to germ-free rats. Gastroenterol Clin Biol 13, 25–31.
35 Kassie, F, Rabot, S, Kundi, M, Chabicovsky, M, Qin, HM & Knasmuller, S (2001) Intestinal microflora plays a crucial role in the genotoxicity of the cooked food mutagen 2-amino-3-methylimidazo[4,5-f]quinoline (IQ). Carcinogenesis 22, 1721–1725.
36 Humblot, C, Lhoste, E, Knasmuller, S, Gloux, K, Bruneau, A, Bensaada, M, Durao, J, Rabot, S, Andrieux, C & Kassie, F (2004) Protective effects of Brussels sprouts, oligosaccharides and fermented milk towards 2-amino-3-methylimidazo[4,5-f]quinoline (IQ)-induced genotoxicity in the human flora associated F344 rat: role of xenobiotic metabolising enzymes and intestinal microflora. J Chromatogr B Anal Technol Biomed Life Sci 802, 231–237.
37 Mallett, AK, Bearne, CA, Rowland, IR, Farthing, MJG & Cole, CB (1987) The use of rats associated with a human fecal flora as a model for studying the effects of diet on the human gut microflora. J Appl Bacteriol 63, 39–45.
38 Rumney, CJ & Rowland, IR (1992) In vivo and in vitro models of the human colonic flora. Crit Rev Food Sci Nutr 31, 299–331.
39 Shapiro, TA, Fahey, JW, Wade, KL, Stephenson, KK & Talalay, P (2001) Chemoprotective glucosinolates and isothiocyanates of broccoli sprouts: metabolism and excretion in humans. Cancer Epidemiol Biomarkers Prev 10, 501–508.
40 Combourieu, B, Elfoul, L, Delort, AM & Rabot, S (2001) Identification of new derivatives of sinigrin and glucotropaeolin produced by the human digestive microflora using 1H NMR spectroscopy analysis of in vitro incubations. Drug Metab Dispos 29, 1440–1445.
41 Kushad, MM, Cloyd, R & Babadoost, MB (2004) Distribution of glucosinolates in ornamental cabbage and kale cultivars. Scientia Horticulturae 101, 215–221.
42 Bradfield, CA & Bjeldanes, LF (1984) Effect of dietary indole-3-carbinol on intestinal and hepatic monooxygenase, glutathione-S-transferase and epoxide hydrolase activities in the rat. Food Chem Toxicol 22, 977–982.
43 Bogaards, JJP, Vanommen, B, Falke, HE, Willems, MI & Vanbladeren, PJ (1990) Glutathione-S-transferase subunit induction patterns of Brussels sprouts, allyl isothiocyanate and goitrin in rat liver and small intestinal mucosa – a new approach for the identification of inducing xenobiotics. Food Chem Toxicol 28, 81–88.
44 Wortelboer, HM, Dekruif, CA, Vaniersel, AAJ, Noordhoek, J, Blaauboer, BJ, Vanbladeren, PJ & Falke, HE (1992) Effects of cooked Brussels sprouts on cytochrome P-450 profile and phase-II enzymes in liver and small intestinal mucosa of the rat. Food Chem Toxicol 30, 17–27.
45 Nugon-Baudon, L, Rabot, S, Szylit, O & Raibaud, P (1990) Glucosinolates toxicity in growing rats - interactions with the hepatic detoxification system. Xenobiotica 20, 223–230.
46 Roland, N, Rabot, S & Nugon-Baudon, L (1996) Modulation of the biological effects of glucosinolates by inulin and oat fibre in gnotobiotic rats inoculated with a human whole faecal flora. Food Chem Toxicol 34, 671–677.
47 Tan, W, Lin, DX, Xiao, Y, Kadlubar, FF & Chen, JS (1999) Chemoprevention of 2-amino-1-methyl-6-phenylimidazo[4,5-b]pyridine-induced carcinogen-DNA adducts by Chinese cabbage in rats. World J Gastroenterol 5, 138–142.
48 Nijhoff, WA, Groen, GM & Peters, WHM (1993) Induction of rat hepatic and intestinal glutathione-S-transferases and glutathione by dietary naturally occurring anticarcinogens. Int Oncol 3, 1131–1139.
49 Stahl, W, van den Berg, H, Arthur, J, Bast, A, Dainty, J, Faulks, RM, Gartner, C, Haenen, G, Hollman, P & Holst, B (2002) Bioavailability and metabolism. Mol Aspects Med 23, 39–100.