Skip to main content Accessibility help
×
Home

Granulated polyamide as external marker to estimate total faecal excretion of grazing cattle in extensive management systems

  • Friedrich Mahler (a1), Eva Schlecht (a1), Mamadou Sangare (a1) and Klaus Becker (a1)

Abstract

Granulated polyamide (PA) was tested for use as an external marker to estimate faecal DM (FDM) excretion of Zebu cattle (Bos indicus). The study was conducted in Mali, using seven and eighteen animals respectively in four field trials and six indoor experiments. Cattle ate fresh or dry pasture vegetation and half the animals were additionally supplemented with crop byproducts. Gelatine capsules containing 35, 40 or 45 g PA were administered orally at 12 h intervals. Estimates of FDM were based on the average marker concentration in faeces and were correlated with the actual excretion measured by total faecal collection. The pre-measurement period required to establish equilibrium for regular marker dosing was determined at 4 d. Except for diets with a N content of less than 9·26 g/kg organic matter, marker recovery averaged 98·1 (se 0·93) % (n 62), and was not influenced by diet composition and the quantity of feed ingested (P > 0·05). Estimates of FDM based on average PA concentrations in faecal samples were correlated to the actual excretion with r 0·98 (n 62; P ≤ 0·001). Since the PA concentration in individual faecal grab-samples is not correlated with either sample mass or sampling time, accurate estimates of FDM require a grab-sampling schedule that covers the 24 h day. However, estimates of FDM were found to be acceptable if calculations are based on the average PA concentration in the sub-total of samples collected during the day or during night respectively (r 0·95, n 29; P ≤ 0·001 in both cases). It is concluded that the use of PA marker is a simple and inexpensive method resulting in reliable estimates of FDM. Since sophisticated analytical procedures are not required to recover PA in faecal samples, the marker is particularly suitable for application in extensive grazing systems and in studies conducted in less-developed countries.

    • Send article to Kindle

      To send this article to your Kindle, first ensure no-reply@cambridge.org is added to your Approved Personal Document E-mail List under your Personal Document Settings on the Manage Your Content and Devices page of your Amazon account. Then enter the ‘name’ part of your Kindle email address below. Find out more about sending to your Kindle. Find out more about sending to your Kindle.

      Note you can select to send to either the @free.kindle.com or @kindle.com variations. ‘@free.kindle.com’ emails are free but can only be sent to your device when it is connected to wi-fi. ‘@kindle.com’ emails can be delivered even when you are not connected to wi-fi, but note that service fees apply.

      Find out more about the Kindle Personal Document Service.

      Granulated polyamide as external marker to estimate total faecal excretion of grazing cattle in extensive management systems
      Available formats
      ×

      Send article to Dropbox

      To send this article to your Dropbox account, please select one or more formats and confirm that you agree to abide by our usage policies. If this is the first time you use this feature, you will be asked to authorise Cambridge Core to connect with your <service> account. Find out more about sending content to Dropbox.

      Granulated polyamide as external marker to estimate total faecal excretion of grazing cattle in extensive management systems
      Available formats
      ×

      Send article to Google Drive

      To send this article to your Google Drive account, please select one or more formats and confirm that you agree to abide by our usage policies. If this is the first time you use this feature, you will be asked to authorise Cambridge Core to connect with your <service> account. Find out more about sending content to Google Drive.

      Granulated polyamide as external marker to estimate total faecal excretion of grazing cattle in extensive management systems
      Available formats
      ×

Copyright

References

Hide All
Agricultural Research Council (1980) The Nutrient Requirements of Ruminant Livestock. Farnham Royal: Commonwealth Agricultural Bureaux.
Baran, M. & Boda, K. (1982) Die Brauchbarkeit von Polyäthylen für Geschwindigkeitsmessungen der Futterpassage durch den Verdauungstrakt der Wiederkäuer (The usefulness of polyethylene for rate of passage measurements of feeds through the digestive tract of ruminants). Archiv für Tierernährung 32, 199207.
Brisson, G. J., Pidgen, W. J. & Sylvestre, P. E. (1957). Effect of frequency of administration of Cr2O3 on its faecal excretion patterns by grazing cattle. Canadian Journal of Animal Science 7, 9094.
Campling, R. C. & Freer, M. (1962) The effect of specific gravity and size on the mean time of retention of inert plastic particles in the alimentary tract of the cow. British Journal of Nutrition 16, 507518.
Chandler, P. T., Kesler, E. M. & Jones, G. M. (1966) Excretion of polyethylene by dairy calves. Journal of Animal Science 25, 6468.
Cochran, R. C., Adams, D. C., Wallace, J. D. & Galyean, M. L. (1986) Predicting digestibility of different diets with internal markers: evaluation of four potential markers. Journal of Animal Science 63, 14761483.
Cochran, R. C., Vanzant, E. S. & Del Curto, T. (1988) Evaluation of internal markers isolated by alkaline hydrogen peroxide incubation and acid detergent lignin extraction. Journal of Animal Science 66, 32453251.
Corbett, J. L., Greenhalgh, J. D. F., Gwynn, P. E. & Walker, D. (1958) Excretion of chromium sesquioxide and polyethyleneglycol by dairy cows. British Journal of Nutrition 12, 266275.
Cordova, F. J., Wallace, D. J. & Pieper, R. D. (1978) Forage intake by grazing livestock: a review. Journal of Range Management 31, 430438.
Des Bordes, C. K. & Welch, J. G. (1984) Influence of specific gravity on rumination and passage of indigestible particles. Journal of Animal Science 59, 470475.
Dicko, M. S., Lambourne, J., de Leeuw, P. N. & de Haan, C. (1983). Nutrition animale – les bovins (Animal nutrition – cattle). In Recherches sur les systèmes des zones arides du Mali: résultats préliminaires. Rapport de Recherche no 5 (Research of Systems in the Arid Zones of Mali: Preliminary Results. Research Report no 5), pp. 9596 [Wilson, R. T., de Leeuw, P. N. and de Haan, C., editors]. Addis Ababa, Ethiopia: International Livestock Centre for Africa.
Dicko-Touré, M. S. (1980). Measuring the secondary production of pasture: an applied example in the study of extensive production systems in Mali. In Browse in Africa, The Current State of Knowledge, pp. 245251 [Le Houérou, H. N. editor]. Addis Ababa, Ethiopia: International Livestock Centre for Africa.
Fisher, D. S., Burns, J. C. & Pond, K. R. (1986). Sampling effects on grazing behaviour in marked forage trials. Agronomy Abstracts p. 141.
Harniss, R. O., Price, D. A. & Tomlin, D. C. (1975) Number of fistula samples needed for determination of sheep diet on sagebrush-grass range. Journal of Range Management 28, 417419.
Hatfield, P. G., Clanton, D. C., Sanson, D. W. & Eskridge, K. M. (1990) Methods of administering ytterbium for estimation of faecal output. Journal of Range Management 43, 316320.
Hayes, B. W., Little, C. O. & Mitchell, G. E. (1964) Influence of ruminal, abomasal and intestinal fistulation on digestion in steers. Journal of Animal Science 23, 764766.
Holechek, J. L., Vavra, M. & Pieper, R. D. (1982) Methods for determining the nutritive quality of range ruminant diets: a review. Journal of Animal Science 54, 364375.
Kaske, M., Hatipoglu, S. & von Engelhardt, W. (1989) Rumination of particles of different size and densities in sheep. Acta Veterinaria Scandinavica 86, 5354.
Katoh, K., Sato, F., Yamazaki, A. & Tsuda, T. (1988) Passage of indigestible particles of various specific gravities in sheep and goats. British Journal of Nutrition 60, 683687.
Kiesling, H. E., Barry, H. A., Nelson, A. B. & Herbel, C. H. (1969) Recovery of chromic oxide administered in paper to grazing steers. Journal of Animal Science 29, 361364.
King, K. W. & Moore, W. E. C. (1957) Density and size as factors affecting rate of passage of ingesta in the bovine and human digestive tracts. Journal of Dairy Science 40, 528536.
Knapka, J. J., Barth, K. M., Brown, D. G. & Cragle, R. G. (1967). Evaluation of polyethylene, chromic oxide and Cerium144 as digestibility indicators in burros. Journal of Nutrition 92, 7985.
Kotb, A. R. & Luckey, D. T. (1972) Markers in nutrition. Nutrition Abstracts and Reviews 42, 813845.
Laby, R. H., Graham, C. A., Edwards, S. R. & Kautzner, B. (1984). A controlled release intraruminal device for the administration of faecal dry matter markers to the grazing ruminant. Canadian Journal of Animal Science 64, Suppl., 337338.
Langlands, J. P. (1974). Techniques for estimating nutrient intake and its utilisation by the grazing ruminant. In Digestion and Metabolism in the Ruminant. Proceedings of the IVth International Symposium on Ruminant Physiology, pp. 320332 [McDonald, J. W. and Warner, A. C. J., editors]. Armidale: University of New England Publishing Unit.
Lechner-Doll, M. & von Engelhardt, W. (1989) Particle size and passage from the forestomach in camels compared to cattle and sheep fed a similar diet. Journal of Animal Physiology and Animal Nutrition 61, 120128.
Le Houérou, H. N. (1980). Composition chimique et valeur nutritive des fourrages ligneux en Afrique tropicale occidentale (Chemical composition and nutritional value of browse forages in tropical West Africa). In Les fourrages ligneux en Afrique – état actuel des connaissances (Browse Forages in Africa – The State of Knowledge), [Le Houérou, H. N. editor]. Addis Ababa, Ethiopia: International Livestock Centre for Africa.
Littell, R. C., Freund, R. J. & Spector, P. C. (1991). SAS System for Linear Models. 3rd ed. Cary, NC: SAS Institute Inc.
Little, D. A. (1972). The relation of the chemical composition of feed to that of the extruded bolus. Australian Journal of Experimental Agriculture and Animal Husbandry 12, 126130.
Mayes, R. W., Dove, H., Chen, X. B. & Guanda, J. A. (1995). Advances in the use of faecal and urinary markers for measuring diet composition, herbage intake and nutrient utilisation in herbivores. In Recent Developments in the Nutrition of Herbivores. Proceedings of the IVth International Symposium on the Nutrition of Herbivores, pp. 381406 [Journet, M., Grenet, E., Farce, M.-H., Theriez, M. and Demarquilly, C. editors] Paris: INRA Editions.
Menke, K. H., Raab, L., Salewski, A., Steingass, H., Fritz, D. & Schneider, W. (1979) The estimation of the digestibility and metabolizable energy content of ruminant feeding stuffs from gas production when they are incubated with rumen liquor in vitro. Journal of Agricultural Science, Cambridge 93, 217222.
Meuret, M., Bartiaux-Thill, N. & Bourbouze, A. (1985) Evaluation de la consommation d'un troupeau de chèvres latières sur parcours forestier -méthode d'observation directe des coups de dents – Méthode du marqueur oxyde de chrome (Evaluation of feed intake of a herd of milking goats on woodland pasture – method of direct observation of bites – method of chromic oxide marker). Annales de Zootechnie 34, 159180.
Moran, J. B., Satoto, K. B. & Dawson, J. E. (1983) The utilization of rice straw fed to Zebu cattle and Swamp buffalo as influenced by alkali treatment and Leucaena supplementation. Australian Journal of Agricultural Research 34, 7384.
Murphy, M. R. & Kennedy, P. M. (1993). Particle dynamics. In Quantitative Aspects of Ruminant Digestion and Metabolism, pp. 87105 [Forbes, J. M. and France, J., editors] Wallingford, Oxon: CAB INTERNATIONAL.
Murphy, M. R., Kennedy, P. M. & Welch, J. G. (1989) Passage and rumination of inert particles varying in size and specific gravity as determined from analysis of faecal appearance using multicompartment models. British Journal of Nutrition 62, 481492.
Naumann, K., Bassler, R., Seibold, R. & Barth, K. (1983) Methodenbuch Band III. Die chemische Untersuchung von Futtermitteln (Handbook of Methodology, Vol. 3. The Chemical Analysis of Forages). Neudamm, Germany: Verlag J. Neumann.
Oosting, S. J. & Waanders, A. (1993) The effect of rumen ammonia nitrogen concentration on intake and digestion of wheat straw by goats. Animal Feed Science and Technology 43, 3140.
Pond, K. R., Ellis, W. C., Matis, J. H. & Deswysen, A. G. (1989) Passage of chromium mordanted and rare earth-labelled fibre: time of dosing kinetics. Journal of Animal Science 67, 10201028.
Powell, J. M. & Mohamed-Saleem, M. A. (1987) Nitrogen and phosphorus transfer in a crop-livestock system in West Africa. Agricultural Systems 25, 261277.
Prigge, E. C., Stuthers, B. A. & Jacquement, N. A. (1990) Influence of forage diets on ruminal particle size, passage of digesta, feed intake and digestibility by steers. Journal of Animal Science 68, 43524360.
Putnam, P. A., Loosli, J. K. & Warner, R. G. (1958) Excretion of chromium oxide by dairy cows. Journal of Dairy Science 41, 17231729.
Raymond, W. F. & Minson, D. J. (1955) The use of chromic oxide for estimating the faecal production of grazing animals. Journal of the British Grassland Society 10, 282296.
Reid, J. T., Woolfolk, P. G., Hardison, W. A., Martin, C. M., Brundage, A. L. & Kaufmann, R. W. (1952) A procedure for measuring the digestibility of pasture forage under grazing conditions. Journal of Nutrition 46, 255269.
Rittenhouse, L. R., Clanton, D. C. & Streeter, C. L. (1970) Intake and digestibility of winter range forage by cattle with and without supplements. Journal of Animal Science 31, 12211251.
Scales, G. H., Streeter, C. L., Denham, A. H. & Ward, G. M. (1974) Effect of mastication, salivary contamination and leaching on the chemical composition of forage samples collected via esophageal fistulae. Journal of Animal Science 38, 12781283.
Statistical Analysis Systems (1989) SAS/STAT Users Guide, Version 6, 4th ed., Vol. 2. Cary, NC: SAS Institute Inc.
Welch, J. G. (1990) Inert plastics as indicators of physiological processes in the gastrointestinal tract of ruminants. Journal of Animal Science 68, 29312935.
Whittington, D. L. & Hansen, R. M. (1985) Oesophageal- and rumen-fistulated animals for range livestock research in remote areas. World Animal Review 56, 4550.
Whittington, D. L., Turner, H. A. & Raleigh, R. J. (1978) Evaluation of chromic oxide, lignin, crude fibre, nitrogen and indigestible dry matter as indicators to determine faecal production and forage intake. Proceedings of the American Society of Animal Science 29, 15.

Keywords

Granulated polyamide as external marker to estimate total faecal excretion of grazing cattle in extensive management systems

  • Friedrich Mahler (a1), Eva Schlecht (a1), Mamadou Sangare (a1) and Klaus Becker (a1)

Metrics

Full text views

Total number of HTML views: 0
Total number of PDF views: 0 *
Loading metrics...

Abstract views

Total abstract views: 0 *
Loading metrics...

* Views captured on Cambridge Core between <date>. This data will be updated every 24 hours.

Usage data cannot currently be displayed