Skip to main content Accessibility help

Functional food science and the cardiovascular system

  • G. Hornstra (a1), C. A. Barth (a2), C. Galli (a3), R. P. Mensink (a4), M. Mutanen (a5), R. A. Riemersma (a6), M. Roberfroid (a7), K. Salminen (a8), G. Vansant (a9) and P. M. Verschuren (a10)...


Cardiovascular disease has a multifactorial aetiology, as is illustrated by the existence of numerous risk indicators, many of which can be influenced by dietary means. It should be recalled, however, that only after a cause-and-effect relationship has been established between the disease and a given risk indicator (called a risk factor in that case), can modifying this factor be expected to affect disease morbidity and mortality. In this paper, effects of diet on cardiovascular risk are reviewed, with special emphasis on modification of the plasma lipoprotein profile and of hypertension. In addition, dietary influences on arterial thrombotic processes, immunological interactions, insulin resistance and hyperhomocysteinaemia are discussed. Diet-ary lipids are able to affect lipoprotein metabolism in a significant way, thereby modifying the risk of cardiovascular disease. However, more research is required concerning the possible interactions between the various dietary fatty acids, and between fatty acids and dietary cholesterol. In addition, more studies are needed with respect to the possible importance of the postprandial state. Although in the aetiology of hypertension the genetic component is definitely stronger than environmental factors, some benefit in terms of the development and coronary complications of atherosclerosis in hypertensive patients can be expected from fatty acids such as α-linolenic acid, eicosapentaenoic acid and docosahexaenoic acid. This particularly holds for those subjects where the hypertensive mechanism involves the formation of thromboxane A2 and/or α1-adrenergic activities. However, large-scale trials are required to test this contention. Certain aspects of blood platelet function, blood coagulability, and fibrinolytic activity are associated with cardiovascular risk, but causality has been insufficiently proven. Nonetheless, well-designed intervention studies should be initiated to further evaluate such promising dietary components as the various n−3 and n−6 fatty acids and their combination, antioxidants, fibre, etc. for their effect on processes participating in arterial thrombus formation. Long-chain polyenes of the n−3 family and antioxidants can modify the activity of immunocompetent cells, but we are at an early stage of examining the role of immune function on the development of atherosclerotic plaques. Actually, there is little, if any, evidence that dietary modulation of immune system responses of cells participating in atherogenesis exerts beneficial effects. Although it seems feasible to modulate insulin sensitivity and subsequent cardiovascular risk factors by decreasing the total amount of dietary fat and increasing the proportion of polyunsaturated fatty acids, additional studies on the efficacy of specific fatty acids, dietary fibre, and low-energy diets, as well as on the mechanisms involved are required to understand the real function of these dietary components. Finally, dietary supplements containing folate and vitamins B6 and/or B12 should be tested for their potential to reduce cardiovascular risk by lowering the plasma level of homocysteine.

    • Send article to Kindle

      To send this article to your Kindle, first ensure is added to your Approved Personal Document E-mail List under your Personal Document Settings on the Manage Your Content and Devices page of your Amazon account. Then enter the ‘name’ part of your Kindle email address below. Find out more about sending to your Kindle. Find out more about sending to your Kindle.

      Note you can select to send to either the or variations. ‘’ emails are free but can only be sent to your device when it is connected to wi-fi. ‘’ emails can be delivered even when you are not connected to wi-fi, but note that service fees apply.

      Find out more about the Kindle Personal Document Service.

      Functional food science and the cardiovascular system
      Available formats

      Send article to Dropbox

      To send this article to your Dropbox account, please select one or more formats and confirm that you agree to abide by our usage policies. If this is the first time you use this feature, you will be asked to authorise Cambridge Core to connect with your <service> account. Find out more about sending content to Dropbox.

      Functional food science and the cardiovascular system
      Available formats

      Send article to Google Drive

      To send this article to your Google Drive account, please select one or more formats and confirm that you agree to abide by our usage policies. If this is the first time you use this feature, you will be asked to authorise Cambridge Core to connect with your <service> account. Find out more about sending content to Google Drive.

      Functional food science and the cardiovascular system
      Available formats


Corresponding author

*Dr G. Homstra, fax +31 43 367 0976, email G. Homstra@HB.Unimaas.NL


Hide All
Adler, AJ & Holub, BJ (1997) Effect of garlic and fish-oil supplementation on serum lipid and lipoprotein concentrations in hypercholesterolemic men. American Journal of Clinical Nutrition 65, 445450.
Ågren, JJ, Hanninen, O, Julkunen, A, Fogelholm, L, Vidgren, H, Schwab, U, Pynnonen, O & Unsitupa, M (1996) Fish diet, fish oil and docosahexaenoic acid rich oil lower fasting and postprandial plasma lipid levels. European Journal of Clinical Nutrition 50, 765771.
Almendingen, K, Seljeflot, I, Sandstad, B & Pedersen, JI (1996) Effects of partially hydrogenated fish oil, partially hydrogenated soybean oil, and butter on hemostatic variables in men. Arteriosclerosis, Thrombosis and Vascular Biology 16, 375380.
Anderson, JW, Johnstone, BM & Cook-Newell, ME (1995) Metaanalysis of the effects of soy protein intake on serum lipids. New England Journal of Medicine 333, 276282.
Antiplatelet Trialist's Collaboration (1994) Collaborative overview of randomised trials of antiplatelet therapy. 1: Prevention of death, myocardial infarction, and stroke by prolonged antiplatelet therapy in various categories of patients. British Medical Journal 308, 81106.
Aro, A, Jauhiainen, M, Partanen, R, Salminen, I & Mutanen, M (1997) Stearic acid, trans fatty acids, and dairy fat: effects on serum and lipoprotein lipids, apolipoproteins, lipoprotein(a), and lipid transfer proteins of healthy subjects. American Journal of Clinical Nutrition 65, 14191426.
Aronson, DC, Onkenhout, W, Raben, AM, Oudenhoven, LF, Brommer, EJ & van Bockel, JH (1994) Impaired homocysteine metabolism: a risk factor in young adults with atherosclerotic arterial occlusive disease of the leg. British Journal of Surgery 81, 11141118.
Asch, S, Wingard, DL & Barrett-Connor, EL (1991) Are insulin and hypertension independently related? Annals of Epidemiology 1, 234244.
Ascherio, A, Hennekens, C, Willett, WC, Sachs, F, Rosner, B, Manson, J, Witteman, J & Stampfer, MJ (1996 a) Protective study of nutritional factors, blood pressure, and hypertension among US women. Hypertension 27, 10651072.
Ascherio, A, Rimm, EB, Giovannucci, EL, Spiegelman, D, Stampfer, M & Willett, WC (1996 b) Dietary fat and risk of coronary heart disease in men: cohort follow up study in the United States. British Medical Journal 313, 8490.
Ascherio, A, Rimm, EB, Stampfer, MJ, Giovannucci, EL & Willett, WC (1995) Dietary intake of marine n−3 fatty acids, fish intake, and the risk of coronary disease among men. New England Journal of Medicine 332, 977982.
Assman, G & Schulte, H (1992) Relation of high-density lipoprotein cholesterol and triglycerides to incidence of atherosclerotic coronary heart disease (The PROCAM Experience). American Journal of Cardiology 70, 733737.
Austin, MA (1992) Genetic epidemiology of low-density lipoprotein subclass phenotypes. Annals of Internal Medicine 24, 477481.
Aviram, M (1995) LDL-platelet interaction under oxidative stress induces macrophage foam cell formation. Thrombosis and Haemostasis 74, 560564.
Banskota, NK, Taub, R, Zellner, K, Olsen, P & King, GL (1989) Characterisation of induction of protooncogene c-myc and cellular growth in human vascular smooth muscle cells by insulin and IGD-I. Diabetes 38, 123129.
Bath, PMW & Buttenvorth, RJ (1996) Platelet size: measurement, physiology and vascular disease. Blood Coagulation and Fibrinolysis 7, 157161.
Bayon, Y, Croset, M, Daveloose, D, Guerbette, F, Chirouze, V, Viret, J, Kader, JC & Lagarde, M (1995) Effect of specific phospholipid molecular species incorporated in human platelet membranes on thromboxane A2/prostaglandin H2 receptors. Journal of Lipid Research 36, 4756.
Beilin, LJ & Burke, V (1995) Vegetarian diet components, protein and blood pressure: which nutrients are important? Journal of Clinical, Experimental and Pharmacological Physiology 22, 195198.
Berrettini, M, Parise, P, Ricotta, S, Iorio, A, Peirone, C & Nenci, GG (1996) Increased plasma levels of tissue factor pathway inhibitor (TFPI) after n−3 polyunsaturated fatty acids supplementation in patients with chronic atherosclerotic disease. Thrombosis and Haemostasis 75, 395400.
Bienvenu, T, Ankri, A, Chadefaux, B, Montalescot, G & Kamoun, P (1993) Elevated total plasma homocysteine, a risk factor for thrombosis. Relation to coagulation and fibrinolytic parameters. Thrombosis Research 70, 123129.
Blaak, EE & Saris, WHM (1995) Health aspects of various digestible carbohydrates. Nutrition Research 15, 15471573.
Bladbjerg, EM, Tholstrup, T, Marckmann, P, Sandström, B & Jespersen, J (1995) Dietary changes in fasting levels of factor VII coagulant activity (FVI1:C) are accompanied by changes in factor VII protein and other vitamin K-dependent proteins. Thrombosis and Haemostasis 73, 239242.
Blann, AD, Jackson, P, Bath, PMW & Watts, GF (1995) Von Willebrand factor, a possible indicator of endothelial cell damage, decreases during long-term compliance with a lipid-lowering diet. Journal of Internal Medicine 237, 557561.
Blann, A, Kumar, P, Krupsinski, J, Lip, G & Beevers, D (1996) Endothelial damage and adhesion molecules ICAM, VCAM, and E-selectin in acute stroke. Blood Coagulation and Fibrinolysis 7, 377.
Blann, AD & McCollum, CN (1994) Circulating endothelial cell/leukocyte adhesion molecules in atherosclerosis. Thrombosis and Haemostasis 72, 151154.
Bønaa, K, Bjerve, K, Straume, B, Gram, I & Thelle, D (1990) Effect of eicosapentaenoic and docosahexaenoic acids on blood pressure in hypertension. New England Journal of Medicine 322, 795801.
Borkman, M, Storlien, LH, Pan, DA, Jenkins, AD, Chisholm, DJ & Campbell, LV (1993) The relation between insulin sensitivity and the fatty-acid composition of skeletal muscle phospholipids. New England Journal of Medicine 328, 238244.
Bostom, AG, Cupples, LA, Jenner, JL, Ordovas, JM, Seman, LJ, Wilson, PW, Schaefer, EJ & Castelli, WP (1996) Elevated plasma lipoprotein(a) and coronary heart disease in men aged 55 years and younger. A prospective study. Journal of the American Medical Association 276, 544548.
Boulanger, CM, Tanner, FC, Hahn, A, Wa, A, Werner, A & Lüscher, TF (1992) Oxidised low-density lipoproteins induce mRNA expression and release of endothelin from human and porcine endothelium. Circulation Research 70, 11911197.
Boushey, CJ, Beresford, SA, Omenn, GS & Motulsky, AG (1995) A quantitative assessment of plasma homocysteine as a risk factor for vascular disease. Probable benefits of increasing folic acid intakes [see comments]. Journal of the American Medical Association 274, 10491057.
Bronsgeest-Schoute, DC, Hautvast, JG & Hermus, RJ (1979) Dependence of the effects of dietary cholesterol and experimental conditions on serum lipids in man. I. Effects of dietary cholesterol in a linoleic acid-rich diet. American Journal of Clinical Nutrition 32, 21832187.
Brown, AS & Martin, JF (1994) The megakaryocyte platelet system and vascular disease. European Journal of Clinical Investigation 24, Suppl.1, 915.
Burr, ML, Fehily, AM, Gilbert, JF, Rogers, S, Holliday, RM, Sweetnam, PM & Deadman, NM (1989) Effect of changes in fat, fish and fibre intakes on death and myocardial infarction: diet and reinfarction trial (DART). Lancet ii, 757761.
Cairns, JA, Gill, J, Morton, B, Roberts, R, Gent, M, Hirsch, J, Holder, D, Finnie, K, Marquis, JF, Naqvi, S & Cohen, E (1996) Fish oils and low molecular-weight heparin for the reduction of restenosis after percutaneous transluminal coronary angioplasty. The EMPAR study. Circulation 94, 15531560.
Calder, PC (1996) Immunomodulatory and anti-inflammatory effects of n−3 polyunsaturated fatty acids. Proceedings of the Nutrition Society 55, 737774.
Calder, PC & Newsholme, EA (1992) Polyunsaturated fatty acids suppress human peripheral blood lymphocyte proliferation and interleukin-2 production. Clinical Science 82, 695700.
Cambien, F (1987) Is insulin the key factor to explain the associations between body mass, blood pressure and glucose? Diabéte et Métabolisme 13, 973978.
Cambien, F, Poirier, O, Lecerf, L, Evans, A, Cambou, JP, Arveiler, D, Luc, G, Bard, JM, Bara, L & Ricard, S (1992) Deletion polymorphism in the gene for angiotensin converting enzyme is a potent risk factor for myocardial infarction. Nature 359, 641644.
Castelli, WP, Anderson, K, Wilson, PW & Levy, D (1992) Lipids and risk of coronary heart disease. The Framingham Study. Annals of Epidemiology 2, 2328.
Cater, NB, Heller, HJ & Denke, MA (1997) Comparison of the effects of medium chain triacylglycerols, palm oil, and high oleic acid sunflower oil on plasma triacylglycerol fatty acids and lipid and lipoprotein concentrations in humans. American Journal of Clinical Nutrition 65, 4145.
Chalmers, TC, Matta, RJ, Smith, HR Jr & Kunzler, AM (1977) Evidence favoring the use of anticoagulants in the hospital phase of acute myocardial infarction. New England Journal of Medicine 297, 10911096.
Chan, JK, Bruce, VM & McDonald, BE (1991) Dietary α-linolenic acid is as effective as oleic acid and linoleic acid in lowering blood cholesterol in normolipidemic men. American Journal of Clinical Nutrition 53, 12301234.
Charnock, JS (1994) Lipids and cardiac arrhythmias. Progress in Lipid Research 33, 355385.
Chasan-Taber, L, Selhub, J, Rosenberg, IH, Malinow, MR, Terry, P, Tishler, PV, Willett, W, Hennekens, CH & Stampfer, MJ (1996) A prospective study of folate and vitamin B6 and risk of myocardial infarction in US physicians. Journal of the American College of Nutrition 15, 136143.
Choudhury, N, Tan, L & Truswell, AS (1995) Comparison of palmolein and olive oil: effects on plasma lipids and vitamin E in young adults. American Journal of Clinical Nutrition 61, 10431051.
Choudhury, SR, Ueshima, H, Kita, Y, Kobayashi, KM, Okayama, A, Yamakawa, M, Hirao, Y, Ishikawa, M & Miyoshi, Y (1994) Alcohol intake and serum lipids in a Japanese population. International Journal of Epidemiology 23, 940947.
Clarke, R, Frost, C, Collins, R, Appleby, P & PetO, R (1997) Dietary lipids and blood cholesterol: quantitative meta-analysis of metabolic ward studies. British Medical Journal 314, 112117.
Clarke, R, Naughten, E, Cahalane, S, Sullivan, KO, Mathias, P, McCall, T & Graham, I (1992) The role of free radicals as mediators of endothelial cell injury in hyperhomocysteinaemia. Irish Journal of Medical Science 161, 561564.
Collie-Duguid, ESR & Wahle, KWJ (1996) Inhibitory effect of fish oil n−3 polyunsaturated fatty acids on the expression of endothelial cell adhesion molecules. Biochemical and Biophysical Research Communications 220, 969974.
Collins, R, Peto, R, MacMahon, S, Hebert, P, Fiebach, NH, Eberlein, KA, Godwin, J, Qizilbash, N, Taylor, JO & Hennekens, CH (1990) Blood pressure, stroke, and coronary heart disease. Part 2. Lancet 335, 827838.
Colman, E, Katzel, LI, Rogus, E, Coon, P, Muller, D & Goldberg, AP (1995) Weight loss reduces abdominal fat and improves insulin action in middle-aged and older men with impaired glucose tolerance. Metabolism 44, 15021508.
Curb, JD & Reed, DM (1985) Fish consumption and mortality from coronary heart disease. New England Journal of Medicine 313, 821822.
Curmi, PA, Juan, L & Tedgui, A (1990) Effect of transmural pressure on low density lipoprotein and albumin transport and distribution across the intact arterial wall. Circulation Research 66, 16921702.
Dalery, K, Lussier, CS, Selhub, J, Davignon, J, Latour, Y & Genest, JJ (1995) Homocysteine and coronary artery disease in French Canadian subjects: relation with vitamins B12, B6, pyridoxal phosphate, and folate. American Journal of Cardiology 75, 11071111.
Davidson, MH, Maki, KC, Kalkowski, J, Schaefer, EJ, Toni, SA & Drennan, KB (1997) Effects of docosahexaenoic acid on serum lipoproteins in patients with combined hyperlipidemia. A ran-domized, double-blind, placebo-controlled trial. Journal of the American College of Nutrition 16, 236243.
Davies, MJ (1997) The composition of coronary artery plaques. New England Journal of Medicine 336, 13121314.
Daviglus, ML, Stamler, J, Orencia, AJ, Dyer, AR, Liu, K, Greenland, P, Walsh, MK, Morris, D & Shekelle, RB (1997) Fish consumption and the 30-year risk of fatal myocardial infarction. New England Journal of Medicine 336, 10461053.
De Caterina, R, Cybulski, MI, Clinton, SK, Gimbrone, MA Jr & Libby, P (1994) The omega-3 fatty acid docosahexaenoate reduces cytokine-induced expression of proatherogenic and proinflammatory proteins in human endothelial cells. Arteriosclerosis and Thrombosis 14, 18291836.
De Caterina, R, Cybulski, MA, Clinton, SK, Gimbrone, MA & Libby, P (1995 a) Omega-3 fatty acids and endothelial leukocyte adhesion molecules. Prostaglandins, Leukotrienes and Essential Fatty Acids 52, 191195.
De Caterina, R, Tanaka, H, Nakagawa, T, Hauptman, PJ & Libby, P (1995 b) The direct effect of injectable cyclosporine and its vehicle, cremophor, on endothelial vascular cell adhesion molecule-1 expression. Transplantation 60, 270275.
De Deckere, EAM & ten Hoor, F (1979) Effects of dietary fats on the coronary flow rate and the left ventricular function of the isolated rat heart. Nutrition and Metabolism 23, 8897.
DeForge, LE, Fantone, JC, Kenney, JS & Remick, DG (1992) Oxygen radical scavengers selectively inhibit interleukin 8 production in human whole blood. Journal of Clinical Investigation 90, 21232129.
DeFronzo, RA (1981) The effect of insulin on renal sodium metabolism: a review with clinical implications. Diabetologia 21, 165171.
de Lorgeril, M, Renaud, S, Mamelle, N, Salen, P, Martin, J-L, Monjaud, I, Guidollet, J, Touboul, P & Delaye, J (1994) Mediterranean alpha-linolenic acid-rich diet in secondary prevention of coronary heart disease. Lancet 343, 14541459.
Desprès, JP & Marette, A (1994) Relation of components of insulin resistance syndrome to coronary disease risk. Current Opinion in Lipidology 5, 274289.
Diplock, AT, Charleux, J-L, Crozier-Willi, G, Kok, FJ, Rice-Evans, C, Roberfroid, M, Stahl, W & Viña-Ribes, J (1998) Functional food science and defence against reactive oxygen species. British Journal of Nutrition 80, Suppl.1, S77–S112.
Dolecek, TA & Grandits, G (1991) Dietary polyunsaturated fatty acids and mortality in the Multiple Risk Factor Intervention Trial (MRFIT). World Review of Nutrition and Dietetics 66, 205216.
Dreon, DM, Fernstrom, HA, Miller, B & Krauss, RM (1995) Apolipoprotein E isoform phenotype and LDL subclass response to a reduced-fat diet. Arteriosclerosis, Thrombosis and Vascular Biology 15, 105111.
Dudman, NP, Guo, XW, Gordon, RB, Dawson, PA & Wilcken, DE (1996) Human homocysteine catabolism: three major pathways and their relevance to development of arterial occlusive disease. Journal of Nutrition 126, 1295S1300S.
Dudman, NP, Hicks, C, Wang, J & Wilcken, DE (1991) Human endothelial cell detachment in vitro: its promotion by homocysteine and cysteine. Atherosclerosis 91, 7783.
Elliott, TG & Viberti, G (1993) Relationship between insulin resistance and coronary heart disease in diabetes mellitus and the general population: a critical appraisal. Baillière's Clinical Endocrinology and Metabolism 7, 10791103.
Ellis, JM & McCully, KS (1995) Prevention of myocardial infarction by vitamin B6. Research Communications in Molecular Pathology and Pharmacology 89, 208220.
Elwood, PC, Beswich, AD, Sharp, DS, Yarnell, JW, Rogers, S & Renaud, S (1990) Whole blood impedance platelet aggregometry and ischaemic heart disease. The Caerphilly Collaborative Heart Disease Study. Arteriosclerosis 10, 10321036.
Elwood, PC, Renaud, S, Sharp, DS, Beswick, AD, O'Brien, JR & Yarnell, JW (1991) Ischemic heart disease and platelet aggregation. The Caerphilly Collaborative Heart Disease Study. Circulation 83, 3844.
Endres, S, De Caterina, R, Schmidt, EB & Kristensen, SD (1995 a) n−3 polyunsaturated fatty acids: update 1995. European Journal of Clinical Investigation 25, 629638.
Endres, S, Eisenhut, T & Sinha, B (1995 b) n−3 polyunsaturated fatty acids in the regulation of human cytokine synthesis. Biochemical Society Transactions 23, 277281.
Endres, S, Meydani, SN, Ghorbani, R, Schindler, R & Dinarello, CA (1993) Dietary supplementation with n−3 fatty acids suppresses interleukin-2 production and mononuclear cell proliferation. Journal of Leukocyte Biology 54, 599603.
EPIC Investigators (1994) Use of monoclonal antibody directed against the platelet glycoprotein IIb/IIIa receptor in high-risk coronary angioplasty. New England Journal of Medicine 330, 956961.
Eritsland, J, Seljeflot, I, Abdelnoor, M & Arnesen, H (1994) Longterm influence of omega-3 fatty acids on fibrinolysis, fibrinogen, and serum lipids. Fibrinolysis 8, 120125.
Eritsland, J, Arnesen, H, Seljeflot, I & Kierulf, P (1995) Long-term effects of n−3 polyunsaturated fatty acids on haemostatic variables and bleeding episodes in patients with coronary artery disease. Blood Coagulation and Fibrinolysis 6, 1722.
Faruqi, R, de la Motte, C & Di Corleto, P (1994) α-Tocopherol inhibits agonist-induced monocytic cell adhesion to cultured human endothelial cells. Journal of Clinical Investigation 94, 592600.
Ferrannini, E, Haffner, SL, Mitchell, BD & Sterm, MP (1991) Hyperinsulinemia: the key feature of a cardiovascular and metabolic syndrome. Diabetologia 3, 416422.
Feskens, EJM, Loeber, JG & Kromhout, D (1994) Diet and physical activity as determinants of hyperinsulinemia: the Zutphen Elderly Study. American Journal of Epidemiology 140, 350360.
Fibrinolytic Trialists' Collaborative Group (1994) Indications for fibrinolytic therapy in suspected acute myocardial infarction: collaborative overview of early mortality and major morbidity events from the randomized trials of more than 1000 patients. Lancet 343, 311322.
Fischer, S, Weber, PC & Dyerberg, J (1986) The prostacyclin/thromboxane balance is favourably shifted in Greenland Eskimos. Prostaglandins 32, 235240.
Fontbonne, A, Charles, MS & Thibult, N, Richard, JL, Claude, JR, Warnet, JM, Rosselin, GE & Eschwege, E (1991) Hyperinsulin-aemia as a predictor of coronary heart disease mortality in a healthy population: the Paris Prospective Study 15-year follow-up. Diabetologia 34, 356361.
Frayn, KN (1993) Insulin resistance and lipid metabolism. Current Opinion in Lipidology 4, 197204.
Freese, R & Mutanen, M (1997) Alpha-linolenic acid and marine n−3 fatty acids only slightly differ in their effects on hemostatic factors in healthy subjects. American Journal of Clinical Nutrition 66, 591598.
Frenette, PS & Wagner, DD (1996) Adhesion molecules - Part 11: Blood vessels and blood cells. New England Journal of Medicine 335, 4345.
Frick, MH, Elo, O, Haapa, K, Heinonen, OP, Heinsalmi, P, Helo, P, Huttunen, JK, Kaitaniemi, P, Koskinen, P, Manninen, V, Máenpáá, H, Málkónen, M, Mánttári, M, Norola, S, Pasternack, A, Pikkarainen, J, Romo, M, Sjóblom, T & Nikkilá, EA (1987) Helsinki Heart Study: primary-prevention trial with gemfibrozil in middle-aged men with dyslipidemia. New England Journal of Medicine 317, 12371245.
Frosst, P, Blom, HJ, Milos, R, Goyette, P, Sheppard, CA, Matthews, RG, Boers, GJ, den Heyer, M, Kluijtmans, LA, van den Heuvel, LP & Rozen, R (1995) A candidate genetic risk factor for vascular disease: a common mutation in methylenetetrahydrofolate reductase (letter). Nature Genetics 10, 111113.
Frøyland, L, Madsen, L, Vaagenes, H, Totland, GK, Auwerx, J, Kryvi, H, Staels, B & Berge, RK (1997) Mitochondrion is the principal target for nutritional and pharmacological control of triglyceride metabolism. Journal of Lipid Research 38, 18511858.
Fryer, RH, Wilson, BD, Gubler, DB, Fitzgerald, LA & Rodgers, GM (1993) Homocysteine, a risk factor for premature vascular disease and thrombosis, induces tissue factor activity in endothe-lial cells. Arteriosclerosis and Thrombosis 13, 13271333.
Fujikawa, M, Yamashita, N, Yamazaki, K, Sugiyama, E, Suzuki, H & Hamazaki, T (1992) Eicosapentaenoic acid inhibits antigen-presenting cell function of murine splenocytes. Immunology 75, 330335.
Fulton, M, Thomson, M, Elton, RA, Brown, S, Wood, DA & Oliver, MF (1988) Cigarette smoking, social class and nutrient intake. Relevance to coronary heart disease. European Journal of Clinical Nutrition 42, 797803.
Fuster, V, Badimon, L, Badimon, JJ & Chesebro, JH (1992) The pathogenesis of coronary artery disease and the acute coronary syndromes. New England Journal of Medicine 326, 242250.
Fuster, V, Stein, B, Ambrose, JA, Badimon, JJ & Chesebro, JH (1990) Atherosclerotic plaque rupture and thrombosis: evolving concepts. Circulation 82, Suppl.II, 4759.
Fyfe, AI, Qiao, JH & Lusis, AJ (1994) Immune-deficient mice develop typical atherosclerotic fatty streaks when fed an atherogenic diet. Journal of Clinical Investigation 94, 25162520.
Gapinski, JP, van Ruiswyk, JV, Heudebert, GR & Schectman, GS (1993) Preventing restenosis with fish oils following coronary angioplasty. A meta-analysis. Archives of Internal Medicine 153, 15951601.
Geng, Y-J & Hansson, GK (1992) Interferon-γ inhibits scavenger receptor expression and foam cell formation in human mono-cyte-derived macrophages. Journal of Clinical Investigation 89, 13221330.
Gey, KF, Moser, UK, Jordan, P, Stahelin, HB, Eichholzer, M & Ludin, E (1993) Increased risk of cardiovascular disease at suboptimal plasma concentrations of essential antioxidants: an epidemiological update with special attention to carotene and vitamin C. American Journal of Clinical Nutrition 57, Suppl., 787797.
Ghaddar, HM, Cortes, J, Salomaa, V, Kark, JD, Davis, CE, Folsom, AR, Heiss, G, Stinson, V & Wu, KK (1995). Correlation of specific platelet activation markers with carotid arterial wall thickness. Thrombosis and Haemostasis 74, 984–948.
Glore, SR, Van Treeck, D, Knehans, AW & Guild, M (1994) Soluble fiber and serum lipids: a literature review. Journal of the American Dietetic Association 94, 425436.
Goldberg, DM (1996) More on antioxidant activity of resveratrol in red wine (letter). Clinical Chemistry 42, 113114.
Gordon, D, Reidy, MA, Benditt, EP & Schwartz, SM (1990) Cell proliferation in human coronary arteries. Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences USA 87, 46004604.
Gorgels, WJMJ, van der Graaf, Y, Hjemdahl, P, Kortlandt, W, Collette, HJA, Erkelens, DW & Banga, J-D (1995) Urinary excretions of high molecular weight β-thromboglobulin and albumin are independently associated with coronary heart disease in women, a nested case-control study of middle-aged women in the diagnostisch onderzoek mammacarcinoom (DOM) cohort, Utrecht, Netherlands. American Journal of Epidemiology 142, 11571164.
Goyette, P, Frosst, P, Rosenblatt, DS & Rozen, R (1995) Seven novel mutations in the methylenetetrahydrofolate reductase gene and genotype/phenotype correlations in severe methylenetetrahydrofolate reductase deficiency. American Journal of Human Genetics 56, 10521059.
Grainger, DJ & Metcalfe, JC (1995) Transforming growth factorbeta: the key to understanding lipoprotein(a)? Current Opinion in Lipidology 6, 8185.
Grande, F, Anderson, JT & Keys, A (1970) Comparison of effects of palmitic and stearic acids in the diet on serum cholesterol in man. American Journal of Clinical Nutrition 23, 11841193.
Grimsgaard, S, Bønaa, KH, Hansen, JB & Nordøy, A (1997) Highly purified eicosapentaenoic and docosahexaenoic acid in humans have similar triacylglycerol-lowering effects but divergent effects on serum fatty acids. American Journal of Clinical Nutrition 66, 649659.
Groppelli, A, Giorgi, DMA, Omboni, S, Parati, G & Mancia, G (1992) Persistent blood pressure increase induced by heavy smoking. Journal of Hypertension 10, 495499.
Guttormsen, AB, Schneede, J, Ueland, PM & Refsum, H (1996) Kinetics of total plasma homocysteine in subjects with hyper-homocysteinemia due to folate or cobalamin deficiency. American Journal of Clinical Nutrition 63, 194202.
Hackman, A, Abe, Y, Insull, W Jr, Pownall, H, Smith, L, Dunn, K, Gotto, AM Jr & Ballantyne, CM (1996) Levels of soluble cell adhesion molecules in patients with dyslipidemia. Circulation 93, 13341338.
Hajjar, KA (1993) Homocysteine induced modulation of tissue plasminogen activator binding to its endothelial cell membrane receptor. Journal of Clinical Investigation 91, 28732879.
Hamano, H, Nanba, A, Nagayama, M, Takizawa, S & Shinohara, Y (1996) [An adult case of homocystinuria due to methylene-tetrahydrofolate-reductase deficiency-treatment with folk acid and the course of coagulation-fibrinolysis parameters.] Rinsho-Shinkeigaku 36, 330335.
Hamazaki, T, Fischer, S, Urakaza, M, Sawazaki, S, Yano, S & Kuwamori, T (1989) Urinary excretion of PGI2/3-M and recent n−6/3 fatty acid intake. Prostaglandins 37, 417424.
Hamsten, A (1995) Hemostatic function and coronary artery disease. New England Journal of Medicine 332, 677678.
Hansen, JB, Huseby, NE, Sandset, PM, Svensson, B, Lyngmo, V & Nordøy, A (1994) Tissue-factor pathway inhibitor and lipoproteins. Evidence for association with and regulation by LDL in human plasma. Arteriosclerosis and Thrombosis 14, 223229.
Hansson, GK, Holm, J, Holm, S, Fotev, Z, Hedric, HJ & Fingerle, J (1991) T-lymphocytes inhibit the vascular response to injury. Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences USA 88, 1053010534.
Harker, LA, Slichter, SJ, Scott, CR & Ross, R (1974) Homocysteinemia, vascular injury and arterial thrombosis. New England Journal of Medicine 291, 537543.
Harpel, PC & Borth, W (1992) Identification of mechanisms that may modulate the role of lipoprotein(a) in thrombosis and atherogenesis. Annals of Epidemiology 2, 413417.
Harpel, PC, Zhang, X & Borth, W (1996) Homocysteine and hemostasis: pathogenic mechanisms predisposing to thrombosis. Journal of Nutrition 126, 1285S1289S.
Harris, WS (1997) n−3 fatty acids and serum lipoproteins: human studies. American Journal of Clinical Nutrition 65, 1645S1654S.
Harris, WS & Muzio, F (1993) Fish oil reduces postprandial triglyceride concentrations without accelerating lipid-emulsion removal rates. American Journal of Clinical Nutrition 58, 6874.
Hayes, KC & Khosla, P (1992) Dietary fatty acid thresholds and cholesterolemia. FASEB Journal 6, 26002607.
Hayes, KC, Khosla, P, Pronczuk, A & Lindsey, S (1992) Re-examination of the dietary fatty acid-plasma cholesterol issue: is palmitic acid (16:O) neutral? In Cholesterol and Coronary Heart Disease – The Great Debate, pp. 189206 [Gold, P, Grover, S and Roncari, DAK, editors]. Camforth: Parthenon Publishing Group.
Hayford, JT, Danney, MM, Wiebe, MCD, Roberts, S & Thompson, RG (1979) Triglyceride integrated concentrations: effect of variation of source and amount of dietary carbohydrate. American Journal of Clinical Nutrition 32, 16701678.
Healy, B (1990) Endothelial cell dysfunction: an emerging endocrinopathy linked to coronary artery disease. Journal of the American College of Cardiology 16, 357358.
Hegsted, DM, McGandy, RB, Myers, ML & Stare, FJ (1965) Quantitative effects of dietary fat on serum cholesterol in man. American Journal of Clinical Nutrition 17, 281295.
Heijnen, ML, van Amelsvoort, JM, Deurenberg, P & Beynen, AC (1996) Neither raw nor retrograded resistant starch lowers fasting serum cholesterol concentrations in healthy normolipidemic subjects. American Journal of Clinical Nutrition 64, 312318.
Hellsten, G, Boman, K, Saarem, K, Hallmans, G & Nilsson, T (1993) Effects on fibrinolytic activity of corn oil and a fish oil preparation enriched with omega-3 polyunsaturated fatty acids in a long-term study. Current Medical Research Opinion 13, 133139.
Henning, B, Toborek, M, Joshi-Barve, S, Barger, SW, Barve, S, Mattson, MP & McClain, CJ (1996) Linoleic acid activates nuclear transcription factor-κB (NF-κB) and induces NF-κB-dependent transcription in cultured endothelial cells. American Journal of Clinical Nutrition 63, 322328.
Herzlich, BC, Lichstein, E, Schulhoff, N, Weinstock, M, Pagala, M, Ravindran, K, Namba, T, Nieto, FJ, Stabler, SP & Allen, RH (1996) Relationship among homocyst(e)ine, vitamin B-12 and cardiac disease in the elderly: association between vitamin B-12 deficiency and decreased left ventricular ejection fraction. Journal of Nutrition 126, 1249S1253S.
Hill-Zobel, RL, Pyeritz, RE, Scheffel, E, Malpica, O, Engin, S, Camargo, EE, Abott, M, Guilarte, TR, Hill, J, McIntyre, PA, Murphy, EA & Tsan, MF (1982) Kinetics and distribution of 111indium-labeled platelets in patients with homocystinuria. New England Journal of Medicine 307, 781786.
Himsworth, HP (1936) Diabetes mellitus: its differentiation into insulin-sensitive and insulin-insensitive types. Lancet i, 127130.
Hokanson, JE & Austin, MA (1996) Plasma triglyceride level is a risk factor for cardiovascular disease independent of high-density lipoprotein cholesterol level: a meta-analysis of population-based prospective studies. Journal of Cardiovascular Risk 3, 213219.
Hopkins, PN (1992) Effects of dietary cholesterol on serum cholesterol: a meta-analysis and review. American Journal of Clinical Nutrition 55, 10601070.
Hornstra, G (1989) The significance of fish and fish-oil enriched food for prevention and therapy of ischaemic cardiovascular disease. In The Role of Fats in Human Nutrition II, pp. 151235 [Vergroesen, AJ and Crawford, MA, editors]. New York, NY: Academic Press.
Hornstra, G (1992) The effect of the n−3 fatty acids on blood coagulation. In Fish Oil and Vascular Disease, pp. 6572 [DeCaterina, R, Kristensen, SD and Schmidt, EB, editors]. Berlin: Springer-Verlag.
Hornstra, G, Hennissen, AAHM & Wierts, JW (1993) The effect of dietary fatty acids on platelet function and arterial thrombosis. In Essential Fatty Acids and Eicosanoids, pp. 287289 [Sinclair, A and Gibson, R, editors]. Champaign, IL: American Oil Chemist's Society.
Hornstra, G, Houwelingen, AC, Kivits, GAA, Fischer, S & Uedelhoven, W (1990) Influence of dietary fish on eicosanoid metabolism in man. Prostaglandins 40, 311329.
Horrobin, DF (1993) Fatty acid metabolism in health and disease: the role of ▵6-desaturase. American Journal of Clinical Nutrition 57, Suppl., 732S737S.
Hultberg, B, Anderson, A & Isaksson, A (1995) Metabolism of homocysteine, its relation to the other cellular thiols and its mechanism of cell damage in a cell culture line (human histiocytic cell line U-937). Biochimica et Biophysica Acta 1269, 612.
Hunter, DJ, Kazda, T, Chokalingam, A & Fodor, JG (1988) Fish consumption and cardiovascular mortality in Canada: an interregional comparison. American Journal of Preventive Medicine 4, 510.
Jacobsen, DW, Gatautis, VJ, Green, R, Robinson, K, Savon, SR, Secic, M, Ji, J, Otto, JM & Taylor, LJ (1994) Rapid HPLC determination of total homocysteine and other thiols in serum and plasma: sex differences and correlation with cobalamin and folate concentrations in healthy subjects [see comments]. Clinical Chemistry 40, 873881.
Jacques, PF, Bostom, AG, Williams, RR, Ellison, RC, Eckfeldt, JH, Rosenberg, IH, Selhub, J & Rozen, R (1996) Relation between folate status, a common mutation in methylenetetrahydrofolate reductase, and plasma homocysteine concentrations. Circulation 93, 79.
Jandacek, RJ, Ramirez, MM & Crouse, JR (1990) Effects of partial replacement of dietary fat by olestra on dietary cholesterol absorption in man. Metabolism 39, 848852.
Jeppesen, J, Chen, YDI, Zhou, MY, Wang, T & Reaven, GM (1995) Effect of variations in oral fat and carbohydrate load on post-prandial lipemia. American Journal of Clinical Nutrition 62, 12011205.
Jeunemaitre, X, Lifton, RP, Hunt, SC, Williams, RR & Lalouel, J-M (1992) Absence of linkage between angiotensin converting enzyme locus and human essential hypertension. Nature Genetics 1, 7275.
Jonasson, L, Holm, J, Skalli, O, Bondjers, G & Hansson, GK (1986) Regional accumulation of T cells, macrophages, and smooth muscle cells in the human atherosclerotic plaque. Arteriosclerosis 6, 131138.
Jones, BG, Rose, FA & Tudball, N (1994) Lipid peroxidation and homocysteine induced toxicity. Atherosclerosis 105, 165170.
Kaminski, WE, Jendraschak, E, Kiefl, R & von Shacky, C (1993) Dietary ω-3 fatty acids lower levels of platelet-derived growth factor mRNA in human mononuclear cells. Blood 81, 18711879.
Kardinaal, AFM, Aro, A, Kark, JD, Riemersma, RA, van't Veer, P, Gomez-Aracena, J, Kohlmeier, L, Ringstad, J, Martin, BC, Mazaev, VP, Delgado-Rodriguez, M, Thamm, M, Huttunen, JK, Martin-Moreno, JM & Kok, FJ (1995) Association between β-carotene and acute myocardial infarction depends on polyunsaturated fatty acid status. The Euramic Study. Arteriosclerosis, Thrombosis and Vascular Biology 15, 726732.
Karpe, F, Steiner, G, Uffelman, K, Olivecrona, T & Hamsten, A (1994) Postprandial lipoproteins and progression of coronary atherosclerosis. Atherosclerosis 106, 8397.
Katan, MB, Beynen, AC, de Vries, JHM & Nobels, A (1986) Existence of consistent hypo- and hyperresponders to dietary cholesterol in man. American Journal of Epidemiology 123, 221234.
Katan, MB, Zock, PL & Mensink, RP (1995) Trans fatty acids and their effects on lipoproteins in humans. Annual Reviews of Nutrition 15, 473493.
Kelley, DS, Nelson, GJ, Serrato, CM, Schmidt, PC & Branch, LB (1988) Effects of type of dietary fat on indices of immune status of rabbits. Journal of Nutrition 118, 13761384.
Kelly, JP & Parker, CW (1979) Effect of arachidonic acid and other unsaturated fatty acids on mitogenesis in human lymphocytes. Journal of Immunology 122, 15561562.
Kesaniemi, YA & Grundy, SM (1982) Lack of effect of tocopherol on plasma lipids and lipoproteins in man. American Journal of Clinical Nutrition 36, 224228.
Keys, A, Anderson, JT & Grande, F (1965 a) Serum cholesterol response to changes in the diet II. The effect of cholesterol in the diet. Metabolism 14, 759765.
Keys, A, Anderson, JT & Grande, F (1965 b) Serum cholesterol response to changes in the diet IV. Particular saturated fatty acids in the diet. Metabolism 14, 776786.
Khan, WA, Blobe, GC & Hannun, YA (1995) Arachidonic acid and free fatty acids as second messengers and the role of protein kinase C. Cellular Signalling 7, 171184.
Knapp, HR, Rielly, IAG, Allessandrini, P & FitzGerald, GA (1986) In vivo indexes of platelet and vascular function during fish-oil administration in patients with atherosclerosis. New England Journal of Medicine 314, 937942.
Kokame, K, Kato, H & Miyata, T (1996) Homocysteine-respondent genes in vascular endothelial cells identified by differential display analysis. GRP78/BiP and novel genes. Journal of Biological Chemistry 271, 2965929665.
Kritchevsky, D & `Tepper, SA (1977) Cholesterol vehicle in experimental atherosclerosis. Part 15. Randomized butter and randomized lard. Atherosclerosis 27, 339345.
Kritchevsky, D, Tepper, SA, Vesselinovitch, D & Wissler, RW (1973) Cholesterol vehicle in experimental atherosclerosis. Randomized peanut oil. Atherosclerosis 17, 225243.
Kromhout, D (1985) Fish consumption and mortality from coronary heart disease. New England Journal of Medicine 313, 824.
Kromhout, D, Bosschieter, EB & de Lezenne Coulander, C (1985) The inverse relation between fish consumption and 20-year mortality from coronary heart disease. New England Journal of Medicine 312, 12051209.
Landsberg, L & Krieger, DR (1989) Obesity, metabolism, and the sympathetic nervous system. American Journal of Hypertension 2, 125S132S.
Lapidus, L, Anderson, H, Bengtsson, C & Bosaeus, I (1986) Dietary habits in relation to incidence of cardiovascular disease and death in women:a 12 year follow-up of participants in the population study of women in Gothenburg, Sweden. American Journal of Clinical Nutrition 44, 444448.
Laws, A & Reaven, GM (1993) Insulin resistance and the risk factors for coronary heart disease. Baillière's Clinical Endocrinology and Metabolism 7, 10791103.
Lentz, SR, Sobey, CG, Piegors, DJ, Bhopatkar, MY, Faraci, FM, Malinow, MR &, Heistad, DD (1996) Vascular dysfunction in monkeys with diet-induced hyperhomocyst(e)inemia [see comments]. Journal of Clinical Investigation 98, 2429.
Leprán, I, Nemecz, GY, Koltai, M & Szekeres, L (1981) Effect of linoleic acid rich diet on the acute phase of coronary occlusion in conscious rats:influence of indomethacin and aspirin. Journal of Cardiovascular Pharmacology 3, 847853.
Lewis, GF, O'Meara, NM, Soltys, PA, Blackman, JD, Iverius, PH, Pugh, WL, Getz, GS & Polonsky, KS (1990) Postprandial lipo-protein metabolism in normal and obese subjects:comparison after the vitamin A fat-loading test. Journal of Clinical Endo-crinology and Metabolism 71, 10411050.
Lillioja, S, Young, AA, Culter, CA, Ivy, JL, Abbott, WG, Zawadzki, JK, YkiJarvinen, H, Christin, L, Secomb, TW & Bogardus, C (1987) Skeletal muscle capillary density and fibre type are possible determinants of in vivo insulin resistance in man. Journal of Clinical Investigation 80, 415424.
Lindgren, A, Lindoff, C, Norrving, B, Astedt, B & Johansson, BB (1996) Tissue plasminogen activator and plasminogen activator inhibitor-1 in stroke patients. Stroke 27, 10661071.
Ling, WH & Jones, PJ (1995) Dietary phytosterols: a review of metabolism, benefits and side effects. Life Science 5, 195206.
Lissner, L, Bengtsson, C, Lapidus, L, Kristjansson, K & Wedel, H (1992) Fasting insulin in relation to subsequent blood pressure changes and hypertension in women. Hypertension 20, 797801.
Lodish, H, Baltimore, D, Berk, A, Zipurski, SL, Matsudavia, M & Darnell, J (1995) Chapter 27. Immunity. In Molecular Cell Biology, 3rd ed. New York NY:, Scientific American Books.
Loeliger, EA (1984) Oral anticoagulation in patients surviving myocardial infarction. A new approach to old data. European Journal of Clinical Pharmucology 26, 137139.
LopezMiranda, J, Ordovas, JM, Espino, A, Marin, C, Salas, J, LopezSegura, F, JimenezPereperez, J & Perez-Jimenez, F (1994) Influence of mutation in human apolipoprotein A-1 gene pro-moter on plasma LDL cholesterol response to dietary fat. Lancet 343, 12461249.
LopezSegura, F, Velasco, F, LopezMiranda, J, Castro, P, LopezPedrera, R, Blanco, A, JimenezPereperez, J, Torres, A, Trujillo, J, Ordovas, JM & Perez-Jimenez, F (1996) Monounsaturated fatty acid-enriched diet decreases plasma plasminogen activator inhi-bitor type 1. Arteriosclerosis, Thrombosis and Vascular Biology 16, 8288.
Loscalzo, J, Pasche, B, Ouimet, H & Freedman, JE (1995) Platelets and plasminogen activation. Thrombosis and Haemostasis 74, 291293.
Lucas, CP, Estigarribia, JA, Darga, LL & Reaven, GM (1985) Insulin and blood pressure in obesity. Hypertension 7, 702706.
Ma, J, Stampfer, MJ, Hennekens, CH, Frosst, P, Selhub, J, Horsford, J, Malinow, MR, Willett, WC & Rozen, R (1996) Methylenetetrahydrofolate reductase polymorphism, plasma folate, homocysteine, and risk of myocardial infarction in US physicians. Circulation 94, 24102416.
McCully, KS (1993) Chemical pathology of homocysteine. I. Atherogenesis. Annals of Clinical and Laboratory Sciences 23, 477493.
McGill, HC Jr (1984) Persistent problems in the pathogenesis of atherosclerosis : atherogenesis and inflammation. Arteriosclerosis 4, 443451.
McLennan, PL (1993) Relative effects of dietary saturated, monounsaturated, and polyunsaturated fatty acids on cardiac arrhyth-mias in rats. American Journal of Clinical Nutrition 57, 207212.
McLennan, PL, Abeywardena, MY & Charnock, JS (1985) Influence of dietary lipid on arrhythmias and infarction after coronary ligation in rats. Canadian Journal of Physiology and Pharma-cology 63, 14111417.
McLennan, PL, Abeywardena, MY & Charnock, JS (1989) The influence of age and dietary fat in an animal model of sudden cardiac death. Australian and New Zealand Journal of Medicine 19, 15.
McLennan, PL, Abeywardena, MY & Charnock, JS (1990) Reversal of the arrhythmogenic effects of long-term saturated fatty acid intake by dietary n−3 and n−6 polyunsaturated fatty acids. American Journal of Clinical Nutrition 51, 5358.
McLennan, P & Dallimore, JA (1995) Dietary canola oil modifies myocardial fatty acids and inhibits cardiac arrhythmias in rats. Journal of Nutrition 125, 10031009.
MacLeod, DC, Heagerty, AM, Bund, SJ, Lawal, TS & Riemersma, RA (1994) Effect of dietary polyunsaturated fatty acids on contraction and relaxation of rat femoral resistance arteries. Journal of Cardiovascular Pharmacology 23, 9298.
MacMahon, S, PetO, R, Cutler, J, Collins, R, Sorlie, P, Neaton, J, Abbott, R, Godwin, J, Dyer, A & Stamler, J (1990) Blood pressure, stroke, and coronary heart disease. Part 1. Lancet 335, 765774.
malinow, MR (1996) Plasma homocyst(e)ine: a risk factor for arterial occlusive diseases. Journal of Nutrition 126, 1238S1243S.
Manninen, V, Tenkanen, L, Koskinen, P, Huttunen, JK, Manttari, M, Heinonen, OP & Frick, MH (1992) Joint effects of serum triglyceride and HDL cholesterol concentrations on coronary heart disease risk in the Helsinki Heart Study. Implications for treatment. Circulation 85, 3745.
Marckmann, P, Sandström, B & Jespersen, J (1993) Favorable long-term effect of a low-fatihigh-fiber diet on human blood coagula-tion and fibrinolysis. Arteriosclerosis and Thrombosis 13, 505511.
Martin, JF, Bath, PM & Burr, ML (1991) Influence of platelet size on outcome after myocardial infarction. Lancet 338, 14091411.
Marui, N, Offermann, MK, Swerlick, R, Kunsch, C, Rosen, CA, Ahmad, M, Aleander, RW & Medford, RM (1993) Vascular adhesion molecule-1 (VCAM) gene transcription and expression are regulated through an antioxidant-sensitive mechanism in human vascular endothelial cells. Journal of Clinical Investiga-tion 92, 18661874.
Mata, P, Ordovas, JM, LopezMiranda, J, Lichtenstein, AH, Clevidence, B, Judd, JT & Schaefer, EJ (1994) ApoA-IV phenotype affects diet-induced plasma LDL cholesterol lowering. Arteriosclerosis and Thrombosis 14, 884891.
Mayer, EJ, Newman, B, Quesenberry, CP & Selby, JV (1993) Usual dietary fat intake and insulin concentrations in healthy women twins. Diabetes Care 16, 14591469.
Meade, TW, Brozovic, M, Chakrabarti, RR, Hannes, AP, Imeson, JD, Mellows, S, Miller, GJ, North, WRS, Stirling, Y & Thompson, SG (1986) Haemostatic function and ischaemic heart disease: princi-pal results of the Northwick Park heart study. Lancet ii, 533537.
Meade, TW, Ruddock, V, Stirling, Y, Chakrabarti, R & Miller, GI (1993) Fibrinolytic activity, clotting factors, and long-term incidence of ischaemic heart disease in the Northwick Park Heart Study. Lancet 342, 10761079.
Mellies, MJ, Jandacek, RJ, Taulbee, JD, Tewkesbury, MB, Lamkin, G, Baehler, L, King, P, Boggs, D, Goldman, S, Gouge, A, Tsang, R & Glueck, CJ (1983) A double-blind, placebo controlled study of sucrose polyester in hypercholesterolemic outpatients. American Journal of Clinical Nutrition 37, 339346.
Mennen, LI, Schouten, EG, Grobbee, DE & Kluft, C (1996) Coagu-lation factor VII, dietary fat and blood lipids: a review. Throm-bosis and Haemostasis 76, 492499.
Mensink, RP & Katan, MB (1992) Effect of dietary fatty acids on serum lipids and lipoproteins. A meta-analysis of 27 trials. Arteriosclerosis and Thrombosis 12, 911919.
Meydani, SN, Lichtenstein, AH, Cornwall, S, Meydani, M, Goldin, BR, Rasmussen, H, Dinarello, CA & Schaefer, EJ (1993) Immunologic effects of national cholesterol education panel step-2 diets with and without fish-derived n−3 fatty acid enrich-ment. Journal of Clinical Investigation 92, 105113.
Middleton, E & Kandaswami, C (1992) Commentary. Effects of flavonoids on immune and inflammatory cell functions. Biochimica et Biophysica Acta 43, 11671179.
Miettinen, TA (1991) Impact of apoE phenotype on the regulation of cholesterol metabolism. Annals of Medicine 23, 181186.
Miettinen, TA, Naukkarinen, V, Huttunen, JK, Mattila, S & Kumlin, T (1982) Fattyacid composition of serum lipids predicts myocardial infarction. British Medical Journal 285, 993996.
Miettinen, TA, Puska, P, Gylling, H, Vanhanen, H & Vartiainen, E (1995) Reduction of serum cholesterol with sitostanolester margarine in a mildly hypercholesterolemic population. New England Journal of Medicine 333, 13081312.
Miller, GJ (1995) Lipoproteins and thrombosis: effects of lipid lowering. Current Opinion in Lipidology 6, 3842.
Miller, GJ, Bauer, KA, Barzegar, S, Cooper, JA & Rosenberg, RD (1996) Increased activation of the haemostatic system in men at high risk of fatal coronary heart disease. Thrombosis and Haemostasis 75, 767771.
Mitropoulos, KA (1994) Lipoprotein metabolism and thrombosis. Current Opinion in Lipidology 5, 227235.
Modan, M, Halkin, H, Almog, S, Lusky, A, Eshkol, A, Shefi, M, Shitrit, A & Fuchs, Z (1985) Hyperinsulinaemia: a link between hyper-tension, obesity and glucose intolerance. Journal of Clinical Investigation 75, 809817.
Mohan, P, Sys, SU & Brutsaert, DL (1994) Nitric oxide donors induce a positive inotropic effect mediated by cGMP in isolated cardiac muscle without endothelium. European Heart Journal 15, Suppl., 144.
Morris, MC, Manson, JE, Rosner, B, Buring, JE, Willett, WC & Hennekens, CH (1992) A prospective study of fish consumption on cardiovascular disease. Circulation 86, Suppl. 1, 463.
Morris, MC, Sacks, F & Rosner, B (1993) Does fish oil lower blood pressure ? A meta analysis of controlled trials. Circulation 88, 525533.
Mutanen, M (1997) Cis-unsaturated fatty acids and platelet function. Prostaglandins Leukotrienes and Essential Fatty Acids 57, 403410.
Mutanen, M & Aro, A (1997) Coagulation and fibrinolysis factors in healthy subjects consuming high stearic or trans fatty acids. Thrombosis and Haemostasis 77, 99104.
Murohara, T, Scalia, R & Lefer, AM (1996) Lysophosphatidylcholine promotes P-selectin expression in platelets and endothelial cells. Possible involvement of protein kinase C activation and its inhibition by nitric oxide donors. Circulation Research 78, 780789.
Nestel, PJ, Noakes, M, Belling, GB, McArthur, R & Clifton, PM (1995) Effect on plasma lipids of interesterifying a mix of edible oils. American Journal of Clinical Nutrition 62, 950955.
Ng, TKW, Hayes, KC, DeWitt, GF, Jegathesan, M, Satgunasingam, N, Ong, AS & Tan, D (1992) Dietary palmitic acid and oleic acids exert similar effects on serum cholesterol and lipoprotein profiles in normocholesterolemic men and women. Journal of the American College of Nutrition 11, 383390.
Nilsson, TK, Sundell, IB, Hellsten, G & Hallmans, G (1990) Reduced plasminogen activator inhibitor in high consumers of fruits, vegetables and root vegetables. Journal of Internal Medicine 227, 267271.
Nishinaga, M, Ozawa, T & Shimada, K (1993) Homocysteine, a thrombogenic agent, suppresses anticoagulant heparan sulfate expression in cultured porcine aortic endothelial cells. Journal of Clinical Investigation 92, 13811386.
Novell, SE, Ahlbom, A, Feychting, M & Pedersen, NL (1986) Fish consumption and mortality from coronary heart disease. British Medical Journal 293, 426.
Ochi, H, Kume, N, Nishi, E & Kita, T (1995) Elevated levels of CAMP inhibit protein kinase C-independent mechanisms of endothelial platelet-derived growth factor-B chain and intercel-lular adhesion molecule-1 gene induction by lysophosphatidyl-choline. Circulation Research 77, 530535.
Öhrvall, M, Sundlöf, G & Vessby, B (1996) Gamma, but not alpha, tocopherol levels in serum are reduced in coronary heart disease patients. Journal of Internal Medicine 239, 111117.
O'Meara, NM, Lewis, GF, Cabana, VG, Iverius, PH, Getz, GS & Polonsky, KS (1992) Role of basal triglyceride and high density lipoprotein in determination of postprandial lipid and lipoprotein response. Journal of Clinical Endocrinology and Metabolism 75, 465471.
Oosthuizen, W, Vorster, HH, Jerling, JC, Barnard, HC, Smuts, CM, Silvis, N, Kruger, A & Venter, CS (1994) Both fish oil and olive oil lowered plasma fibrinogen in women with high baseline fibrinogen levels. Thrombosis and Haemostasis 72, 557562.
Ordovas, JM, Lopez-Miranda, J, Mata, P, Perez-Jiminez, F, Lichten-stein, AH & Schaefer, EJ (1995) Gene-diet interaction in determining plasma lipid response to dietary intervention. Atherosclerosis 118, Suppl., S11–S27.
Ostlund-Lindqvist, AM, Albanus, L & Croon, LB (1985) Effect of dietary fatty acids on microsomal enzymes and membranes. Lipids 20, 620624.
Palinski, W, Miller, E & Witzum, JL (1995) Immunization of low density lipoprotein (LDL) receptor-deficient rabbits with homo-logous malondialdehyde-modified LDL reduces atherogenesis. Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences USA 92, 821825.
Palinski, W, Rosenfeld, ME, YläHerttuala, S, Gurtner, GC, Socher, SS, Butler, SW, Parthasarathy, S, Carew, TE, Steinberg, D & Witztum, JL (1989) Low density lipoprotein undergoes oxidative modification in vivo. Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences USA 86, 13721376.
Pan, DA, Lillioja, S, Milner, MR, Kriketos, AD, Baur, LA, Bogardus, C & Storlien, LH (1995) Skeletal muscle membrane lipid composition is related to adiposity and insulin action. Journal of Clinical Investigation 96, 28022808.
Pancharuniti, N, Lewis, CA, Sauberlich, HE, Perkins, LL, Go, RC, Alvarez, JO, Macaluso, M, Acton, RT, Copeland, RB & Cousins, AL (1994) Plasma homocyst(e)ine, folate, and vitamin B-12 concentrations and risk for early-onset coronary artery disease. American Journal of Clinical Nutrition 59, 940948.
Patsch, JR (1987) Postprandial lipaemia. Baillibrè's Clinical Endocrinology and Metabolism 1, 551580.
Pedersen, A, Sandstrom, B & Van Amelsvoort, JMM (1997) The effect of ingestion of inulin on blood lipids and gastrointestinal symptoms in healthy females. British Journal of Nutrition 78, 215222.
Petri, M, Roubenoff, R, Dallal, GE, Nadeau, MR, Selhub, J & Rosenberg, IH (1996) Plasma homocysteine as a risk factor for atherothrombotic events in systemic lupus erythematosus. Lancet 348, 11201124.
Pietinen, P, Ascherio, A, Korhonen, P, Hartman, AM, Willett, WC, Albanes, D & Virtamo, J (1997) Intake of fatty acids and risk of coronary heart disease in a cohort of Finnish men. The alpha-tocopherol, beta-carotene cancer prevention study. American Journal of Epidemiology 145, 876887.
Poston, RN, Haskard, DO, Coucher, JR, Gall, NP & Johnson-Tidey, RR (1992) Expression of intercellular adhesion molecule-1 in atherosclerotic plaques. American Journal of Pathology 140, 665673.
Potts, JL, Coppack, SW, Fisher, RM, Humphreys, SM, Gibbons, GF & Frayn, KN (1995) Impaired postprandial clearance of triacylgly-cerol-rich lipoproteins in adipose tissue in obese subjects. American Journal of Physiology 268, E588–E594.
pyörälä, K (1979) Relationship of glucose tolerance and plasma insulin to the incidence of coronary heart disease : results from two population studies in Finland. Diabetes Care 2, 131141.
Qureshi, AA, Bradlow, BA, Brace, L, Manganello, J, Peterson, DM, Pearce, BC, Wright, JJ, Gapor, A & Elson, CE (1995) Response of hypercholesterolemic subjects to administration of tocotrienols. Lipids 30, 11711177.
Qureshi, AA, Bradlow, BA, Salser, WA & Brace, LD (1997) Novel tocotrienols of rice bran modulate cardiovascular disease risk parameters of hypercholesterolemic humans. Journal of Nutri-tional Biochemistry 8, 290298.
Qureshi, AA, Pearce, BC, Nor, RM, Gapor, A, Peterson, DM & Elson, CE (1996) Dietary alpha-tocopherol attenuates the impact of gamma-tocotrienol on hepatic 3 hydroxy-3-methylglutaryl coenzyme A reductase activity in chickens. Journal of Nutrition 126, 389394.
Rambjor, GS, Walen, AI, Windsor, SL & Harris, WS (1996) Eicosapentaenoic acid is primarily responsible for hypotrigly-ceridemic effect of fish oil in humans. Lipids 31, Suppl., S45–s49.
Rapaport, SI & Rao, LVM (1995) The tissue factor pathway : how it has become a “prima ballerina”. Thrombosis and Haemostasis 74, 717.
Rasmussen, O, Thomsen, C, Ingerslev, J & Hermansen, K (1994) Decrease in von Willebrand factor levels after a high-mono-unsaturated-fat diet in non-insulin-dependent diabetic subjects. Metabolism 43, 14061409.
Reaven, GM (1988) Role of insulin resistance in human disease. Diabetes 37, 15951607.
Reaven, GM, Litthel, H & Landsberg, L (1996) Hypertension and associated metabolic abnormalities the role of insulin resistance and the sympatho-adrenal system. New England Journal of Medicine 334, 374381.
Richelsen, B, Kristensen, K & Pedersen, SB (1996) Long-term (6 months) effect of a new fermented milk product on the level of plasma lipoproteins a placebo controlled and double blind study. European Journal of Clinical Nutrition 50, 811815.
Ridker, PM, Cushman, M, Stampfer, MJ, Tracy, RP & Hennekens, CH (1997) Inflammation, aspirin, and the risk of cardiovascular disease in apparently healthy men. New England Journal of Medicine 336, 973979.
Ridker, PM, Hennekens, CH, Cerskus, A & Stampfer, MJ (1994) Plasma concentration of cross-linked fibrin degradation product (D-dimer) and the risk of future myocardial infarction among apparently healthy men. Circulation 90, 22362240.
Ridker, PM & Vaughan, DE (1995) Comment on NEJM. Hemo-static factors and the risk of myocardial infarction. New England Journal of Medicine 333, 389.
Riemersma, RA (1995) n−3 Fatty acids and experimental arrhyth-mogenesis. In n−3 Fatty Acids : Prevention and Treatment in Vascular Disease, pp. 98106 [Kristensen, SD, Schmidt, EB, De Caterina, R and Endres, S, editors]. Verona: Bi & Gi Publishers, and London: Springer-Verlag.
Riemersma, RA, Sargent, CA, Saman, S, Rebergen, SA & Abraham, R (1988) Dietary fatty acids and ischaemic arrhythmias (letter). Lancet ii, 285286.
Rimm, EB, Klatsky, A, Grobbee, D & Stampfer, MJ (1996) Review of moderate alcohol consumption and reduced risk of coronary heart disease: is the effect due to beer, wine, or spirits. British Medical Journal 312, 731736.
Ripsin, CM, Keenan, JM, Jacobs, DR Jr, Elmer, JJ, Welch, RR, Horn, L, Liu, K, Tumbull, WH, Thye, FW, Kestin, M, Hegsted, M, Davidson, DM, Davidson, MH, Dugan, LD, Demark-Wahnefried, W & Beling, S (1992) Oat products and lipid lowering. A meta-analysis. Journal of the American Medical Association 267, 33173325.
Robinson, K, Gupta, A, Dennis, V, Arheart, K, Chaudhary, D, Green, R, Vigo, P, Mayer, EL, Selhub, J & Kutner, M (1996) Hyperho-mocysteinemia confers an independent increased risk of athero-sclerosis in end-stage renal disease and is closely linked to plasma folate and pyridoxine concentrations. Circulation 94, 27432748.
Robinson, K, Mayer, EL, Miller, DP, Green, R, Lente, F, Gupta, A, Kottke, MK, Savon, SR, Selhub, J & Nissen, SE (1995) Hyper-homocysteinemia and low pyridoxal phosphate. Common and independent reversible risk factors for coronary artery disease. Circulation 92, 28252830.
Rocchini, AP, Moorehead, C, DeRemer, S, Goodfriend, TL & Ball, DL (1990) Hyperinsulinemia and the aldosterone and pressor responses to angiotensin II. Hypertension 15, 861866.
Rodgers, GM & Conn, MT (1990) Homocysteine, an atherogenic stimulus, reduces protein C activation by arterial and venous endothelial cells. Blood 74, 895901.
Roselaar, SE, Schonfeld, G & Daugherty, A (1995) Enhanced development of atherosclerosis in cholesterol fed rabbits by suppression of cell-mediated immunity. Journal of Clinical Investigation 96, 13891394.
Ross, R (1995) Cell biology of atherosclerosis. Annual Reviews of Physiology 57, 791804.
Roust, RR & Jensen, MD (1993) Postprandial free fatty acid kinetics are abnormal in upper body obesity. Diabetes 42, 15671573.
Rydholm, H, Boström, S, Eriksson, E & Risberg, B (1995) Complex intracellular signal transduction regulates tissue plasminogen activator (t-PA) and plasminogen activator inhibitor type-1 (PAI-1) synthesis in cultured human umbilical vein endothe-lium. Scandinavian Journal of Laboratory and Clinical Investigation 55, 323330.
Saad, MF, Lillioja, S, Nyomba, BL, Castillo, C, Ferraro, R, De Gregorio, M, Ravussin, E, Knowler, WC, Bennett, PH, Howard, BV & Bogardus, C (1991) Racial differences in the relation between blood pressure and insulin resistance. New England Journal of Medicine 324, 733739.
Salo, MK, Vartiainen, E, Puska, P & Nikkari, T (1985) Platelet aggregation in Finnish men and its relation to fatty acids in platelets, plasma and adipose tissue. Thrombosis and Haemo-stasis 54, 563569.
Salomaa, V, Stinson, V, Kark, JD, Folsom, AR, Davis, CE & Wu, KK (1995) Association of fibrinolytic parameters with early athero-sclerosis. The Aric Study. Circulation 91, 284290.
Salonen, JT, Seppänen, K, Nyyssönen, K, Korpela, H, Kauhanen, J, Kantola, M, Tuomilehto, J, Esterbauer, H, Tatzber, F & Salonen, R (1995) Intake of mercury from fish, lipid peroxidation, and the risk of myocardial infarction and coronary, cardiovascular, and any death in eastern Finnish men. Circulation 91, 645655.
Sanderson, P, Yaqoob, P & Calder, PC (1995) Effects of dietary lipid manipulation upon rat spleen lymphocyte functions and the expression of lymphocyte surface molecules. Journal of Nutrition and Environmental Medicine 5, 119132.
Santoli, D, Phillips, PD, Colt, TL & Zurier, RB (1990) Suppression of interleukin-2-dependent human T cell growth in vitro by prostaglandin E (PGE) and their precursor fatty acids. Journal of Clinical Investigation 85, 424432.
Sargent, CA (1990) Dietary fat and ischaemic arrhythmias. PhD Thesis, University of Edinburgh.
Sargent, C & Riemersma, RA (1990) Polyunsaturated fatty acids and cardiac arrhythmias. Biochemical Society Transactions 18, 10771078.
Schienle, HW, Seitz, R, Rohner, I, Lerch, L, Krumpholz, B, Krauss, G, Fowler, B, Baumgartner, R, Willenbockel, U & Egbring, R (1994) Coagulation factors and markers of activation of coagulation in homocystinuria (HOCY) : a study in two siblings. Blood Coagulation and Fibrinolysis 5, 873878.
Schmitz, C, Lindpaintner, K, Verhoef, P, Gaziano, JM & Buring, J (1996) Genetic polymorphism of methylenetetrahydrofolate reductase and myocardial infarction. A case-control study. Circulation 94, 18121814.
Schreck, R, Albermann, K & Baeuerle, PA (1992) Nuclear factor kappa B: an oxidative stress-responsive transcription factor of eukaryotic cells. Free Radical Research Communications 17, 221237.
Selhub, J, Jacques, PF, Bostom, AG, D'Agostino, RB, Wilson, PW, Belanger, AJ, O'Leary, DH, Wolf, PA, Schaefer, EJ & Rosenberg, IH (1995) Association between plasma homocysteine concen-trations and extracranial carotid-artery stenosis [see comments]. New England Journal of Medicine 332, 286291.
Selhub, J, Jacques, PF, Bostom, AG, D'Agostino, RB, Wilson, PW, Belanger, AJ, O'Leary, DH, Wolf, PA, Rush, D & Schaefer, EJ (1996) Relationship between plasma homocysteine, vitamin status and extracranial carotid-artery stenosis in the Framingham Study population. Journal of Nutrition 126, 1258S1265S.
Semafuko, WEB, Rutledge, CO & Dixon, WR (1984) Alterations in myocardial alpha-adrenoceptor function by modification of dietary lipids. Federation Proceedings 43, 414.
Shahar, E, Folsom, AR, Wu, KK, Dennis, BH, Shimakawa, T, Conlan, MG, Davis, CE & Williams, OD (1993) Association of fish intake and dietary n−3 polyunsaturated fatty acids with a hypocoagulable profile. The Atherosclerosis Risk in Communities (ARIC) Study. Arteriosclerosis and Thrombosis 13, 12051212.
Shaten, BJ, Kuller, LH & Neaton, JD (1991) Association between baseline risk factors, cigarette smoking, and CHD mortality after 10.5 years. MRFIT Research Group. Preventive Medicine 20, 655659.
Shekelle, RB, Missell, LV, Paul, O, Shyrock, AM & Stamler, J (1985) Fish consumption and mortality from coronary heart disease. New England Journal of Medicine 313, 820.
Silagy, C & Neil, A (1994) Garlic as a lipid lowering agent -a meta-analysis. Journal of the Royal College of Physicians, London 28, 3945.
Silveira, A, Karpe, F, Blomback, M, Steiner, G, Walldius, G & Hamsten, A (1994) Activation of coagulation factor VII during alimentary lipemia. Arteriosclerosis and Thrombosis 14, 6069.
Simionescu, N, Vasile, E, Lupu, , Popescu, G & Simionescu, M (1986) Prelesional events in atherogenesis. Accumulation of extracel-lular cholesterol-rich liposomes in the arterial intima and cardiac valves of the hyperlipidemic rabbit. American Journal of Pathology 123, 109125.
Simon, JA, Fong, J, Bernert, JT & Browner, WS (1995) Serum fatty acids and the risk of stroke. Stroke 26, 778782.
Simons, LA, Balasubramaniam, S, Konigsmark, M, Parfitt, A, Simons, J & Peters, W (1995) On the effect of garlic on plasma lipids and lipoproteins in mild hypercholesterolaemia. Athero-sclerosis 113, 219225.
Simonsen, T, Vårtun, A, Lyngmo, V & Norday, A (1987) Coronary heart disease, serum lipids and dietary fish in two communities in Northern Norway. Acta Medica Scandinavica 222, 237245.
Simopoulos, AP (1994) Is insulin resistance influenced by dietary linoleic acid and trans fatty acids? Free Radical Biology and Medicine 17, 367372.
Skarfors, ET, Lithell, HO & Selinns, I (1991) Risk factors for the development of hypertension: a 10-year longitudinal study in middle-aged men. Journal of Hypertension 9, 217223.
Smith, P, Arnesen, H & Holme, I (1990) The effect of warfarin on mortality and reinfarction after myocardial infarction. New England Journal of Medicine 323, 147152.
Sniderman, A, Brown, BG, Stewart, BF & Cianflone, K (1992) From familial combined hyperlipidaemia to hyperapo B: unravelling the overproduction of hepatic apolipoprotein B. Current Opinion in Lipidology 3, 137142.
Spady, DK, Woollett, LA & Dietschy, JM (1993) Regulation of plasma LDL cholesterol levels by dietary cholesterol and fatty acids. Annual Review of Nutrition 13, 355381.
Sperling, RI, Benincaso, AI, Knoell, CT, Larkin, JK, Austen, KF & Robinson, DR (1993) Dietary ω3 polyunsaturated fatty acids inhibit phosphoinositide formation and chemotaxis in neutro-phils. Journal of Clinical Investigation 91, 651660.
Springer, TA (1990) Adhesion receptors of the immune system. Nature 346, 425434.
Stabler, SP, Allen, RH, Savage, DG & Lindenbaum, J (1990) Clinical spectrum and diagnosis of cobalamin deficiency [see com-ments]. Blood 76, 871881.
Stamler, JS & Loscalzo, J (1992) Endothelium-derived relaxing factor modulates the atherothrombogenic effects of homocys-teine. Journal of Cardiovascular Pharmacology 20, Suppl.12, s202–s204.
Stamler, JS, Osborne, JA, Jaraki, O, Rabbani, LE, Mullins, M, Singel, D & Loscalzo, J (1993) Adverse vascular effects of homocysteine are modulated by endothelium-derived relaxing factor and related oxides of nitrogen. Journal of Clinical Investigation 91, 308318.
Stamler, JS & Slivka, A (1996) Biological chemistry of thiols in the vasculature and in vascular-related diseases. Nutrition Reviews 54, 130.
Stasse-Wolthuis, M, Albers, HF, Jeveren, JG, Wilde Jong, J, Hautvast, JGAJ, Hermus, RJ, Katan, MB, Brydon, WG & East-wood, MA (1980) Influence of dietary fiber from vegetables and fruits, bran or citrus pectin on serum lipids, fecal lipids, and colonic function. American Journal of Clinical Nutrition 33, 17451756.
Steering Committee of the Physicians' Health Study Research Group (1989) Final report on the aspirin component of the ongoing Physicians' Health Study. New England Journal of Medicine 321, 129135.
Steinberg, D, Parthasarathy, S, Carew, TE, Khoo, JC & Witzum, JL (1989) Beyond cholesterol : modifications of low density lipoprotein that increase its atherogenicity. New England Journal of Medicine 32, 915923.
Steiner, M, Glantz, M & Lekos, A (1995) Vitamin E plus aspirin compared with aspirin alone in patients with transient ischemic attacks. American Journal of Clinical Nutrition 62, Suppl., 1381s1384S.
Stemme, S & Hansson, GK (1994) Immune mechanisms in athero-sclerosis. Coronary Artery Disease 5, 216222.
Stephens, NG, Parsons, A, Schofield, PM, Kelly, F, Cheeseman, K, Mitchinson, MJ & Brown, MJ (1996) Randomised controlled trial of vitamin E in patients with coronary disease : Cambridge Heart Antioxidant Study (CHAOS). Lancet 347, 781786.
Stinson, JC, Owens, D, McBrinn, S, Collins, P, Johnson, A & Tomkin, GH (1993) The regulation of postprandial cellular cholesterol metabolism in type 2 diabetic and non-diabetic subjects. Dia-betic Medicine 10, 420426.
Storlien, LH, Jenkins, AB, Chisholm, DJ, Pascal, WS, Khouri, S & Kraeger, EW (1991) Influence of dietary fat composition on development of insulin resistance in rats : relationship to muscle triglyceride and omega 3 fatty acids in muscle phospholipids. Diabetes 40, 280289.
Stout, RW (1990) Insulin and atheroma. 20-Yr perspective. Diabetes Care 13, 631654.
Stout, RW & Vallance-Owen, J (1969) Insulin and atheroma. Lancet i, 10781080.
Sundell, IB & Rånby, M (1993) Oat husk fiber decreases plasminogen activator inhibitor type 1 activity. Haemostasis 23, 4550.
Tegelman, R, Aberg, T, Eklöf, R, Pousette, A, Carlstrom, K & Berglund, I (1996) Influence of a diet regimen on glucose homeostasis and serum lipid levels in male elite athletes. Metabolism 4, 435441.
Temme, EHM, Mensink, RP & Hornstra, G (1996) Comparison of the effect of diets enriched in lauric, palmitic, or oleic acids on serum lipids and lipoproteins in healthy women and men. American Journal of Clinical Nutrition 63, 897903.
Thaulow, E, Erikssen, J, Sandvik, L, Stormorken, H & Cohn, PF (1991) Blood platelet count and function are related to total and cardio-vascular death in apparently healthy men. Circulation 84, 613617.
Thompson, SG, Kienast, J, Pyke, SDM, Haverkate, F & van de Loo, JC (1995) Hemostatic factors and risk of myocardial infarction or sudden death in patients with angina pectoris. New England Journal of Medicine 332, 635641.
Tonstad, S, Refsum, H, Sivertsen, M, Christophersen, B, Ose, L & Ueland, PM (1996) Relation of total homocysteine and lipid levels in children to premature cardiovascular death in male relatives. Pediatric Research 40, 4752.
Trials of Hypertension Collaborative Research Group (1992) The effects of nonpharmacologic interventions on blood pressure of persons with high normal levels : results of the Trials of Hyper-tension Prevention (Phase I). Journal of the American Medical Association 267, 12131220.
Tsai, JC, Perrella, MA, Yoshizumi, M, Hsieh, CM, Haber, E, Schlegel, R & Lee, M (1994) Promotion of vascular muscle cell growth by homocysteine : a link to atherosclerosis. Proceed-ings of the National Academy of Sciences USA 91, 63696373.
Tsai, JC, Wang, H, Perrella, MA, Yoshizumi, M, Sibinga, NE, Tan, LC, Haber, E, Chang, TH, Schlegel, R & Lee, ME (1996) Induction of cyclin A gene expression by homocysteine in vascular smooth muscle cells. Journal of Clinical Investigation 97, 146153.
Tso, P, Pinkston, G, Klurfeld, DM & Kritchevsky, D (1984) The absorption and transport of dietary cholesterol in the presence of peanut oil or randomized peanut oil. Lipids 19, 1116.
Tucker, KL, Mahnken, B, Wilson, PW, Jacques, P & Selhub, J (1996) Folic acid fortification of the food supply. Potential benefits and risks for the elderly population. Journal of the American Medical Association 276, 18791885.
Turpeinen, AM, Sauer, R, Freese, R, Pajari, A-M & Mutanen, M (1997) Platelets are similarly activated by both oleic acid and linoleic acid rich diets in healthy humans. Prostaglandins, Leukotrienes and Essential Fatty Acids 57, 228.
Turpeinen, AM, Wubert, J, Aro, A, Lorenz, R & Mutanen, M (1998) Similar effects of diets rich in stearic acid or trans fatty acids on platelet function and endothelial prostacyclin production in humans. Arteriosclerosis, Thrombosis and Vascular Biology 18, 316322.
Ubbink, JB, Vermaak, WJ, der Menve, A & Becker, PJ (1993) Vitamin B-12, vitamin B-6, and folate nutritional status in men with hyperhomocysteinemia. American Journal of Clinical Nutrition 57, 4753.
Ueda, S, Elliott, HL, Morton, JJ & Connell, JMC (1995) Enhanced pressor response to angiotensin I in normotensive men with a deletion genotype (DD) for angiotensin-converting enzyme. Hypertension 25, 12661269.
Uhleman, ER, Ten Pas, JH, Lucky, AW, Schulman, JD, Mudd, SH & Shulamn, NR (1976) Platelet survival and morphology in homo-cysteinuria due to cystathionine synthase deficiency. New England Journal of Medicine 295, 12831286.
Van den Berg, M, Boers, GH, Franken, DG, Blom, HJ, Van Kamp, GJ, Jakobs, C, Rauwerda, JA, Kluft, C & Stehouwert, CD (1995) Hyper-homocysteinaemia and endothelial dysfunction in young patients with peripheral arterial occlusive disease. European Journal of Clinical Investigation 25, 176181.
van de Vijver, LPL, Kardinaal, AFM, Grobbee, DE, Princen, HMG & van Poppel, G (1997) Lipoprotein oxidation, antioxidants and cardiovascular risk. Epidemiologic evidence. Prostaglandins, Leukotrienes and Essential Fatty Acids 57, 479487.
Vanhanen, HT, Blomqvist, S, Ehnholm, C, Hyvonen, M, Jauhiainen, M, Torstila, I & Miettinen, TA (1993) Serum cholesterol, cho-lesterol precursors, and plant sterols in hypercholesterolemic subjects with different apoE phenotypes during dietary sitostanolester treatment. Journal of Lipid Research 34, 15351544.
Verhoef, P, Stampfer, MJ, Buring, JE, Gaziano, JM, Allen, RH, Stabler, SP, Reynolds, RD, Kok, FJ, Hennekens, CH & Willett, WC (1996) Homocysteine metabolism and risk of myocardial infarction : relation with vitamins B6, B12, and folate. American Journal of Epidemiology 143, 845859.
Vollset, SE, Heuch, I & Bjelke, E (1985) Fish consumption and mortality from coronary heart disease. New England Journal of Medicine 313, 820821.
von Eckardstein, A, Malinow, MR, Upson, B, Heinrich, J, Schulte, H, Schonfeld, R, Kohler, E & Assmann, G (1994) Effects of age, lipoproteins and hemostatic parameters on the role of homo-cyst(e)ine as a cardiovascular risk factor in men. Arteriosclerosis and Thrombosis 14, 460464.
Wahlqvist, ML, Krivokuca-Bogetic, Z, Lo, CS, Hage, B, Smith, R & Lukito, W (1992) Differential serum responses of tocopherols and tocotrienols during vitamin supplementation in hypercholesterolemic individuals without change in coronary risk factors. Nutrition Research 12, Suppl.1, S181–S201.
Wang, J, Dudman, NP & Wilcken, DE (1993) Effects of homo-cysteine and related compounds on prostacyclin production by cultured human vascular endothelial cells. Thrombosis and Haemostasis 70, 10471052.
Warshafsky, S, Kamer, RS & Sivak, SL (1993) Effect of garlic on total serum cholesterol. A metaanalysis. Annals of Internal Medicine 119, 599605.
Weber, C, Erl, W, Pietsch, A, Danesch, U & Weber, PC (1995) Docosahexaenoic acid selectively attenuates induction of vascular cell adhesion molecule-I and subsequent monocytic cell adhesion to human endothelial cell stimulated by tumor necrosis factor α. Arteriosclerosis, Thrombosis and Vascular Biology 15, 622628.
Weidtmann, A, Scheithe, R, Hrboticky, N, Pietsch, A, Lorenz, R & Siess, W (1995) Mildly oxidized LDL induces platelet aggregation through activation of phospholipase A2. Arteriosclerosis, Thrombosis and Vascular Biology 15, 11311138.
Weinberger, MH (1990) Clinical studies of the role of dietary sodium in blood pressure. In Hypertension : Pathophysiology, Diagnosis, and Management, pp. 1999–201O [Laragh, JH and Brenner, BM, editors]. New York, NY: Raven Press.
Welborn, TG, Breckenridge, A, Rubinstein, AH, Dollery, CT & Fraser, TR (1966) Serum-insulin in essential hypertension and peripheral vascular disease. Lancet 1, 13361337.
Westerband, A, Mills, JL, Marek, JM, Heimark, RL, Hunter, GC & Williams, SK (1997) Immunocytochemical determination of cell type and proliferation rate in human vein graft stenoses. Journal of Vascular Surgery 25, 6473.
Weylandt, KH, Kang, JX & Leaf, A (1996) Polyunsaturated fatty acids exert antiarrhythmic actions as free acids rather than in phospholipids. Lipids 31, 977982.
Widhalm, K, Stargel, WW, Bums, TS & Tschanz, C (1994) Evaluation of clinical and biochemical parameters in children after consumption of microparticulated protein fat substitute (Simplesse). Journal of the American College of Nutrition 13, 392396.
Williams, RR, Hasstedt, ST, Hunt, SC, Wu, LL, Hopkins, PN, Berry, TD, Stults, BM, Barlow, GK & Kuida, H (1991) Genetic traits related to hypertension and electrolyte metabolism. Hyperten-sion 17, Suppl. 1, I69173.
Wince, LC, Hugman, LE & Brenner, GM (1984) Alteration of inotropic response in rat atria by dietary fat. Federation Proceedings 43, 2677.
World Hypertension League (1991) Alcohol and hypertension. Journal of Hypertension 5, 227232.
Xu, Q, Dietrich, H, Steiner, HJ, Gown, AM, Mikuz, G, Kaufmann, SHE & Wick, G (1992) Induction of atherosclerosis in normocholesterolemic rabbits by immunization with heat shock protein 65. Arteriosclerosis and Thrombosis 12, 789799.
Yaqoob, P & Calder, PC (1993) The effects of fatty acids on lymphocyte functions. International Journal of Biochemistry 25, 17051714.
Zhao, B (1996) Role of lipoproteins in platelet activation. Blood Coagulation and Fibrinolysis 2, 270273.
Zilversmit, DB (1979) Atherogenesis: a postprandial phenomenon. Circulation 60, 473485.
Zock, PL, Vries, JH, Fouw, NJ & Katan, MB (1995) Positional distribution of fatty acids in dietary triglycerides : effects on fasting blood lipoprotein concentrations in humans. American Journal of Clinical Nutrition 61, 4855.
Zock, PL, Vries, JHM & Katan, MB (1994) Impact of myristic acid versus palmitic acid on serum lipid and lipoprotein levels in healthy women and men. Arteriosclerosis and Thrombosis 14, 567575.