1Kelly, SAM, Summerbell, CD, Brynes, A, et al. (2007) Wholegrain cereals for coronary heart disease. The Cochrane Database of Systematic Reviews 2007 issue .
2Meyer, KA, Kushi, LH, Jacobs, DR, et al. (2000) Carbohydrates, dietary fiber, and incident type 2 diabetes in older women. Am J Clin Nutr 71, 921–930.
3Schatzkin, A, Mouw, T, Park, Y, et al. (2007) Dietary fiber and whole-grain consumption in relation to colorectal cancer in the NIH-AARP Diet and Health Study. Am J Clin Nutr 85, 1353–1360.
4Jacobs, DR, Andersen, LF & Blomhoff, R (2007) Whole-grain consumption is associated with a reduced risk of noncardiovascular, noncancer death attributed to inflammatory diseases in the Iowa Women's Health Study. Am J Clin Nutr 85, 1606–1614.
5Masters, RC, Liese, AD, Haffner, SM, et al. (2010) Whole and refined grain intakes are related to inflammatory protein concentrations in human plasma. J Nutr 140, 587–594.
6Gaskins, AJ, Mumford, SL, Rovner, AJ, et al. (2010) Whole grains are associated with serum concentrations of high sensitivity C-reactive protein among premenopausal women. J Nutr 140, 1669–1676.
7Lutsey, PL, Jacobs, DR, Kori, S, et al. (2007) Whole grain intake and its cross-sectional association with obesity, insulin resistance, inflammation, diabetes and subclinical CVD: the MESA study. Br J Nutr 98, 397–405.
8Qi, L, Van Dam, RM, Liu, SM, et al. (2006) Whole-grain, bran, and cereal fiber intakes and markers of systemic inflammation in diabetic women. Diabetes Care 29, 207–211.
9Jensen, MK, Koh-Banerjee, P, Franz, M, et al. (2006) Whole grains, bran, and germ in relation to homocysteine and markers of glycemic control, lipids, and inflammation. Am J Clin Nutr 83, 275–283.
10Estruch, R, Sacanella, E, Badia, E, et al. (2004) Different effects of red wine and gin consumption on inflammatory biomarkers of atherosclerosis: a prospective randomized crossover trial – effects of wine on inflammatory markers. Atherosclerosis 175, 117–123.
11Esposito, K, Marfella, R, Ciotola, M, et al. (2004) Effect of a Mediterranean-style diet on endothelial dysfunction and markers of vascular inflammation in the metabolic syndrome – a randomized trial. JAMA 292, 1440–1446.
12Fardet, A (2010) New hypotheses for the health-protective mechanisms of whole-grain cereals: what is beyond fibre? Nutr Res Rev 23, 65–134.
13Lampi, AM, Nurmi, T, Ollilainen, V, et al. (2008) Tocopherols and tocotrienols in wheat genotypes in the HEALTHGRAIN diversity screen. J Agric Food Chem 56, 9716–9721.
14Welch, RW (2010) Nutrient composition and nutritional quality of oats and comparisons with other cereals. In Oats: Chemistry and Technology, 2nd ed., pp. 95–107 [, editors]. St Paul, MN: American Association of Cereal Chemists International.
15Zeisel, SH (2008) Is there a new component of the Mediterranean diet that reduces inflammation? Am J Clin Nutr 87, 277–278.
16Detopoulou, P, Panagiotakos, DB, Antonopoulou, S, et al. (2008) Dietary choline and betaine intakes in relation to concentrations of inflammatory markers in healthy adults: the ATTICA study. Am J Clin Nutr 87, 424–430.
17Anson, NM, van den Berg, R, Havenaar, R, et al. (2008) Ferulic acid from aleurone determines the antioxidant potency of wheat grain (Triticum aestivum L.). J Agric Food Chem 56, 5589–5594.
18Liu, LP, Zubik, L, Collins, FW, et al. (2004) The antiatherogenic potential of oat phenolic compounds. Atherosclerosis 175, 39–49.
19Buri, RC, von Reding, W & Gavin, MH (2004) Description and characterization of wheat aleurone. Cereal Food World 49, 274–282.
20Enright, L & Slavin, J (2010) No effect of 14 day consumption of whole grain diet compared to refined grain diet on antioxidant measures in healthy, young subjects: a pilot study. Nutr J 9, 12–19.
21Brownlee, IA, Moore, C, Chatfield, M, et al. (2010) Markers of cardiovascular risk are not changed by increased whole-grain intake: the WHOLEheart study, a randomised, controlled dietary intervention. Br J Nutr 104, 125–134.
22Andersson, A, Tengblad, S, Karlstrom, B, et al. (2007) Whole-grain foods do not affect insulin sensitivity or markers of lipid peroxidation and inflammation in healthy, moderately overweight subjects. J Nutr 137, 1401–1407.
23Tighe, P, Duthie, G, Vaughan, N, et al. (2010) Effect of increased consumption of whole-grain foods on blood pressure and other cardiovascular risk markers in healthy middle-aged persons: a randomized controlled trial. Am J Clin Nutr 92, 733–740.
24Katcher, HI, Legro, RS, Kunselman, AR, et al. (2008) The effects of a whole grain-enriched hypocaloric diet on cardiovascular disease risk factors in men and women with metabolic syndrome. Am J Clin Nutr 87, 79–90.
25Price, RK, Keaveney, EM, Hamill, LL, et al. (2010) Consumption of wheat aleurone-rich foods increases fasting plasma betaine and modestly decreases fasting homocysteine and LDL-cholesterol in adults. J Nutr 140, 2153–2157.
26Zhao, FJ, Su, YH, Dunham, SJ, et al. (2009) Variation in mineral micronutrient concentrations in grain of wheat lines of diverse origin. J Cereal Sci 49, 290–295.
27Stroud, JL, Zhao, FJ, Buchner, P, et al. (2010) Impacts of sulphur nutrition on selenium and molybdenum concentrations in wheat grain. J Cereal Sci 52, 111–113.
28Howarth, JR, Parmar, S, Jones, J, et al. (2008) Co-ordinated expression of amino acid metabolism in response to N and S deficiency during wheat grain filling. J Exp Bot 59, 3675–3689.
29Li, L, Shewry, PR & Ward, JL (2008) Phenolic acids in wheat varieties in the HEALTHGRAIN diversity screen. J Agric Food Chem 56, 9732–9739.
30Price, RK, Welch, RW, Lee-Manion, AM, et al. (2008) Total phenolics and antioxidant potential in plasma and urine of humans after consumption of wheat bran. Cereal Chem 85, 152–157.
31Benzie, IFF & Strain, JJ (1996) The ferric reducing ability of plasma (FRAP) as a measure of ‘antioxidant power’: the FRAP assay. Anal Biochem 239, 70–76.
32Thurnham, DI, Smith, E & Flora, PS (1988) Concurrent liquid-chromatographic assay of retinol, alpha-tocopherol, beta-carotene, alpha-carotene, lyopene, and beta-cryptoxanthin in plasma, with tocopherol acetate as internal standard. Clin Chem 34, 377–381.
33Matsui, Y, Nakamura, S, Kondou, N, et al. (2007) Liquid chromatography-electrospray ionization-tandem mass spectrometry for simultaneous analysis of chlorogenic acids and their metabolites in human plasma. J Chromatogr B Analyt Technol Biomed Life Sci 858, 96–105.
34Konishi, Y, Zhao, ZH & Shimizu, M (2006) Phenolic acids are absorbed from the rat stomach with different absorption rates. J Agric Food Chem 54, 7539–7543.
35Ridker, PM (2003) Clinical application of C-reactive protein for cardiovascular disease detection and prevention. Circulation 107, 363–369.
36Bassuk, SS, Rifai, N & Ridker, PM (2004) High-sensitivity C-reactive protein: clinical importance. Curr Probl Cardiol 29, 439–493.
37Ridker, PM, MacFadyen, J, Libby, P, et al. (2010) Relation of baseline high-sensitivity C-reactive protein level to cardiovascular outcomes with rosuvastatin in the justification for use of statins in prevention: an intervention trial evaluating rosuvastatin (JUPITER). Am J Cardiol 106, 204–209.
38He, LP, Tang, XY, Ling, WH, et al. (2010) Early C-reactive protein in the prediction of long-term outcomes after acute coronary syndromes: a meta-analysis of longitudinal studies. Heart 96, 339–346.
39Macy, EM, Hayes, TE & Tracy, RP (1997) Variability in the measurement of C-reactive protein in healthy subjects: implications for reference intervals and epidemiological applications. Clin Chem 43, 52–58.
40Danesh, J, Wheeler, JG, Hirschfield, GM, et al. (2004) C-reactive protein and other circulating markers of inflammation in the prediction of coronary heart disease. N Engl J Med 350, 1387–1397.
41Ridker, PM, Buring, JE, Shih, J, et al. (1998) Prospective study of C-reactive protein and the risk of future cardiovascular events among apparently healthy women. Circulation 98, 731–733.
42Hanefeld, M, Marx, N, Pfutzner, A, et al. (2007) Anti-inflammatory effects of pioglitazone and/or sinivastatin in high cardiovascular risk patients with elevated high sensitivity C-reactive protein – the PIOSTAT study. J Am Coll Cardiol 49, 290–297.
43Forsythe, LKS, Wallace, JMW & Livingstone, MBE (2008) Obesity and inflammation: the effects of weight loss. Nutr Res Rev 21, 117–133.
44Kinlay, S (2007) Low-density lipoprotein-dependent and -independent effects of cholesterol-lowering therapies on C-reactive protein – a meta-analysis. J Am Coll Cardiol 49, 2003–2009.
45Zakynthinos, E & Pappa, N (2009) Inflammatory biomarkers in coronary artery disease. J Cardiol 53, 317–333.
46Papatheodorou, L & Weiss, N (2007) Vascular oxidant stress and inflammation in hyperhomocysteinemia. Antioxid Redox Signal 9, 1941–1958.
47Abdelmalek, MF, Sanderson, SO, Angulo, P, et al. (2009) Betaine for nonalcoholic fatty liver disease: results of a randomized placebo-controlled trial. Hepatology 50, 1818–1826.
48Targher, G (2006) Relationship between high-sensitivity C-reactive protein levels and liver histology in subjects with non-alcoholic fatty liver disease. J Hepatol 45, 879–881.
49Anson, NM, van den Berg, R, Havenaar, R, et al. (2009) Bioavailability of ferulic acid is determined by its bioaccessibility. J Cereal Sci 49, 296–300.
50Kern, SM, Bennett, RN, Mellon, FA, et al. (2003) Absorption of hydroxycinnamates in humans after high-bran cereal consumption. J Agric Food Chem 51, 6050–6055.
51Vitaglione, P, Napolitano, A & Fogliano, V (2008) Cereal dietary fibre: a natural functional ingredient to deliver phenolic compounds into the gut. Trends Food Sci Technol 19, 451–463.
52Costabile, A, Klinder, A, Fava, F, et al. (2008) Whole-grain wheat breakfast cereal has a prebiotic effect on the human gut microbiota: a double-blind, placebo-controlled, crossover study. Br J Nutr 99, 110–120.
53Brighenti, F, Valtuena, S, Pellegrini, N, et al. (2005) Total antioxidant capacity of the diet is inversely and independently related to plasma concentration of high-sensitivity C-reactive protein in adult Italian subjects. Br J Nutr 93, 619–625.
54Ross, AB, Bruce, SJ, Blondel-Lubrano, A, et al. (2011) A whole-grain cereal-rich diet increases plasma betaine, and tends to decrease total and LDL-cholesterol compared with a refined-grain diet in healthy subjects. Br J Nutr 105, 1492–1502.
55Giacco, R, Clemente, G, Cipriano, D, et al. (2010) Effects of the regular consumption of wholemeal wheat foods on cardiovascular risk factors in healthy people. Nutr Metab Cardiovasc Dis 20, 186–194.