Pike, IH & Barlow, SM (2002) , Bordeaux Exhibition Centre, France. , pp. 6–7.
Tacon, AGJ (2004) Use of fish meal and fish oil in aquaculture: a global perspective. Aquat Res Cult Dev 1, 3–14.
Kaushik, SJ, Coves, D, Dutto, G & Blanc, D (2004) Almost total replacement of fish meal by plant protein sources in the diet of a marine teleost, the European sea bass, Dicentrarchus labrax. Aquaculture 230, 391–404.
Tacon, AGJ (2005) Salmon aquaculture dialogue: status of information on salmon aquaculture feed and the environment. Int Aquafeed 8, 22–37.
Bell, JG, Henderson, RJ, Tocher, DR & Sargent, JR (2004) Replacement of dietary fish oil with increasing levels of linseed oil: modification of flesh fatty acid compositions in Atlantic Salmon (Salmo salar) using a fish oil finishing diet. Lipids 39, 223–232.
Torstensen, BE, Bell, JG, Sargent, JR, Rosenlund, G, Henderson, RJ, Graff, IE, Lie, Ø & Tocher, DR (2005) Tailoring of Atlantic salmon (Salmo salar L.) flesh lipid composition and sensory quality by replacing fish oil with a vegetable oil blend. J Agric Food Chem 53, 10166–10178.
Caballero, MJ, Obach, A, Rosenlund, G, Montero, D, Gisvold, M & Izquierdo, MS (2002) Impact of different dietary lipid sources on growth, lipid digestibility, tissue fatty acid composition and histology of rainbow trout, Oncorhynchus mykiss. Aquaculture 214, 253–271.
Izquierdo, MS, Obach, A, Arantzamendi, L, Montero, D, Robaina, L & Rosenlund, G (2003) Dietary lipid sources for seabream and sea bass: growth performance, tissue composition and flesh quality. Aquacult Nutr 9, 397–407.
Mourente, G, Good, JE & Bell, JG (2005) Partial substitution of fish oil with rapeseed, linseed and olive oils in diets for European sea bass (Dicentrarchus labrax L.): effects on flesh fatty acid composition, plasma prostaglandins E2 and F2α, immune function and effectiveness of a fish oil finishing diet. Aquacult Nutr 11, 25–40.
Blazer, VS (1992) Nutrition and disease resistance in fish. Annu Rev Fish Dis 2, 309–323.
Meade, CJ & Mertin, J (1978) Fatty acids and immunity. Adv Lipid Res 16, 127–165.
Calder, PC (2001) Polyunsaturated fatty acids, inflammation and immunity. Lipids 36, 1007–1024.
Yaqoob, P (2004) Fatty acids and the immune system: from basic science to clinical applications. Proc Nutr Soc 63, 89–104.
Clamp, AG, Ladha, S, Clark, DC, Grimble, RF & Lund, EK (1997) The influence of dietary lipids on the composition and membrane fluidity of rat hepatocyte plasma membrane. Lipids 32, 179–184.
Sargent, JR, Tocher, DR & Bell, JG (2002) The lipids. In Fish Nutrition, 3rd ed., pp. 181–257 [Halver, JE and Hardy, RW, editors]. San Diego, CA: Academic Press.
Thompson, KD, Henderson, RJ & Tatner, MF (1995) A comparison of the lipid composition of peripheral blood cells and head kidney leucocytes of Atlantic salmon (Salmo salar L.). Comp Biochem Physiol B Biochem Mol Biol 112, 83–92.
Bell, JG, Dick, JR, McVicar, AH, Sargent, JR & Thompson, KD (1993) Dietary sunflower, linseed and fish oils affect phospholipid fatty acid composition, development of cardiac lesions, phospholipase activity and eicosanoid production in Atlantic salmon (Salmo salar). Prostaglandins Leukot Essent Fatty Acids 49, 665–673.
Bell, JG, Ashton, I, Secombes, CJ, Weitzel, BR, Dick, JR & Sargent, JR (1996) Dietary lipid affects phospholipid fatty acid compositions, eicosanoid production and immune function in Atlantic Salmon (Salmo salar). Prostagandins Leukot Essent Fatty Acids 54, 173–182.
De Pablo, MA & De Cienfuegos, GA (2000) Modulatory effects of dietary lipids on immune system functions. Immunol Cell Biol 78, 31–39.
Calder, PC (2006) n-3 polyunsaturated fatty acids, inflammation, and inflammatory diseases. Am J Clin Nutr 83, 1505S–15019S.
Wootten, RJ (1990) Ecology of Teleost Fishes. Fish and Fisheries Series 1. Ashburton: Chapman and Hall.
Woyewoda, AD, Shaw, SJ, Ke, PJ & Burns, BG (1986) Recommended Laboratory Methods for Assessment of Fish Quality. Canadian Technical Report of Fisheries and Aquatic Sciences no. 1448. Ottawa, Canada: NRC Research Press.
Folch, J, Lees, LM & Sloane-Stanley, GH (1957) A simple method for isolation and purification of total lipids from animal tissues. J Biol Chem 226, 497–509.
Christie, WW (1982) Lipid Analyses, 2nd ed. Oxford: Pergamon Press.
Mourente, G & Tocher, DR (1994) In vivo metabolism of [1-14C] linolenic acid [18:3(n-3)] and [1-14C] eicosapentaenoic acid [20:5(n-3)] in a marine fish: time course of the desaturation/elongation pathway. Biochim Biophys Acta 1212, 109–118.
Bell, JG, Tocher, DR, Macdonald, FM & Sargent, JR (1994) Effects of diets rich in linoleic (18:2n-6) and α-linolenic (18:3n-3) acids on the growth, lipid class and fatty acid compositions and eicosanoid production in juvenile turbot (Scophthalmus maximus L). Fish Physiol Biochem 13, 105–118.
Anderson, DP & Siwicki, AK (1994) Simplified assays for measuring non-specific defense mechanisms in fish. Am Fish Soc (Fish Health Sect) 12, 26–35.
Rungruangsak-Torrissen, K, Wergeland, HI, Glette, J & Waagbø, R (1999) Disease resistance and immune parameters in Atlantic salmon (Salmo salar L.) with genetically different trypsin isozymes. Fish Shellfish Immunol 9, 557–568.
Chung, S & Secombes, CJ (1988) Analysis of events occurring within teleost macrophages during the respiratory burst. Comp Biochem Physiol B Biochem Mol Biol 89, 539–544.
Secombes, CJ (1990) Isolation of salmonid macrophages and analysis of their killing activity. In Techniques in Fish Immunology, pp. 137–154 [Stolen, JS, Fletcher, TC, Anderson, DP, Robertson, BS and van Muiswinkel, WB, editors]. Trenton, New Jersey: SOS Publications.
Zar, JH (1984) Biostatistical Analysis, 2nd ed. Englewood Cliffs, NJ: Prentice-Hall.
Sheldon, WM & Blazer, VS (1991) Influence of dietary lipid and temperature on bactericidal activity of channel catfish macrophages. J Aquat Anim Health 3, 87–93.
Obach, A, Quentel, C & Laurencin, FB (1993) Effects of α-tocopherol and dietary oxidized fish oil on the immune response of sea bass Dicentrarchus labrax. Dis Aquat Org 15, 175–185.
Waagbø, R, Sandnes, K, Joergensen, J, Engstad, R, Glette, J & Lie, Ø (1993) Health aspects of dietary lipid sources and vitamin E in Atlantic salmon (Salmo salar): 2 – spleen and erythrocyte phospholipid fatty acid composition, nonspecific immunity and disease resistance. Fiskeridir Skr (Ernaering) 6, 63–80.
Waagbø, R, Hemre, GI, Holm, JC & Lie, Ø (1995) Tissue fatty acid composition, haematology and immunity in adult cod, Gadus morhua L., fed three dietary lipid sources. J Fish Dis 18, 615–622.
Erdal, JI, Evensen, O, Kaurstad, OK, Lillehaug, A, Solbakken, R & Thorud, K (1991) Relationship between diet and immune response in Atlantic salmon (Salmo salar L) after feeding various levels of ascorbic acid and omega-3 fatty acids. Aquaculture 98, 363–379.
Waagbø, R, Sandnes, K, Lie, Ø & Nilsen, ER (1993) Health aspects of dietary lipid sources and vitamin E in Atlantic Salmon (Salmo salar): 1 – erythrocyte total lipid fatty acid composition, haematology and humoral immune response. Fiskeridir Skr (Ernaering) 6, 47–62.
Fracolossi, DM & Lovell, RT (1994) Dietary lipid sources influence responses of channel catfish (Ictalarus punctatus) to challenge with the pathogen Edwardsiella ictaluri. Aquaculture 119, 287–298.
Salte, R, Thomassen, MS & Wold, K (1988) Do high levels of dietary polyunsaturated fatty acids (EPA/DHA) prevent disease associated with membrane degeneration in farmed Atlantic salmon at low water temperatures? Bull Eur Assoc Fish Path 8, 63–65.
Theis, F, Miles, EA, Nebe-von-Caron, G, Powell, JR, Hurst, TL, Newsholme, EA & Calder, PC (2001) Influence of dietary supplementation with long-chain n-3 or n-6 polyunsaturated fatty acids on blood inflammatory cell populations and functions and on plasma soluble adhesion molecules in healthy adults. Lipids 36, 1183–1193.
Hwang, D (1989) Essential fatty acids and immune response. FASEB J 3, 2052–2061.
Khan, WA, Blobe, GC & Hannun, YA (1995) Arachidonic acid and free fatty acids as second messengers and the role of protein kinase C. Cell Signal 7, 171–184.
Calder, PC, Bond, JA, Harvey, DJ, Gordon, S & Newsholme, EA (1990) Uptake and incorporation of saturated and unsaturated fatty acids into macrophage lipids and their effect upon macrophage adhesion and phagocytosis. Biochem J 269, 807–814.
Montero, D, Kalinowski, T, Obach, A, Robaina, A, Tort, L, Caballero, MJ & Izquierdo, MS (2003) Vegetable lipid sources for gilthead sea bream (Sparus aurata): effects on fish health. Aquaculture 225, 353–370.
Bell, JG, Dick, JR & Sargent, JR (1993) Effect of diets rich in linoleic or α-linolenic acid on phospholipid fatty acid composition and eicosanoid production in Atlantic salmon (Salmo salar). Lipids 28, 819–826.
Bell, JG, Farndale, BM, Dick, JR & Sargent, JR (1996) Modification of membrane fatty acid composition, eicosanoid production, and phospholipase A activity in Atlantic salmon (Salmo salar) gill and kidney by dietary lipid. Lipids 31, 1163–1171.
Leray, C, Nonnotte, G & Nonnotte, L (1986) The effect of dietary lipids on the trout erythrocyte membrane. Fish Physiol Biochem 1, 27–35.
Johnston, DV & Marshall, LA (1984) Dietary fat, prostaglandins and the immune response. Prog Food Nutr Sci 8, 3–25.
Farndale, BM, Bell, JG, Bruce, MP, Bromage, NR, Oyen, F, Zanuy, S & Sargent, JR (1999) Dietary lipid composition affects blood leucocyte fatty acid compositions and plasma eicosanoid concentrations in European sea bass (Dicentrarchus labrax). Aquaculture 179, 335–350.