1Coutinho, M, Gerstein, HC, Wang, Y, et al. (1999) The relationship between glucose and incident cardiovascular events. A metaregression analysis of published data from 20 studies of 95,783 individuals followed for 12.4 years. Diabetes Care 22, 233–240.
2Karpe, F (1999) Postprandial lipoprotein metabolism and atherosclerosis. J Intern Med 246, 341–355.
3Bansal, S, Buring, JE, Rifai, N, et al. (2007) Fasting compared with nonfasting triglycerides and risk of cardiovascular events in women. JAMA 298, 309–316.
4Temelkova-Kurktschiev, TS, Koehler, C, Henkel, E, et al. (2000) Postchallenge plasma glucose and glycemic spikes are more strongly associated with atherosclerosis than fasting glucose or HbA1c level. Diabetes Care 23, 830–834.
5Carroll, MF, Izard, A, Riboni, K, et al. (2002) Fasting hyperglycemia predicts the magnitude of postprandial hyperglycemia: implications for diabetes therapy. Diabetes Care 25, 1247–1248.
6Van Wijk, JP, Halkes, CJ, Erkelens, DW, et al. (2003) Fasting and daylong triglycerides in obesity with and without type 2 diabetes. Metabolism 52, 1043–1049.
7Van Oostrom, AJ, Alipour, A, Plokker, TW, et al. (2007) The metabolic syndrome in relation to complement component 3 and postprandial lipemia in patients from an outpatient lipid clinic and healthy volunteers. Atherosclerosis 190, 167–173.
8Dubois, C, Beaumier, G, Juhel, C, et al. (1998) Effects of graded amounts (0–50 g) of dietary fat on postprandial lipemia and lipoproteins in normolipidemic adults. Am J Clin Nutr 67, 31–38.
9Vogel, RA, Corretti, MC & Plotnick, GD (1997) Effect of a single high-fat meal on endothelial function in healthy subjects. Am J Cardiol 79, 350–354.
10Aljada, A, Mohanty, P, Ghanim, H, et al. (2004) Increase in intranuclear nuclear factor kappaB and decrease in inhibitor kappaB in mononuclear cells after a mixed meal: evidence for a proinflammatory effect. Am J Clin Nutr 79, 682–690.
11Westphal, S, Kästner, S, Taneva, E, et al. (2004) Postprandial lipid and carbohydrate responses after the ingestion of a casein-enriched mixed meal. Am J Clin Nutr 80, 284–290.
12Lorenzen, JK, Nielsen, S, Holst, JJ, et al. (2007) Effect of dairy calcium or supplementary calcium intake on postprandial fat metabolism, appetite, and subsequent energy intake. Am J Clin Nutr 85, 678–687.
13Friedewald, WT, Levy, RI & Fredrickson, DS (1972) Estimation of the concentration of low-density lipoprotein cholesterol in plasma, without use of the preparative ultracentrifuge. Clin Chem 18, 499–502.
14Van Eijk, HM, Rooyakkers, DR & Deutz, NE (1993) Rapid routine determination of amino acids in plasma by high-performance liquid chromatography with a 2–3 microns Spherisorb ODS II column. J Chromatogr 620, 143–148.
15Westphal, S, Taneva, E, Kästner, S, et al. (2006) Endothelial dysfunction induced by postprandial lipemia is neutralized by addition of proteins to the fatty meal. Atherosclerosis 185, 313–319.
16Eckel, RH (1989) Lipoprotein lipase. A multifunctional enzyme relevant to common metabolic diseases. N Engl J Med 320, 1060–1068.
17Wang, H & Eckel, RH (2009) Lipoprotein lipase: from gene to obesity. Am J Physiol Endocrinol Metab 297, E271–E288.
18Brader, L, Holm, L, Mortensen, L, et al. (2009) Acute effects of casein on postprandial lipemia and incretin responses in type 2 diabetic subjects. Nutr Metab Cardiovasc Dis 20, 101–109.
19Cohen, JC (1989) Protein ingestion does not affect postprandial lipaemia or chylomicron–triglyceride clearance. Eur J Clin Nutr 43, 497–499.
20Sullivan, JF (1962) The effect of protein ingestion on alimentary lipemia. Am J Med Sci 243, 770–774.
21Oliva, ME, Selenscig, D, D'Alessandro, ME, et al. (2011) Soya protein ameliorates the metabolic abnormalities of dysfunctional adipose tissue of dyslipidaemic rats fed a sucrose-rich diet. Br J Nutr 105, 1188–1198.
22Cohen, JC & Berger, GM (1990) Effects of glucose ingestion on postprandial lipemia and triglyceride clearance in humans. J Lipid Res 31, 597–602.
23Westphal, S, Leodolter, A, Kahl, S, et al. (2002) Addition of glucose to a fatty meal delays chylomicrons and suppresses VLDL in healthy subjects. Eur J Clin Invest 32, 322–327.
24Denke, MA, Fox, MM & Schulte, MC (1993) Short-term dietary calcium fortification increases fecal saturated fat content and reduces serum lipids in men. J Nutr 123, 1047–1053.
25Rabinowitz, D, Merimee, TJ, Maffezzoli, R, et al. (1966) Patterns of hormonal release after glucose, protein, and glucose plus protein. Lancet ii, 454–456.
26Van Loon, LJ, Kruijshoop, M, Verhagen, H, et al. (2000) Ingestion of protein hydrolysate and amino acid–carbohydrate mixtures increases postexercise plasma insulin responses in men. J Nutr 130, 2508–2513.
27Van Loon, LJ, Saris, WH, Kruijshoop, M, et al. (2000) Maximizing postexercise muscle glycogen synthesis: carbohydrate supplementation and the application of amino acid or protein hydrolysate mixtures. Am J Clin Nutr 72, 106–111.
28Van Loon, LJ, Saris, WH, Verhagen, H, et al. (2000) Plasma insulin responses after ingestion of different amino acid or protein mixtures with carbohydrate. Am J Clin Nutr 72, 96–105.
29Lan-Pidhainy, X & Wolever, TM (2010) The hypoglycemic effect of fat and protein is not attenuated by insulin resistance. Am J Clin Nutr 91, 98–105.
30Kalogeropoulou, D, LaFave, L, Schweim, K, et al. (2009) Lysine ingestion markedly attenuates the glucose response to ingested glucose without a change in insulin response. Am J Clin Nutr 90, 314–320.
31Nuttall, FQ, Gannon, MC & Jordan, K (2004) The metabolic response to ingestion of proline with and without glucose. Metabolism 53, 241–246.
32Gannon, MC, Nuttall, JA & Nuttall, FQ (2002) The metabolic response to ingested glycine. Am J Clin Nutr 76, 1302–1307.
33Gannon, MC, Nuttall, JA & Nuttall, FQ (2002) Oral arginine does not stimulate an increase in insulin concentration but delays glucose disposal. Am J Clin Nutr 76, 1016–1022.
34Kalogeropoulou, D, Lafave, L, Schweim, K, et al. (2008) Leucine, when ingested with glucose, synergistically stimulates insulin secretion and lowers blood glucose. Metabolism 57, 1747–1752.
35Nuttall, FQ, Schweim, KJ & Gannon, MC (2006) Effect of orally administered phenylalanine with and without glucose on insulin, glucagon and glucose concentrations. Horm Metab Res 38, 518–523.