Skip to main content Accessibility help

Effects of a dietary strawberry powder on parameters of vascular health in adolescent males

  • Dragana Djurica (a1), Roberta R. Holt (a1), Jingyan Ren (a1), Alan W. Shindel (a2), Robert M. Hackman (a1) and Carl L. Keen (a1) (a3)...


Previous studies have shown that the intake of freeze-dried strawberry powder (FDSP) improves select markers of cardiovascular health in adults with cardiovascular risk factors; however, whether these improvements can be observed in at-risk adolescents is unknown. A randomised, double-blind, cross-over study enrolled twenty-five overweight or obese males, aged 14–18 years, to consume 50 g of a FDSP or a control powder, daily for 1 week. Before and after each test period, measures of microvascular function, plasma nitrate/nitrite, platelet reactivity and blood lipids were collected at baseline and acutely 1 h after FDSP intake. Acute plasma nitrate/nitrite levels increased 1 h after consuming the FDSP during Study Visit 1 before daily FDSP intake (P<0·001) and during Study Visit 2 after 1 week of FDSP intake (P<0·001) compared with control powder intake. As a group, fasting nitrate/nitrite levels did not significantly change after 1 week of control or FDSP intake. However, for those individuals where fasting nitrate levels increased after short-term FDSP intake compared with controls, an increase in reactive hyperaemia index (RHI) was observed (P=0·014), whereas RHI was unchanged in those individuals who did not have a significant increase in nitrate (P=0·396). Taken together, these data support the concept that strawberries can provide vascular health benefits to heavier adolescent males.

  • View HTML
    • Send article to Kindle

      To send this article to your Kindle, first ensure is added to your Approved Personal Document E-mail List under your Personal Document Settings on the Manage Your Content and Devices page of your Amazon account. Then enter the ‘name’ part of your Kindle email address below. Find out more about sending to your Kindle. Find out more about sending to your Kindle.

      Note you can select to send to either the or variations. ‘’ emails are free but can only be sent to your device when it is connected to wi-fi. ‘’ emails can be delivered even when you are not connected to wi-fi, but note that service fees apply.

      Find out more about the Kindle Personal Document Service.

      Effects of a dietary strawberry powder on parameters of vascular health in adolescent males
      Available formats

      Send article to Dropbox

      To send this article to your Dropbox account, please select one or more formats and confirm that you agree to abide by our usage policies. If this is the first time you use this feature, you will be asked to authorise Cambridge Core to connect with your <service> account. Find out more about sending content to Dropbox.

      Effects of a dietary strawberry powder on parameters of vascular health in adolescent males
      Available formats

      Send article to Google Drive

      To send this article to your Google Drive account, please select one or more formats and confirm that you agree to abide by our usage policies. If this is the first time you use this feature, you will be asked to authorise Cambridge Core to connect with your <service> account. Find out more about sending content to Google Drive.

      Effects of a dietary strawberry powder on parameters of vascular health in adolescent males
      Available formats


Corresponding author

* Corresponding author: C. L. Keen, fax +1 530 752 8966, email


Hide All
1. Ogden, CL, Carroll, MD, Kit, BK, et al. (2014) Prevalence of childhood and adult obesity in the United States, 2011–2012. JAMA 311, 806814.
2. World Health Organization (2014) Global Status Report on Noncommunicable Diseases 2014. Geneva: WHO.
3. Wang, Z & Nakayama, T (2010) Inflammation, a link between obesity and cardiovascular disease. Mediat Inflamm 2010, 535918.
4. Iantorno, M, Campia, U, Di Daniele, N, et al. (2014) Obesity, inflammation and endothelial dysfunction. J Biol Regul Homeost Agents 28, 169176.
5. Kampoli, AM, Tousoulis, D, Antoniades, C, et al. (2009) Biomarkers of premature atherosclerosis. Trends Mol Med 15, 323332.
6. Rizvi, AA (2009) Cytokine biomarkers, endothelial inflammation, and atherosclerosis in the metabolic syndrome: emerging concepts. Am J Med Sci 338, 310318.
7. Singhal, A (2009) The early origins of atherosclerosis. Adv Exp Med Biol 646, 5158.
8. Logue, J & Sattar, N (2011) Childhood obesity: a ticking time bomb for cardiovascular disease? Clin Pharmacol Ther 90, 174178.
9. Pareyn, A, Allegaert, K, Verhamme, P, et al. (2014) Impaired endothelial function in adolescents with overweight or obesity measured by peripheral artery tonometry. Pediatr Diabetes 16, 98103.
10. Skinner, AC, Steiner, MJ, Henderson, FW, et al. (2010) Multiple markers of inflammation and weight status: cross-sectional analyses throughout childhood. Pediatrics 125, e801e809.
11. Defago, MD, Elorriaga, N, Irazola, VE, et al. (2014) Influence of food patterns on endothelial biomarkers: a systematic review. J Clin Hypertens (Greenwich) 16, 19071913.
12. Mink, PJ, Scrafford, CG, Barraj, LM, et al. (2007) Flavonoid intake and cardiovascular disease mortality: a prospective study in postmenopausal women. Am J Clin Nutr 85, 895909.
13. Holt, RR, Heiss, C, Kelm, M, et al. (2012) The potential of flavanol and procyanidin intake to influence age-related vascular disease. J Nutr Gerontol Geriatr 31, 290323.
14. Basu, A, Fu, DX, Wilkinson, M, et al. (2010) Strawberries decrease atherosclerotic markers in subjects with metabolic syndrome. Nutr Res 30, 462469.
15. Basu, A, Wilkinson, M, Penugonda, K, et al. (2009) Freeze-dried strawberry powder improves lipid profile and lipid peroxidation in women with metabolic syndrome: baseline and post intervention effects. Nutr J 8, 43.
16. Edirisinghe, I, Banaszewski, K, Cappozzo, J, et al. (2011) Strawberry anthocyanin and its association with postprandial inflammation and insulin. Br J Nutr 106, 913922.
17. Ellis, CL, Edirisinghe, I, Kappagoda, T, et al. (2011) Attenuation of meal-induced inflammatory and thrombotic responses in overweight men and women after 6-week daily strawberry (Fragaria) intake. A randomized placebo-controlled trial. J Atheroscler Thromb 18, 318327.
18. Heiss, C, Jahn, S, Taylor, M, et al. (2010) Improvement of endothelial function with dietary flavanols is associated with mobilization of circulating angiogenic cells in patients with coronary artery disease. J Am Coll Cardiol 56, 218224.
19. Balzer, J, Rassaf, T, Heiss, C, et al. (2008) Sustained benefits in vascular function through flavanol-containing cocoa in medicated diabetic patients a double-masked, randomized, controlled trial. J Am Coll Cardiol 51, 21412149.
20. Mullen, W, Edwards, CA, Serafini, M, et al. (2008) Bioavailability of pelargonidin-3-O-glucoside and its metabolites in humans following the ingestion of strawberries with and without cream. J Agric Food Chem 56, 713719.
21. Holt, R, Yim, S, Shearer, G, et al. (2015) Effects of short-term walnut consumption on human microvascular function and its relationship to plasma epoxide content. J Nutr Biochem 6, 14281466.
22. Hamburg, NM, Keyes, MJ, Larson, MG, et al. (2008) Cross-sectional relations of digital vascular function to cardiovascular risk factors in the Framingham Heart Study. Circulation 117, 24672474.
23. Pearson, DA, Paglieroni, TG, Rein, D, et al. (2002) The effects of flavanol-rich cocoa and aspirin on ex vivo platelet function. Thromb Res 106, 191197.
24. Aatola, H, Hutri-Kahonen, N, Juonala, M, et al. (2014) Prospective relationship of change in ideal cardiovascular health status and arterial stiffness: the Cardiovascular Risk in Young Finns Study. J Am Heart Assoc 3, e000532.
25. Mahmud, FH, Hill, DJ, Cuerden, MS, et al. (2009) Impaired vascular function in obese adolescents with insulin resistance. J Pediat 155, 678682.
26. Aggoun, Y, Farpour-Lambert, NJ, Marchand, LM, et al. (2008) Impaired endothelial and smooth muscle functions and arterial stiffness appear before puberty in obese children and are associated with elevated ambulatory blood pressure. Eur Heart J 29, 792799.
27. Bruyndonckx, L, Hoymans, VY, Frederix, G, et al. (2014) Endothelial progenitor cells and endothelial microparticles are independent predictors of endothelial function. J Pediat 165, 300305.
28. Bruyndonckx, L, Hoymans, VY, De Guchtenaere, A, et al. (2015) Diet, exercise, and endothelial function in obese adolescents. Pediatrics 135, e653e661.
29. Pena, AS, Wiltshire, E, Gent, R, et al. (2004) Folic acid improves endothelial function in children and adolescents with type 1 diabetes. J Pediat 144, 500504.
30. Engler, MM, Engler, MB, Malloy, MJ, et al. (2003) Antioxidant vitamins C and E improve endothelial function in children with hyperlipidemia: Endothelial Assessment of Risk from Lipids in Youth (EARLY) Trial. Circulation 108, 10591063.
31. Engler, MM, Engler, MB, Malloy, M, et al. (2004) Docosahexaenoic acid restores endothelial function in children with hyperlipidemia: results from the EARLY study. Int J Clin Pharmacol Ther 42, 672679.
32. Dangardt, F, Osika, W, Chen, Y, et al. (2010) Omega-3 fatty acid supplementation improves vascular function and reduces inflammation in obese adolescents. Atherosclerosis 212, 580585.
34. Hord, NG, Tang, Y & Bryan, NS (2009) Food sources of nitrates and nitrites: the physiologic context for potential health benefits. Am J Clin Nutr 90, 110.
35. Bondonno, CP, Croft, KD & Hodgson, JM (2015) Dietary nitrate, nitric oxide and cardiovascular health. Crit Rev Food Sci Nutr 15, 47.
36. Susin, J, Kmecl, V & Gregorcic, A (2006) A survey of nitrate and nitrite content of fruit and vegetables grown in Slovenia during 1996–2002. Food Addit Contam 23, 385390.
37. Nabrzyski, M & Gajewska, R (1994) [The content of nitrates and nitrites in fruits, vegetables and other foodstuffs]. Rocz Panstw Zakl Hig 45, 167180.
38. Lundberg, JO, Weitzberg, E & Gladwin, MT (2008) The nitrate-nitrite-nitric oxide pathway in physiology and therapeutics. Nat Rev Drug Discov 7, 156167.
39. Cosby, K, Partovi, KS, Crawford, JH, et al. (2003) Nitrite reduction to nitric oxide by deoxyhemoglobin vasodilates the human circulation. Nat Med 9, 14981505.
40. Hobbs, DA, George, TW & Lovegrove, JA (2013) The effects of dietary nitrate on blood pressure and endothelial function: a review of human intervention studies. Nutr Res Rev 26, 210222.
41. Vanhatalo, A, Bailey, SJ, Blackwell, JR, et al. (2010) Acute and chronic effects of dietary nitrate supplementation on blood pressure and the physiological responses to moderate-intensity and incremental exercise. Am J Physiol Regul, Integr Comp Physiol 299, R1121R1131.
42. Webb, AJ, Patel, N, Loukogeorgakis, S, et al. (2008) Acute blood pressure lowering, vasoprotective, and antiplatelet properties of dietary nitrate via bioconversion to nitrite. Hypertension 51, 784790.
43. Wylie, LJ, Kelly, J, Bailey, SJ, et al. (2013) Beetroot juice and exercise: pharmacodynamic and dose-response relationships. J Appl Physiol 115, 325336.
44. Xu, JW, Ikeda, K & Yamori, Y (2004) Upregulation of endothelial nitric oxide synthase by cyanidin-3-glucoside, a typical anthocyanin pigment. Hypertension 44, 217222.
45. Lazze, MC, Pizzala, R, Perucca, P, et al. (2006) Anthocyanidins decrease endothelin-1 production and increase endothelial nitric oxide synthase in human endothelial cells. Mol Nutr Food Res 50, 4451.
46. Wang, Y, Zhang, Y, Wang, X, et al. (2012) Supplementation with cyanidin-3-O-beta-glucoside protects against hypercholesterolemia-mediated endothelial dysfunction and attenuates atherosclerosis in apolipoprotein E-deficient mice. J Nutr 142, 10331037.
47. Zhu, Y, Xia, M, Yang, Y, et al. (2011) Purified anthocyanin supplementation improves endothelial function via NO-cGMP activation in hypercholesterolemic individuals. Clin Chem 57, 15241533.
48. Nohria, A, Gerhard-Herman, M, Creager, MA, et al. (2006) Role of nitric oxide in the regulation of digital pulse volume amplitude in humans. J Appl Physiol 101, 545548.
49. Hedetoft, M & Olsen, NV (2014) Evaluation of endothelial function by peripheral arterial tonometry and relation with the nitric oxide pathway. Nitric Oxide 42C, 18.
50. Zunino, SJ, Parelman, MA, Freytag, TL, et al. (2012) Effects of dietary strawberry powder on blood lipids and inflammatory markers in obese human subjects. Br J Nutr 108, 900909.
51. Erlund, I, Koli, R, Alfthan, G, et al. (2008) Favorable effects of berry consumption on platelet function, blood pressure, and HDL cholesterol. Am J Clin Nutr 87, 323331.
52. Massberg, S, Brand, K, Gruner, S, et al. (2002) A critical role of platelet adhesion in the initiation of atherosclerotic lesion formation. J Exper Med 196, 887896.
53. Gallistl, S (2000) Correlation between cholesterol, soluble P-selectin, and D-dimer in obese children and adolescents. Blood Coagul Fibrinolysis 11, 755760.
54. Giordano, P, Del Vecchio, GC, Cecinati, V, et al. (2011) Metabolic, inflammatory, endothelial and haemostatic markers in a group of Italian obese children and adolescents. Eur J Pediatr 170, 845850.
55. Lohse, J (2010) Platelet function in obese children and adolescents. Hamostaseologie 30, S126S131.
56. Desideri, G, De Simone, M, Iughetti, L, et al. (2005) Early activation of vascular endothelial cells and platelets in obese children. J Clin Endocrinol Metab 90, 31453152.
57. Alvarez-Suarez, JM, Giampieri, F, Tulipani, S, et al. (2014) One-month strawberry-rich anthocyanin supplementation ameliorates cardiovascular risk, oxidative stress markers and platelet activation in humans. J Nutr Biochem 25, 289294.
58. Alarcon, M, Fuentes, E, Olate, N, et al. (2015) Strawberry extract presents antiplatelet activity by inhibition of inflammatory mediator of atherosclerosis (sP-selectin, sCD40L, RANTES, and IL-1beta) and thrombus formation. Platelets 26, 224229.
59. Kimura, M, Lu, X, Skurnick, J, et al. (2004) Potassium chloride supplementation diminishes platelet reactivity in humans. Hypertension 44, 969973.
60. Bialasiewicz, P, Prymont-Przyminska, A, Zwolinska, A, et al. (2014) Addition of strawberries to the usual diet decreases resting chemiluminescence of fasting blood in healthy subjects-possible health-promoting effect of these fruits consumption. J Am Coll Nutr 33, 274287.
61. Prymont-Przyminska, A, Zwolinska, A, Sarniak, A, et al. (2014) Consumption of strawberries on a daily basis increases the non-urate 2,2-diphenyl-1-picryl-hydrazyl (DPPH) radical scavenging activity of fasting plasma in healthy subjects. J Clin Biochem Nutr 55, 4855.
62. Rodriguez-Mateos, A, Rendeiro, C, Bergillos-Meca, T, et al. (2013) Intake and time dependence of blueberry flavonoid-induced improvements in vascular function: a randomized, controlled, double-blind, crossover intervention study with mechanistic insights into biological activity. Am J Clin Nutr 98, 11791191.


Effects of a dietary strawberry powder on parameters of vascular health in adolescent males

  • Dragana Djurica (a1), Roberta R. Holt (a1), Jingyan Ren (a1), Alan W. Shindel (a2), Robert M. Hackman (a1) and Carl L. Keen (a1) (a3)...


Altmetric attention score

Full text views

Total number of HTML views: 0
Total number of PDF views: 0 *
Loading metrics...

Abstract views

Total abstract views: 0 *
Loading metrics...

* Views captured on Cambridge Core between <date>. This data will be updated every 24 hours.

Usage data cannot currently be displayed