Newby, PK & Tucker, KL (2004) Empirically derived eating patterns using factor or cluster analysis: a review. Nutr Rev
Schoeller, DA (1995) Limitations in the assessment of dietary energy intake by self-report. Metabolism
44, Suppl. 2, 18–22.
Schoeller, DA (1990) How accurate is self-reported dietary energy intake?
Subar, AF, Kipnis, V, Troiano, RP, et al. (2003) Using intake biomarkers to evaluate the extent of dietary misreporting in a large sample of adults: the OPEN study. Am J Epidemiol
Jonnalagadda, SS, Mitchell, DC, Smiciklas-Wright, H, et al. (2000) Accuracy of energy intake data estimated by a multiple-pass, 24-hour dietary recall technique. J Am Diet Assoc
100, 303–308 quiz 309–311.
Connor Gorber, S & Tremblay, MS (2010) The bias in self-reported obesity from 1976 to 2005: a Canada-US comparison. Obesity (Silver Spring)
Hebert, JR, Hurley, TG, Peterson, KE, et al. (2008) Social desirability trait influences on self-reported dietary measures among diverse participants in a multicenter multiple risk factor trial. J Nutr
Scagliusi, FB, Polacow, VO, Artioli, GG, et al. (2003) Selective underreporting of energy intake in women: magnitude, determinants, and effect of training. J Am Diet Assoc
Goldberg, GR, Black, AE, Jebb, SA, et al. (1991) Critical evaluation of energy intake data using fundamental principles of energy physiology: 1. Derivation of cut-off limits to identify under-recording. Eur J Clin Nutr
Black, AE (2000) Critical evaluation of energy intake using the Goldberg cut-off for energy intake:basal metabolic rate. A practical guide to its calculation, use and limitations. Int J Obes Relat Metab Disord
Funtikova, AN, Gomez, SF, Fito, M, et al. (2015) Effect of energy under-reporting on secular trends of dietary patterns in a Mediterranean population. PLOS ONE
Shaneshin, M, Jessri, M & Rashidkhani, B (2014) Validity of energy intake reports in relation to dietary patterns. J Health Popul Nutr
Bailey, RL, Mitchell, DC, Miller, C, et al. (2007) Assessing the effect of underreporting energy intake on dietary patterns and weight status. J Am Diet Assoc
Winkvist, A, Hornell, A, Hallmans, G, et al. (2009) More distinct food intake patterns among women than men in northern Sweden: a population-based survey. Nutr J
Martikainen, P, Brunner, E & Marmot, M (2003) Socioeconomic differences in dietary patterns among middle-aged men and women. Soc Sci Med
Scagliusi, FB, Ferriolli, E, Pfrimer, K, et al. (2008) Under-reporting of energy intake is more prevalent in a healthy dietary pattern cluster. Br J Nutr
Holmback, I, Ericson, U, Gullberg, B, et al. (2009) Five meal patterns are differently associated with nutrient intakes, lifestyle factors and energy misreporting in a sub-sample of the Malmo Diet and Cancer Cohort. Food Nutr Res
Pryer, JA, Nichols, R, Elliott, P, et al. (2001) Dietary patterns among a national random sample of British adults. J Epidemiol Community Health
Crozier, SR, Robinson, SM, Borland, SE, et al. (2006) Dietary patterns in the Southampton Women’s Survey. Eur J Clin Nutr
Ax, E, Warensjo Lemming, E, Becker, W, et al. (2016) Dietary patterns in Swedish adults; results from a national dietary survey. Br J Nutr
Hofvind, SS, Wang, H & Thoresen, S (2003) The Norwegian Breast Cancer Screening Program: re-attendance related to the women’s experiences, intentions and previous screening result. Cancer Causes Control
Hofvind, S, Geller, B, Vacek, PM, et al. (2007) Using the European guidelines to evaluate the Norwegian Breast Cancer Screening Program. Eur J Epidemiol
Qureshi, SA, Lund, AC, Veierod, MB, et al. (2014) Food items contributing most to variation in antioxidant intake; a cross-sectional study among Norwegian women. BMC Public Health
Markussen, MS, Veierod, MB, Sakhi, AK, et al. (2015) Evaluation of dietary patterns among Norwegian postmenopausal women using plasma carotenoids as biomarkers. Br J Nutr
Andersen, LF, Solvoll, K, Johansson, LR, et al. (1999) Evaluation of a food frequency questionnaire with weighed records, fatty acids, and alpha-tocopherol in adipose tissue and serum. Am J Epidemiol
Carlsen, MH, Lillegaard, IT, Karlsen, A, et al. (2010) Evaluation of energy and dietary intake estimates from a food frequency questionnaire using independent energy expenditure measurement and weighed food records. Nutr J
Carlsen, MH, Karlsen, A, Lillegaard, IT, et al. (2011) Relative validity of fruit and vegetable intake estimated from an FFQ, using carotenoid and flavonoid biomarkers and the method of triads. Br J Nutr
Berntsen, S, Hageberg, R, Aandstad, A, et al. (2010) Validity of physical activity monitors in adults participating in free-living activities. Br J Sports Med
Qureshi, SA, Ellingjord-Dale, M, Hofvind, S, et al. (2012) Physical activity and mammographic density in a cohort of postmenopausal Norwegian women; a cross-sectional study. Springerplus
Dallal, CM, Sullivan-Halley, J, Ross, RK, et al. (2007) Long-term recreational physical activity and risk of invasive and in situ breast cancer: the California Teachers Study. Arch Intern Med
Ainsworth, BE, Haskell, WL, Whitt, MC, et al. (2000) Compendium of physical activities: an update of activity codes and MET intensities. Med Sci Sports Exerc
32, Suppl., S498–S504.
Food and Agriculture Organization, World Health Organization & UNU (1985)
Energy and protein requirements. Report of a joint FAO/WHO/UNU expert consultation. World Health Organization Technical Report Series
, no. 724. Geneva: WHO.
Food and Agriculture Organization, World Health Organization & UNU (2001) Human Energy Requirements. Report of a Joint FAO/WHO/UNU Expert Consultation. Geneva: WHO.
Henry, CJ (2005) Basal metabolic rate studies in humans: measurement and development of new equations. Public Health Nutr
Tabachnick, BG & Fidell, LS (2007) Using Multivariate Statistics, 5th ed. Boston, MA: Allyn & Bacon.
Hutcheson, G & Sofroniou, N (1999) The Multivariate Social Scientist. London: Sage.
Michels, KB & Schulze, MB (2005) Can dietary patterns help us detect diet-disease associations?
Nutr Res Rev
Dekker, LH, van Dam, RM, Snijder, MB, et al. (2015) Comparable dietary patterns describe dietary behavior across ethnic groups in the Netherlands, but different elements in the diet are associated with glycated hemoglobin and fasting glucose concentrations. J Nutr
Gadgil, MD, Anderson, CA, Kandula, NR, et al. (2015) Dietary patterns are associated with metabolic risk factors in South Asians living in the United States. J Nutr
Niu, K, Momma, H, Kobayashi, Y, et al. (2016) The traditional Japanese dietary pattern and longitudinal changes in cardiovascular disease risk factors in apparently healthy Japanese adults. Eur J Nutr
Barbaresko, J, Siegert, S, Koch, M, et al. (2014) Comparison of two exploratory dietary patterns in association with the metabolic syndrome in a Northern German population. Br J Nutr
Odegaard, AO, Koh, WP, Yuan, JM, et al. (2014) Dietary patterns and mortality in a Chinese population. Am J Clin Nutr
Mourouti, N, Papavagelis, C, Plytzanopoulou, P, et al. (2015) Dietary patterns and breast cancer: a case-control study in women. Eur J Nutr
Engeset, D, Hofoss, D, Nilsson, LM, et al. (2015) Dietary patterns and whole grain cereals in the Scandinavian countries – differences and similarities. The HELGA project. Public Health Nutr
Fransen, HP, May, AM, Stricker, MD, et al. (2014)
A posteriori dietary patterns: how many patterns to retain?
Link, LB, Canchola, AJ, Bernstein, L, et al. (2013) Dietary patterns and breast cancer risk in the California Teachers Study cohort. Am J Clin Nutr
Santaliestra-Pasias, AM, Mouratidou, T, Huybrechts, I, et al. (2014) Increased sedentary behaviour is associated with unhealthy dietary patterns in European adolescents participating in the HELENA study. Eur J Clin Nutr
Chocano-Bedoya, PO, O’Reilly, EJ, Lucas, M, et al. (2013) Prospective study on long-term dietary patterns and incident depression in middle-aged and older women. Am J Clin Nutr
Northstone, K, Smith, AD, Cribb, VL, et al. (2014) Dietary patterns in UK adolescents obtained from a dual-source FFQ and their associations with socio-economic position, nutrient intake and modes of eating. Public Health Nutr
Kristiansen, AL, Lande, B, Sexton, JA, et al. (2013) Dietary patterns among Norwegian 2-year-olds in 1999 and in 2007 and associations with child and parent characteristics. Br J Nutr
Charreire, H, Kesse-Guyot, E, Bertrais, S, et al. (2011) Associations between dietary patterns, physical activity (leisure-time and occupational) and television viewing in middle-aged French adults. Br J Nutr
Smith, AD, Emmett, PM, Newby, PK, et al. (2013) Dietary patterns obtained through principal components analysis: the effect of input variable quantification. Br J Nutr
Balder, HF, Virtanen, M, Brants, HA, et al. (2003) Common and country-specific dietary patterns in four European cohort studies. J Nutr
Hearty, AP & Gibney, MJ (2009) Comparison of cluster and principal component analysis techniques to derive dietary patterns in Irish adults. Br J Nutr
Schulze, MB, Hoffmann, K, Kroke, A, et al. (2001) Dietary patterns and their association with food and nutrient intake in the European prospective investigation into cancer and nutrition (EPIC)-Potsdam study. Br J Nutr
Barros, AJ & Hirakata, VN (2003) Alternatives for logistic regression in cross-sectional studies: an empirical comparison of models that directly estimate the prevalence ratio. BMC Med Res Methodol
Hill, RJ & Davies, PS (2001) The validity of self-reported energy intake as determined using the doubly labelled water technique. Br J Nutr
Livingstone, MB & Black, AE (2003) Markers of the validity of reported energy intake. J Nutr
133, Suppl. 3, 895s–920s.
Schoeller, DA & Schoeller, DA (2002) Validation of habitual energy intake. Public Health Nutr
Black, AE, Goldberg, GR, Jebb, SA, et al. (1991) Critical evaluation of energy intake data using fundamental principles of energy physiology: 2. Evaluating the results of published surveys. Eur J Clin Nutr
Salle, A, Ryan, M & Ritz, P (2006) Underreporting of food intake in obese diabetic and nondiabetic patients. Diabetes Care
Yannakoulia, M, Panagiotakos, DB, Pitsavos, C, et al. (2007) Low energy reporting related to lifestyle, clinical, and psychosocial factors in a randomly selected population sample of Greek adults: the ATTICA study. J Am Coll Nutr
Rasmussen, LB, Matthiessen, J, Biltoft-Jensen, A, et al. (2007) Characteristics of misreporters of dietary intake and physical activity. Public Health Nutr
Poslusna, K, Ruprich, J, de Vries, JH, et al. (2009) Misreporting of energy and micronutrient intake estimated by food records and 24 hour recalls, control and adjustment methods in practice. Br J Nutr
101, Suppl. 2, S73–S85.
Mendez, MA, Popkin, BM, Buckland, G, et al. (2011) Alternative methods of accounting for underreporting and overreporting when measuring dietary intake-obesity relations. Am J Epidemiol
Ferrari, P, Slimani, N, Ciampi, A, et al. (2002) Evaluation of under- and overreporting of energy intake in the 24-hour diet recalls in the European Prospective Investigation into cancer and nutrition (EPIC). Public Health Nutr
Rennie, KL, Coward, A & Jebb, SA (2007) Estimating under-reporting of energy intake in dietary surveys using an individualised method. Br J Nutr
Becker, W, Foley, S, Shelley, E, et al. (1999) Energy under-reporting in Swedish and Irish dietary surveys: implications for food-based dietary guidelines. Br J Nutr
81, Suppl. 2, S127–S131.
Murakami, K, Sasaki, S & Okubo, H (2012) Characteristics of under- and over-reporters of energy intake among young Japanese women. J Nutr Sci Vitaminol (Tokyo)
Freisling, H, van Bakel, MM, Biessy, C, et al. (2012) Dietary reporting errors on 24 h recalls and dietary questionnaires are associated with BMI across six European countries as evaluated with recovery biomarkers for protein and potassium intake. Br J Nutr
Koebnick, C, Wagner, K, Thielecke, F, et al. (2005) An easy-to-use semiquantitative food record validated for energy intake by using doubly labelled water technique. Eur J Clin Nutr
Luhrmann, PM, Herbert, BM & Neuhauser-Berthold, M (2001) Underreporting of energy intake in an elderly German population. Nutrition
Murakami, K & Livingstone, MB (2015) Prevalence and characteristics of misreporting of energy intake in US adults: NHANES 2003–2012. Br J Nutr
Berta Vanrullen, I, Volatier, JL, Bertaut, A, et al. (2014) Characteristics of energy intake under-reporting in French adults. Br J Nutr
Gemming, L, Jiang, Y, Swinburn, B, et al. (2014) Under-reporting remains a key limitation of self-reported dietary intake: an analysis of the 2008/09 New Zealand Adult Nutrition Survey. Eur J Clin Nutr
Kye, S, Kwon, SO, Lee, SY, et al. (2014) Under-reporting of energy intake from 24-hour dietary recalls in the Korean National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey. Osong Public Health Res Perspect
Lutomski, JE, van den Broeck, J, Harrington, J, et al. (2011) Sociodemographic, lifestyle, mental health and dietary factors associated with direction of misreporting of energy intake. Public Health Nutr
Johansson, L, Solvoll, K, Bjorneboe, GE, et al. (1998) Under- and overreporting of energy intake related to weight status and lifestyle in a nationwide sample. Am J Clin Nutr
Park, HA, Lee, JS & Kuller, LH (2007) Underreporting of dietary intake by body mass index in premenopausal women participating in the healthy women study. Nutr Res Pract
Markussen, MS, Veierod, MB, Kristiansen, AL, et al. (2016) Dietary patterns of postmenopausal women and associations with nutrient intake, sociodemographic factors and key risk factors for noncommunicable diseases. Public Health Nutr (epublication ahead of print version 19 January 2016).
Lafay, L, Mennen, L, Basdevant, A, et al. (2000) Does energy intake underreporting involve all kinds of food or only specific food items? Results from the Fleurbaix Laventie Ville Sante (FLVS) study. Int J Obes Relat Metab Disord
Krebs-Smith, SM, Graubard, BI, Kahle, LL, et al. (2000) Low energy reporters vs others: a comparison of reported food intakes. Eur J Clin Nutr
Williams, DE, Prevost, AT, Whichelow, MJ, et al. (2000) A cross-sectional study of dietary patterns with glucose intolerance and other features of the metabolic syndrome. Br J Nutr
Herber-Gast, GC & Mishra, GD (2013) Fruit, Mediterranean-style, and high-fat and -sugar diets are associated with the risk of night sweats and hot flushes in midlife: results from a prospective cohort study. Am J Clin Nutr
Wirfalt, E, Mattisson, I, Gullberg, B, et al. (2000) Food patterns defined by cluster analysis and their utility as dietary exposure variables: a report from the Malmo Diet and Cancer Study. Public Health Nutr
Hornell, A, Winkvist, A, Hallmans, G, et al. (2010) Mis-reporting, previous health status and health status of family may seriously bias the association between food patterns and disease. Nutr J
Anderson, AL, Harris, TB, Houston, DK, et al. (2010) Relationships of dietary patterns with body composition in older adults differ by gender and PPAR-gamma Pro12Ala genotype. Eur J Nutr
Flores, M, Macias, N, Rivera, M, et al. (2010) Dietary patterns in Mexican adults are associated with risk of being overweight or obese. J Nutr
Villegas, R, Yang, G, Gao, YT, et al. (2010) Dietary patterns are associated with lower incidence of type 2 diabetes in middle-aged women: the Shanghai Women’s Health Study. Int J Epidemiol
Sanchez-Villegas, A, Delgado-Rodriguez, M, Martinez-Gonzalez, MA, et al. (2003) Gender, age, socio-demographic and lifestyle factors associated with major dietary patterns in the Spanish Project SUN (Seguimiento Universidad de Navarra). Eur J Clin Nutr
Song, Y & Joung, H (2012) A traditional Korean dietary pattern and metabolic syndrome abnormalities. Nutr Metab Cardiovasc Dis
Tucker, KL, Chen, H, Hannan, MT, et al. (2002) Bone mineral density and dietary patterns in older adults: the Framingham Osteoporosis Study. Am J Clin Nutr
Mattisson, I, Wirfalt, E, Aronsson, CA, et al. (2005) Misreporting of energy: prevalence, characteristics of misreporters and influence on observed risk estimates in the Malmo Diet and Cancer cohort. Br J Nutr
Prentice, RL, Shaw, PA, Bingham, SA, et al. (2009) Biomarker-calibrated energy and protein consumption and increased cancer risk among postmenopausal women. Am J Epidemiol
Neuhouser, ML, Tinker, L, Shaw, PA, et al. (2008) Use of recovery biomarkers to calibrate nutrient consumption self-reports in the Women’s Health Initiative. Am J Epidemiol
McNaughton, SA, Mishra, GD & Brunner, EJ (2009) Food patterns associated with blood lipids are predictive of coronary heart disease: the Whitehall II study. Br J Nutr
McNaughton, SA, Mishra, GD & Brunner, EJ (2008) Dietary patterns, insulin resistance, and incidence of type 2 diabetes in the Whitehall II Study. Diabetes Care
Brunner, EJ, Mosdol, A, Witte, DR, et al. (2008) Dietary patterns and 15-y risks of major coronary events, diabetes, and mortality. Am J Clin Nutr
Hu, FB (2002) Dietary pattern analysis: a new direction in nutritional epidemiology. Curr Opin Lipidol
Northstone, K, Ness, AR, Emmett, PM, et al. (2008) Adjusting for energy intake in dietary pattern investigations using principal components analysis. Eur J Clin Nutr