3.Hansen, AK, Kortner, TM, Krasnov, A, et al. (2019) Choline supplementation prevents diet induced gut mucosa lipid accumulation in post-smolt Atlantic salmon (Salmo salar L.). BMC Vet Res 16, 32.
4.Li, Z & Vance, DE (2008) Phosphatidylcholine and choline homeostasis. J Lipid Res 49, 1187–1194.
5.Gibellini, F & Smith, TK (2010) The Kennedy pathway – de novo synthesis of phosphatidylethanolamine and phosphatidylcholine. IUBMB Life 62, 414–428.
6.National Research Council (2011) Nutrient Requirements of Fish and Shrimp. Washington, DC: National Academies Press.
7.Wilson, RP & Poe, WE (1988) Choline nutrition of fingerling channel catfish. Aquaculture 68, 65–71.
8.Ogino, C, Uki, N, Watanabe, T, et al. (1970) B vitamin requirements of carp. 4. Requirement for choline. Bull Jpn Soc Sci Fish 36, 1140–1146.
9.Shiau, SY & Lo, PS (2000) Research communication dietary choline requirements of juvenile hybrid tilapia, Oreochromis niloticus x O. aureus. J Nutr 1, 100–103.
10.Kennedy, SR, Bickerdike, R, Berge, RK, et al. (2007) Influence of conjugated linoleic acid (CLA) or tetradecylthioacetic acid (TTA) on growth, lipid composition, fatty acid metabolism and lipid gene expression of rainbow trout (Oncorhynchus mykiss L.). Aquaculture 272, 489–501.
11.Duan, Y, Zhu, X, Han, D, et al. (2012) Dietary choline requirement in slight methionine-deficient diet for juvenile gibel carp (Carassius auratus gibelio). Aquacult Nutr 18, 620–627.
12.Qin, DG, Dong, XH, Tan, BP, et al. (2016) Effects of dietary choline on growth performance, lipid deposition and hepatic lipid transport of grouper (Epinephelus coioides). Aquacult Nutr 23, 453–459.
13.Halver, JE (2002) The vitamins. In Fish Nutrition, 3rd ed., pp. 62–132 [Halver, JE and Hardy, RW, editors]. San Diego, CA: Academic Press.
14.Poston, HA (1990) Effect of body size on growth, survival, and chemical composition of Atlantic salmon fed soy lecithin and choline. Prog Fish Cult 52, 226–230.
15.Rumsey, GL (1991) Choline-betaine requirements of rainbow trout (Oncorhynchus mykiss). Aquaculture 95, 107–116.
16.Ketola, HG (1972) Choline metabolism and nutritional requirement of lake trout (Salvelinus namaycush). J Anim Sci 43, 474–477.
17.Arai, S, Nose, T & Hashimoto, Y (1972) Qualitative requirements of young eels, Anguilla japonica, for water-soluble vitamins and their deficiency symptoms. Bull Freshwater Fish Res Lab 22, 69–83.
18.Olsen, RE, Myklebust, R, Ringø, E, et al. (2000) The influences of dietary linseed oil and saturated fatty acids on caecal enterocytes in Arctic char (Salvelinus alpinus L.): a quantitative ultrastructural study. Fish Physiol Biochem 22, 207–216.
19.Olsen, RE, Dragnes, BT, Myklebust, R, et al. (2003) Effect of soybean oil and soybean lecithin on intestinal lipid composition and lipid droplet accumulation of rainbow trout, Oncorhynchus mykiss Walbaum. Fish Physiol Biochem 29, 181–192.
20.De Santis, C, Taylor, JF, Martinez-Rubio, L, et al. (2015) Influence of development and dietary phospholipid content and composition on intestinal transcriptome of Atlantic salmon (Salmo salar). PLOS ONE 10, e0140964.
21.Fontagne, S, Geurden, I, Escaffre, A, et al. (1998) Histological changes induced by dietary phospholipids in intestine and liver of common carp (Cyprinus carpio L.) larvae. Aquaculture 161, 213–223.
22.Geurden, I, Bergot, P, Schwarz, L, et al. (1998) Relationship between dietary phospholipid classes and neutral lipid absorption in newly-weaned turbot, Scophthalmus maximus. Fish Physiol Biochem 19, 217–228.
23.Salhi, M, Hernández-Cruz, C, Bessonart, M, et al. (1999) Effect of different dietary polar lipid levels and different n-3 HUFA content in polar lipids on gut and liver histological structure of gilthead seabream (Sparus aurata) larvae. Aquaculture 179, 253–263.
24.Carmona-Antoñanzas, G, Taylor, JF, Martinez-Rubio, L, et al. (2015) Molecular mechanism of dietary phospholipid requirement of Atlantic salmon, Salmo salar, fry. Biochim Biophys Acta 1851, 1428–1441.
25.Hadas, E, Koven, W, Sklan, D, et al. (2003) The effect of dietary phosphatidylcholine on the assimilation and distribution of ingested free oleic acid (18 : 1n-9) in gilthead seabream (Sparus aurata) larvae. Aquaculture 217, 577–588.
26.Koven, WM, Kolkovski, S, Tandler, A, et al. (1993) The effect of dietary lecithin and lipase, as a function of age, on n-9 fatty acid incorporation in the tissue lipids of Sparus aurata larvae. Fish Physiol Biochem 10, 357–364.
27.Daprà, F, Geurden, I, Corraze, G, et al. (2011) Physiological and molecular responses to dietary phospholipids vary between fry and early juvenile stages of rainbow trout (Oncorhynchus mykiss). Aquaculture 319, 377–384.
28.Olsen, RE, Myklebust, R, Kaino, T, et al. (1999) Lipid digestibility and ultrastructural changes in the enterocytes of Arctic char (Salvelinus alpinus L.) fed linseed oil and soybean lecithin. Fish Physiol Biochem 21, 35–44.
29.Tocher, DR, Bendiksen, EÅ, Campbell, PJ, et al. (2008) The role of phospholipids in nutrition and metabolism of teleost fish. Aquaculture 280, 21–34.
30.Jordal, AO, Torstensen, BE, Tsoi, S, et al. (2005) Nutrient-gene interactions dietary rapeseed oil affects the expression of genes involved in hepatic lipid metabolism in Atlantic salmon (Salmo salar L.). J Nutr 5, 2355–2361.
31.Trattner, S, Ruyter, B, Østbye, TK, et al. (2008) Sesamin increases alpha-linolenic acid conversion to docosahexaenoic acid in Atlantic salmon (Salmo salar L.) hepatocytes: role of altered gene expression. Lipids 43, 999–1008.
32.Kjær, MA, Todorcević, M, Torstensen, BE, et al. (2008) Dietary n-3 HUFA affects mitochondrial fatty acid beta-oxidation capacity and susceptibility to oxidative stress in Atlantic salmon. Lipids 43, 813–827.
33.Torstensen, BE, Nanton, DA, Olsvik, PA, et al. (2009) Gene expression of fatty acid-binding proteins, fatty acid transport proteins (cd36 and FATP) and β-oxidation-related genes in Atlantic salmon (Salmo salar L.) fed fish oil or vegetable oil. Aquacult Nutr 15, 440–451.
34.Alves Martins, D, Rocha, F, Martínez-Rodríguez, G, et al. (2012) Teleost fish larvae adapt to dietary arachidonic acid supply through modulation of the expression of lipid metabolism and stress response genes. Br J Nutr 108, 864–874.
35.Figueiredo-Silva, C, Kaushik, S, Terrier, F, et al. (2012) Link between lipid metabolism and voluntary food intake in rainbow trout fed coconut oil rich in medium-chain TAG. Br J Nutr 107, 1714–1725.
36.Gu, M, Kortner, TM, Penn, M, et al. (2014) Effects of dietary plant meal and soya-saponin supplementation on intestinal and hepatic lipid droplet accumulation and lipoprotein and sterol metabolism in Atlantic salmon (Salmo salar L.). Br J Nutr 111, 432–444.
37.Zuo, R, Ai, Q, Mai, K, et al. (2013) Effects of conjugated linoleic acid on growth, non-specific immunity, antioxidant capacity, lipid deposition and related gene expression in juvenile large yellow croaker (Larmichthys crocea) fed soyabean oil-based diets. Br J Nutr 110, 1220–1232.
38.Coccia, E, Varricchio, E, Vito, P, et al. (2014) Fatty acid-specific alterations in leptin, PPARα, and CPT-1 gene expression in the rainbow trout. Lipids 49, 1033–1046.
40.Austreng, E (1978) Digestibility determination in fish using chromic oxide marking and analysis of contents from different segments of the gastrointestinal tract. Aquaculture 13, 266–272.
41.Bustin, SA, Benes, V, Garson, JA, et al. (2009) The MIQE guidelines: minimum information for publication of quantitative real-time PCR experiments. Clin Chem 55, 611–622.
42.Kortner, TM, Valen, EC, Kortner, H, et al. (2011) Candidate reference genes for quantitative real-time PCR (qPCR) assays during development of a diet-related enteropathy in Atlantic salmon (Salmo salar L.) and the potential pitfalls of uncritical use of normalization software tools. Aquaculture 318, 355–363.
43.Muller, PY, Janovjak, H, Miserez, AR, et al. (2002) Processing of gene expression data generated. Biotechniques 32, 2–7.
44.Refstie, S, Helland, SJ & Storebakken, T (1997) Adaptation to soybean meal in diets for rainbow trout, Oncorhynchus mykiss. Aquaculture 153, 263–272.
45.Parini, P, Johansson, L, Bröijersén, A, et al. (2006) Lipoprotein profiles in plasma and interstitial fluid analyzed with an automated gel-filtration system. Eur J Clin Invest 36, 98–104.
46.Lund, E, Sisfontes, L, Reihner, E, et al. (1989) Determination of serum levels of unesterified lathosterol by isotope dilution-mass spectrometry. Scand J Clin Lab Invest 49, 165–171.
47.Lövgren-Sandblom, A, Heverin, M, Larsson, H, et al. (2007) Novel LC-MS/MS method for assay of 7alpha-hydroxy-4-cholesten-3-one in human plasma. Evidence for a significant extrahepatic metabolism. J Chromatogr B Analyt Technol Biomed Life Sci 856, 15–19.
48.Dzeletovic, S, Breuer, O, Lund, E, et al. (1995) Determination of cholesterol oxidation products in human plasma by isotop dilution-mass spectrometry. Anal Biochem 225, 73–80.
49.Acimovic, J, Lövgren-Sandblom, A, Monostory, K, et al. (2009) Combined gas chromatographic/mass spectrometric analysis of cholesterol precursors and plant sterols in cultured cells. J Chromatogr B Analyt Technol Biomed Life Sci 877, 2081–2086.
50.Pedersen, JI & Grav, HJ (1972) Physiologically-induced loose coupling of brown-adipose-tissue mitochondria correlated to endogenous fatty acids and adenosine phosphates. Eur J Biochem 25, 75–83.
51.Folch, J, Lees, M & Sloane Stanley, GH (1957) A simple method for the isolation and purification of total lipides from animal tissues. J Biol Chem 226, 497–507.
52.Kjær, MA, Aursnes, IA, Berge, GM, et al. (2014) The influence of different dietary oil qualities on growth rate, feed utilization and oxidative stress in Atlantic cod. Aquacult Nutr 20, 192–204.
53.Mason, ME & Waller, GR (1964) Dimethoxypropane induced transesterification of fats + oils in preparation of methyl esters for gas chromatographic analysis. Anal Chem 36, 583–586.
54.Hoshi, M, Williams, M & Kishimoto, Y (1973) Esterification of fatty acids at room temperature by chloroform-methanolic HCl cupric acetate. J Lipid Res 14, 599–601.
55.Christie, WW (2003) Lipid Analysis: Isolation, Separation, Identification and Structural Analysis of Lipids, 3rd ed.Bridgwater: Oily Press.
56.Austreng, E, Storebakken, T, Thomassen, MS, et al. (2000) Evaluation of selected trivalent metal oxides as inert markers used to estimate apparent digestibility in salmonids. Aquaculture 188, 65–78.
57.Shearer, KD (2000) Experimental design, statistical analysis and modelling of dietary nutrient requirement studies for fish: A critical review. Aquacult Nutr 6, 91–102.
58.Griffin, ME, Wilson, KA, White, MR, et al. (1994) Dietary choline requirement of juvenile hybrid striped bass. J Nutr 124, 1685–1689.
59.Craig, SR & Gatlin, DM (1997) Growth and body composition of juvenile red drum (Sciaenops ocektus) fed diets containing lecithin and supplemental choline. Aquaculture 151, 259–267.
60.Denstadli, V, Vegusdal, A, Krogdahl, Å, et al. (2004) Lipid absorption in different segments of the gastrointestinal tract of Atlantic salmon (Salmo salar L.). Aquaculture 240, 385–398.
61.Yan, L & Qiu-Zhou, X (2006) Dietary glutamine supplementation improves structure and function of intestine of juvenile Jian carp (Cyprinus carpio var. Jian). Aquaculture 256, 389–394.
62.Krahmer, N, Guo, Y, Wilfling, F, et al. (2011) Phosphatidylcholine synthesis for lipid droplet expansion is mediated by localized activation of CTP:phosphocholine cytidylyltransferase. Cell Metab 14, 504–515.
63.Sire, MF, Lutton, C & Vernier, JM (1981) New views on intestinal absorption of lipids in teleostean fishes: an ultrastructural and biochemical study in the rainbow trout. J Lipid Res 22, 81–94.
64.Caballero, MJ, Obach, A, Rosenlund, G, et al. (2002) Impact of different dietary lipid sources on growth, lipid digestibility, tissue fatty acid composition and histology of rainbow trout, Oncorhynchus mykiss. Aquaculture 214, 253–271.
65.Vernier, J-M & Sire, M-F (1986) Is the Golgi apparatus the obligatory final step for lipoprotein secretion by intestinal cells? Tissue Cell 18, 447–460.
66.Field, FJ & Mathur, SN (1995) Intestinal lipoprotein synthesis and secretion. Prog Lipid Res 34, 185–198.
67.Xiao, C, Stahel, P & Lewis, GF (2019) Regulation of chylomicron secretion: focus on post-assembly mechanisms. Cell Mol Gastroenterol Hepatol 7, 487–501.
68.Schubert, HL, Blumenthal, RM & Cheng, X (2003) Many paths to methyltransfer: a chronicle of convergence. Trends Biochem Sci 28, 329–335.
69.Cox, C, Sutherland, W, Mann, J, et al. (1998) Effects of dietary coconut oil, butter and safflower oil on plasma lipids, lipoproteins and lathosterol levels. Eur J Clin Nutr 52, 650–654.
70.Lie, Ø, Sandvin, A & Waagbø, R (1993) Influence of dietary fatty acids on the lipid composition of lipoproteins in farmed Atlantic salmon (Salmo salar). Fish Physiol Biochem 12, 249–260.
71.Chimsung, N, Lall, SP, Tantikitti, C, et al. (2013) Effects of dietary cholesterol on astaxanthin transport in plasma of Atlantic salmon (Salmo salar). Comp Biochem Physiol B Biochem Mol Biol 165, 73–81.
72.Espe, M, Andersen, SM, Veiset-Kent, E, et al. (2017) Choline supplementation increased total body lipid gain, while surplus methionine improved growth and amino acid retention in adult Atlantic salmon (Salmo salar). Aquacult Nutr 23, 1086–1094.
73.Yeh, SP, Shiu, PJ, Guei, WC, et al. (2015) Improvement in lipid metabolism and stress tolerance of juvenile giant grouper, Epinephelus lanceolatus (Bloch), fed supplemental choline. Aquacult Res 46, 1810–1821.
74.Hung, SSO, Berge, GM & Storebakken, T (1997) Growth and digestibility effects of soya lecithin and choline chloride on juvenile Atlantic salmon. Aquacult Nutr 3, 141–144.
75.Wu, P, Feng, L, Kuang, S-Y, et al. (2011) Effect of dietary choline on growth, intestinal enzyme activities and relative expressions of target of rapamycin and eIF4E-binding protein2 gene in muscle, hepatopancreas and intestine of juvenile Jian carp (Cyprinus carpio var. Jian). Aquaculture 317, 107–116.
76.Li, JY, Li, XF, Xu, WN, et al. (2016) Effects of dietary choline supplementation on growth performance, lipid deposition and intestinal enzyme activities of blunt snout bream Megalobrama amblycephal fed high-lipid diet. Aquacult Nutr 22, 181–190.
77.Jiang, GZ, Wang, M, Liu, WB, et al. (2013) Dietary choline requirement for juvenile blunt snout bream, Megalobrama amblycephala. Aquacult Nutr 19, 499–505.