Skip to main content Accessibility help
×
Home

The Diet Quality Index-International (DQI-I): is it a useful tool to evaluate the quality of the Mediterranean diet?

  • Josep A. Tur (a1), Dora Romaguera (a1) and Antoni Pons (a1)

Abstract

The aim of this study was to assess whether the recently developed Diet Quality Index-International (DQI-I) could be used to evaluate diet quality of a Mediterranean population. A cross-sectional nutritional survey was carried out in the Balearic Islands (Spain) between 1999 and 2000. Dietary information (replicated 24 h recall and a food frequency questionnaire), and socio-demographic and lifestyle data were collected from a representative sample of the population (n 1200: 498 males and 702 females) aged 16–65 years (response rate 77·22 %). The DQI-I was developed according to the method defined by Kim et al. (2003), and focused on four major aspects of a high-quality diet (variety, adequacy, moderation and overall balance). The percentage of adherence to the Mediterranean dietary pattern (MDP) was also calculated and correlation analysis was carried out between the DQI-I score and the percentage of adherence to the MDP. The total score of the DQI-I reached 43 % of the possible score, indicating that the Balearic diet was a poor-quality diet. Correlation analysis between the DQI-I scores and adherence to the MDP showed that the DQI-I subcategories protein, iron and calcium adequacy were negatively correlated with the MDP. Furthermore, moderation in empty calorie food consumption and overall balance subcategories were not significantly correlated with the MDP. Due to some methodological factors and cultural biases, the proposed DQI-I scoring system is not useful to evaluate the quality of this Mediterranean-type diet. Further research is needed to develop a new diet quality index adapted to the MDP.

    • Send article to Kindle

      To send this article to your Kindle, first ensure no-reply@cambridge.org is added to your Approved Personal Document E-mail List under your Personal Document Settings on the Manage Your Content and Devices page of your Amazon account. Then enter the ‘name’ part of your Kindle email address below. Find out more about sending to your Kindle. Find out more about sending to your Kindle.

      Note you can select to send to either the @free.kindle.com or @kindle.com variations. ‘@free.kindle.com’ emails are free but can only be sent to your device when it is connected to wi-fi. ‘@kindle.com’ emails can be delivered even when you are not connected to wi-fi, but note that service fees apply.

      Find out more about the Kindle Personal Document Service.

      The Diet Quality Index-International (DQI-I): is it a useful tool to evaluate the quality of the Mediterranean diet?
      Available formats
      ×

      Send article to Dropbox

      To send this article to your Dropbox account, please select one or more formats and confirm that you agree to abide by our usage policies. If this is the first time you use this feature, you will be asked to authorise Cambridge Core to connect with your <service> account. Find out more about sending content to Dropbox.

      The Diet Quality Index-International (DQI-I): is it a useful tool to evaluate the quality of the Mediterranean diet?
      Available formats
      ×

      Send article to Google Drive

      To send this article to your Google Drive account, please select one or more formats and confirm that you agree to abide by our usage policies. If this is the first time you use this feature, you will be asked to authorise Cambridge Core to connect with your <service> account. Find out more about sending content to Google Drive.

      The Diet Quality Index-International (DQI-I): is it a useful tool to evaluate the quality of the Mediterranean diet?
      Available formats
      ×

Copyright

Corresponding author

*Corresponding author: Dr Josep A. Tur, fax +34 971 173184, email pep.tur@uib.es

References

Hide All
Aranceta, J (2001) Spanish food patterns. Public Health Nutr 4, 13991402.
Aranceta, J &, Serra-Majem, Lon behalf the Working Party for the development of food-based dietary guidelines for the Spanish population (2001) Dietary guidelines for the Spanish population. Public Health Nutr 4, 14031408.
Bianchini, F & Vainio, H (2003) Wine and resveratrol: mechanisms of cancer prevention? Eur J Cancer Prev 12, 417425.
Briante, R, Febbraio, F & Nucci, R (2003) Antioxidant properties of low molecular weight phenols present in the Mediterranean diet. J Agric Food Chem 51, 69756981.
Drewnowski, A, Henderson, SA, Shore, AB, Fischler, C, Preziosi, P & Hercberg, S (1996) Diet quality and dietary diversity in France: implications for the French paradox. J Am Diet Assoc 96, 663669.
Feinberg, M, Favier, JC & Ireland-Ripert, J (1995) Répertoire géneral des aliments, París: Tec & Doc Lavoisier.
Gerber, MJ, Scali, JD, Michaud, A, Durand, MD, Astre, CM, Dallongeville, J & Romon, MM (2000) Profiles of a healthful diet and its relationship to biomarkers in a population sample from Mediterranean southern France. Am J Diet Assoc 100, 11641171.
Goldfinger, TM (2003) Beyond the French paradox: the impact of moderate beverage alcohol and wine consumption in the prevention of cardiovascular disease. Cardiol Clin 2, 449457.
Haines, PS, Siega-Riz, AM & Popkin, BM (1999) The Diet Quality Index Revised: a measurement instrument for populations. J Am Diet Assoc 99, 697704.
Hu, FB (2003) The Mediterranean diet and mortality – olive oil and beyond. N Engl J Med 348, 25952596.
Instituto Nacional de Estadística (2003) Censo de población y residencia 2001 (The population and residence census 2001). Madrid: INE.
Kant, AK (1996) Indexes of overall diet quality: a review. J Am Diet Assoc 96, 785791.
Kim, S, Haines, PS, Siega-Riz, AM & Popkin, BM (2003) The Diet Quality Index-International (DQI-I) provides an effective tool for cross-national comparison of diet quality as illustrated by China and the United States. J Nutr 133, 34763484.
López-Velez, M, Martinez-Martinez, F & Del Valle-Ribes, C (2003) The study of phenolic compounds as natural antioxidants in wine. Crit Rev Food Sci Nutr 43, 233244.
Marshall, TA, Stumbo, PJ, Warren, JJ & Xie, XJ (2001) Inadequate nutrient intakes are common and are associated with low diet variety in rural, community-dwelling elderly. J Nutr 131, 21922196.
Mataix, J, Mañas, M, Llopis, J, Martínez, de, Victoria, E, Juan, J & Borregón, A (2004) Tablas de composición de alimentos españoles (Spanish food composition tables) 4th ed. Granada: INTA-Universidad de Granada.
Moreiras, O, Carbajal, A, Cabrera, L & Cuadrado, C (2003) Tablas de composición de alimentos (Food composition tables) 7th ed. Madrid: Pirámide.
Moreno, LA, Sarría, A & Popkin, BM (2002) The nutrition transition in Spain: a European Mediterranean country. Eur J Clin Nutr 56, 9921003.
Owen, RW, Giacosa, A, Hull, WE, Haubner, R, Wurtele, G, Spiegelhalder, B & Bartsch, H (2000) Olive-oil consumption and health: the possible role of antioxidants. Lancet Oncol 1, 107112.
Popkin, BM, Zizza, C & Siega-Riz, AM (2003) Who is leading the change? U.S. dietary quality comparison between 1965–1996. Am J Prev Med 25, 18.
Pulido, R, Hernandez-Garcia, M & Saura-Calixto, F (2003) Contribution of beverages to the intake of lipophilic and hydrophilic antioxidants in the Spanish diet. Eur J Clin Nutr 57, 12751278.
Ripoll, L (1992) Cocina de las Islas Baleares (The Balearic Islands Cookery) 5th ed. Palma de Mallorca: L. Ripoll.
Sánchez-Villegas, A, Martínez, JA, De Irala, J & Martínez-González, MA (2002) Determinants of the adherent to an ‘a priori’ defined Mediterranean dietary pattern. Eur J Nutr 41, 249257.
Serra-Majem, L (2000) Nutritional Survey of Canary Islands (19971998)Las Palmas de Gran Canaria: Servicio Canario de Salud.
Serra-Majem, L (2001) Más beneficios de la dieta mediterránea (More benefits from Mediterranean Diet?). Nutrición y Obesidad 4, 4346.
Serra-Majem, L & Aranceta, J (2001) Nutritional objectives for the Spanish population. Consensus from the Spanish Society of Community Nutrition. Public Health Nutr 4, 14091413.
Serra-Majem, L, Ferro-Luzzi, A, Bellizzi, M & Salleras, L (1997) Nutrition policies in Mediterranean Europe. Nutr Rev 55, 342357.
Serra-Majem, L, Ngo, de, la, Cruz, J, Ribas & L Tur, JA (2003) Olive oil and the Mediterranean diet: beyond the rhetoric. Eur J Clin Nutr 57 Suppl. 1S2S7.
Serra-Majem, L & Ribas, L (1996) Nutritional Survey of Catalonia (19921993)Barcelona: Generalitat de Catalunya, Departament de Sanitat i Seguretat Social.
Serra-Majem, L, Ribas, L, Lloveras, G & Salleras, L (1993) Changing patterns of fat consumption in Spain. Eur J Clin Nutr 47 Suppl. 1S13S20.
Tangney, CC, Evans, DA, Bienias, JL & Morris, MC (2001) Healthy eating index of black and white older adults. Nutr Res 21, 14111423.
Trichopoulos, D (2002) In defence of the Mediterranean diet. Eur J Clin Nutr 56, 928929.
Trichopoulou, A (2001) Mediterranean diet: the past and the present. Nutr Metab Cardiovasc Dis 11, Suppl. 4S1S4.
Trichopoulou, A, Costacou, T, Bamia, C & Trichopoulos, D (2003) Adherence to a Mediterranean diet and survival in a Greek population. N Engl J Med 348, 25952596.
Trichopoulou, A & Vasilopoulou, E (2000) Mediterranean diet and longevity. Br Nutr 84 Suppl. 2S205S209.
Tur, JA, Lladó, M, Albertí, RC & Pons, A (2004a) Changes on nutrient and food intakes in Mallorca throughout the XXth century. Rev Esp Nutr Comunitaria 10, 616 (in Spanish).
Tur, JA, Romaguera, D & Pons, A (2004b) Adherence to the Mediterranean dietary pattern among the Balearic Islands population. Br J Nutr 92, 341346.
Tur, JA, Romaguera, D & Pons, A (2004c) Food consumption patterns in a Mediterranean region: is the Mediterranean diet still present? Ann Nutr Metab 48, 193201.
Tur, JA, Serra-Majem, L, Romaguera, D & Pons, A (2004d) Does the diet of the Balearic population, a Mediterranean type diet, still provide adequate antioxidant nutrient intakes? Eur J Nutr 2004, Jul 7 (Epub ahead of print).
Visioli, F & Galli, C (2001) The role of antioxidants in the Mediterranean diet. Lipids 36 Suppl. S49S52.
Weinstein, SJ, Vogt, TM & Gerrior, SA (2004) Healthy Eating Index scores are associated with blood nutrient concentrations in the Third National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey. Am J Diet Assoc 104, 576584.

Keywords

Related content

Powered by UNSILO

The Diet Quality Index-International (DQI-I): is it a useful tool to evaluate the quality of the Mediterranean diet?

  • Josep A. Tur (a1), Dora Romaguera (a1) and Antoni Pons (a1)

Metrics

Full text views

Total number of HTML views: 0
Total number of PDF views: 0 *
Loading metrics...

Abstract views

Total abstract views: 0 *
Loading metrics...

* Views captured on Cambridge Core between <date>. This data will be updated every 24 hours.

Usage data cannot currently be displayed.