Skip to main content Accessibility help
×
Home

Breast-fed infants and their later cardiovascular health: a prospective study from birth to age 32 years

  • Satu Pirilä (a1), Mervi Taskinen (a1), Heli Viljakainen (a1), Outi Mäkitie (a1) (a2), Merja Kajosaari (a1), Ulla M. Saarinen-Pihkala (a1) and Maila Turanlahti (a1)...

Abstract

The aim of the present study was to evaluate the impact of infant breast-feeding on cardiovascular risk in young adults. This unique study group involved 158 subjects (eighty-two females) originally collected prospectively at birth in 1975 and followed up to the age of 32 years. Frequent visits during the first year guaranteed the knowledge of the precise duration of breast-feeding. All infants received at least some breast milk. Participants were assessed for both individual cardiovascular risk factors (blood pressure, plasma lipids, homeostatic model assessment of insulin resistance and waist circumference) and the general clinical risk of cardiovascular events by calculating the Framingham risk score (FRS) and the metabolic syndrome criteria score (NCEP-ATPIII; National Cholesterol Education Program's Adult Treatment Panel III). Data on lifestyle factors were carefully collected. Linear regression analyses revealed that the effect of the duration of breast-feeding was not relevant (0·02 decrease in the FRS per one additional breast-feeding month; 95 % CI − 0·19, 0·09). Similarly, the effect of breast-feeding was minor on all of the individual cardiovascular risk factors. We used sex, physical activity, dietary fat and vitamin C, smoking and alcohol consumption as covariates. Again, logistic regression analyses detected no significant impact of the duration of breast-feeding on the risk of the metabolic syndrome according to the NCEP-ATPIII (OR 0·95, 95 % CI 0·8, 1·1). The strongest independent predictor for later CVD risk was male sex. In conclusion, in this prospectively followed cohort of young adults born at term and at weight appropriate for gestational age, the duration of breast-feeding did not have an impact on the accumulation of cardiovascular risk factors.

  • View HTML
    • Send article to Kindle

      To send this article to your Kindle, first ensure no-reply@cambridge.org is added to your Approved Personal Document E-mail List under your Personal Document Settings on the Manage Your Content and Devices page of your Amazon account. Then enter the ‘name’ part of your Kindle email address below. Find out more about sending to your Kindle. Find out more about sending to your Kindle.

      Note you can select to send to either the @free.kindle.com or @kindle.com variations. ‘@free.kindle.com’ emails are free but can only be sent to your device when it is connected to wi-fi. ‘@kindle.com’ emails can be delivered even when you are not connected to wi-fi, but note that service fees apply.

      Find out more about the Kindle Personal Document Service.

      Breast-fed infants and their later cardiovascular health: a prospective study from birth to age 32 years
      Available formats
      ×

      Send article to Dropbox

      To send this article to your Dropbox account, please select one or more formats and confirm that you agree to abide by our usage policies. If this is the first time you use this feature, you will be asked to authorise Cambridge Core to connect with your <service> account. Find out more about sending content to Dropbox.

      Breast-fed infants and their later cardiovascular health: a prospective study from birth to age 32 years
      Available formats
      ×

      Send article to Google Drive

      To send this article to your Google Drive account, please select one or more formats and confirm that you agree to abide by our usage policies. If this is the first time you use this feature, you will be asked to authorise Cambridge Core to connect with your <service> account. Find out more about sending content to Google Drive.

      Breast-fed infants and their later cardiovascular health: a prospective study from birth to age 32 years
      Available formats
      ×

Copyright

Corresponding author

* Corresponding author: Dr S. Pirilä, fax +358 9 471 75737, email satu.pirila@hus.fi

References

Hide All
1 Barker, DJ (1995) Fetal origins of coronary heart disease. BMJ 311, 171174.
2 Barker, DJ, Gluckman, PD, Godfrey, KM, et al. (1993) Fetal nutrition and cardiovascular disease in adult life. Lancet 341, 938941.
3 Banci, M, Saccucci, P, Dofcaci, A, et al. (2009) Birth weight and coronary artery disease. The effect of gender and diabetes. Int J Biol Sci 5, 244248.
4 Eriksson, JG (2011) Early growth and coronary heart disease and type 2 diabetes: findings from the Helsinki Birth Cohort Study (HBCS). Am J Clin Nutr 94, 6 Suppl., 1799S1802S.
5 Owen, CG, Whincup, PH, Kaye, SJ, et al. (2008) Does initial breastfeeding lead to lower blood cholesterol in adult life? A quantitative review of the evidence. Am J Clin Nutr 88, 305314.
6 Kaikkonen, JE, Mikkilä, V, Magnussen, CG, et al. (2013) Does childhood nutrition influence adult cardiovascular disease risk? – Insights from the Young Finns Study. Ann Med 45, 120128.
7 Martin, RM, Ness, AR, Gunnell, D, et al. (2004) Does breast-feeding in infancy lower blood pressure in childhood? The Avon Longitudinal Study of Parents and Children (ALSPAC). Circulation 109, 12591266.
8 Lawlor, DA, Riddoch, CJ, Page, AS, et al. (2005) Infant feeding and components of the metabolic syndrome: findings from the European Youth Heart Study. Arch Dis Child 90, 582588.
9 Lawlor, DA, Najman, JM, Sterne, J, et al. (2004) Associations of parental, birth, and early life characteristics with systolic blood pressure at 5 years of age: findings from the Mater-University study of pregnancy and its outcomes. Circulation 110, 24172423.
10 Järvisalo, MJ, Hutri-Kähönen, N, Juonala, M, et al. (2009) Breast feeding in infancy and arterial endothelial function later in life. The Cardiovascular Risk in Young Finns Study. Eur J Clin Nutr 63, 640645.
11 Martin, RM, Ebrahim, S, Griffin, M, et al. (2005) Breastfeeding and atherosclerosis: intima–media thickness and plaques at 65-year follow-up of the Boyd Orr cohort. Arterioscler Thromb Vasc Biol 25, 14821488.
12 Owen, CG, Whincup, PH, Gilg, JA, et al. (2003) Effect of breast feeding in infancy on blood pressure in later life: systematic review and meta-analysis. BMJ 327, 11891195.
13 Martin, RM, Gunnell, D & Smith, GD (2005) Breastfeeding in infancy and blood pressure in later life: systematic review and meta-analysis. Am J Epidemiol 161, 1526.
14 Verier, CM, Duhamel, A, Beghin, L, et al. (2011) Breastfeeding in infancy is not associated with inflammatory status in healthy adolescents. J Nutr 141, 411417.
15 Rudnicka, AR, Owen, CG & Strachan, DP (2007) The effect of breastfeeding on cardiorespiratory risk factors in adult life. Pediatrics 119, e1107e1115.
16 de Jonge, LL, van Osch-Gevers, L, Geelhoed, JJ, et al. (2010) Breastfeeding is not associated with left cardiac structures and blood pressure during the first two years of life. The Generation R Study. Early Hum Dev 86, 463468.
17 Leeson, CP, Kattenhorn, M, Deanfield, JE, et al. (2001) Duration of breast feeding and arterial distensibility in early adult life: population based study. BMJ 322, 643647.
18 Pirilä, S, Saarinen-Pihkala, UM, Viljakainen, H, et al. (2012) Breastfeeding and determinants of adult body composition: a prospective study from birth to young adulthood. Horm Res Paediatr 77, 281290.
19 Saarinen, UM & Siimes, MA (1979) Role of prolonged breast feeding in infant growth. Acta Paediatr Scand 68, 245250.
20 Touboul, PJ, Labreuche, J, Vicaut, E, et al. (2005) Carotid intima–media thickness, plaques, and Framingham risk score as independent determinants of stroke risk. Stroke 36, 17411745.
21 Wilson, PW, D'Agostino, RB, Levy, D, et al. (1998) Prediction of coronary heart disease using risk factor categories. Circulation 97, 18371847.
22 Olufadi, R & Byrne, CD (2008) Clinical and laboratory diagnosis of the metabolic syndrome. J Clin Pathol 61, 697706.
23 Saarinen, UM (1978) Need for iron supplementation in infants on prolonged breast feeding. J Pediatr 93, 177180.
24 Saarinen, UM & Siimes, MA (1978) Developmental changes in red blood cell counts and indices of infants after exclusion of iron deficiency by laboratory criteria and continuous iron supplementation. J Pediatr 92, 412416.
25 Saarinen, UM & Siimes, MA (1978) Serum ferritin in assessment of iron nutrition in healthy infants. Acta Paediatr Scand 67, 745751.
26 Saarinen, UM & Siimes, MA (1979) Iron absorption from breast milk, cow's milk, and iron-supplemented formula: an opportunistic use of changes in total body iron determined by hemoglobin, ferritin, and body weight in 132 infants. Pediatr Res 13, 143147.
27 Hultin, H, Opas, R & Sarna, S (1974) Breast feeding of babies in Finland in the seventies. Katilolehti 79, 365372.
28 Pirilä, S, Taskinen, M, Viljakainen, H, et al. (2011) Infant milk feeding influences adult bone health: a prospective study from birth to 32 years. PLoS ONE 6, e19068.
29 Haffner, SM, Kennedy, E, Gonzalez, C, et al. (1996) A prospective analysis of the HOMA model. The Mexico City Diabetes Study. Diabetes Care 19, 11381141.
30 Grundy, SM, Cleeman, JI, Daniels, SR, et al. (2005) Diagnosis and management of the metabolic syndrome: an American Heart Association/National Heart, Lung, and Blood Institute Scientific Statement. Circulation 112, 27352752.
31 Owen, CG, Whincup, PH, Odoki, K, et al. (2002) Infant feeding and blood cholesterol: a study in adolescents and a systematic review. Pediatrics 110, 597608.
32 Parikh, NI, Hwang, SJ, Ingelsson, E, et al. (2009) Breastfeeding in infancy and adult cardiovascular disease risk factors. Am J Med 122, 656e1663e1.
33 Ludvigsson, JF & Ludvigsson, J (2005) Socio-economic determinants, maternal smoking and coffee consumption, and exclusive breastfeeding in 10205 children. Acta Paediatr 94, 13101319.
34 Grjibovski, AM, Ehrenblad, B & Yngve, A (2008) Infant feeding in Sweden: socio-demographic determinants and associations with adiposity in childhood and adolescence. Int Breastfeed J 3, 23.
35 Oddy, WH, Li, J, Landsborough, L, et al. (2006) The association of maternal overweight and obesity with breastfeeding duration. J Pediatr 149, 185191.
36 Martin, RM, Patel, R, Kramer, MS, et al. (2013) Effects of promoting longer-term and exclusive breastfeeding on adiposity and insulin-like growth factor-I at age 11·5 years: a randomized trial. JAMA 309, 10051013.
37 Ravelli, AC, van der Meulen, JH, Osmond, C, et al. (2000) Infant feeding and adult glucose tolerance, lipid profile, blood pressure, and obesity. Arch Dis Child 82, 248252.
38 Khan, F, Green, FC, Forsyth, JS, et al. (2009) The beneficial effects of breastfeeding on microvascular function in 11- to 14-year-old children. Vasc Med 14, 137142.
39 Lorenz, MW, Markus, HS, Bots, ML, et al. (2007) Prediction of clinical cardiovascular events with carotid intima–media thickness: a systematic review and meta-analysis. Circulation 115, 459467.

Keywords

Type Description Title
WORD
Supplementary materials

Pirila Supplementary Material
Table

 Word (52 KB)
52 KB

Breast-fed infants and their later cardiovascular health: a prospective study from birth to age 32 years

  • Satu Pirilä (a1), Mervi Taskinen (a1), Heli Viljakainen (a1), Outi Mäkitie (a1) (a2), Merja Kajosaari (a1), Ulla M. Saarinen-Pihkala (a1) and Maila Turanlahti (a1)...

Metrics

Full text views

Total number of HTML views: 0
Total number of PDF views: 0 *
Loading metrics...

Abstract views

Total abstract views: 0 *
Loading metrics...

* Views captured on Cambridge Core between <date>. This data will be updated every 24 hours.

Usage data cannot currently be displayed